Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella. Together with Shigella flexneri, it is responsible for 90% of shigellosis. Shigella sonnei is named for the Danish bacteriologist Carl Olaf Sonne. It is a gram negative, bacillus, non-motile, non-spore forming bacterium.
Polymerizes host cell actin.
This species is clonal and has spread worldwide. Analysis of 132 strains has shown that they originated from a common ancestor in Europe ~1500 AD.
It is "group D" Shigella bacteria that causes Shigellosis. Those infected with the bacteria will release it into their stool, thus causing possibility of spread through food or water, or from direct contact to a person orally. Having poorly sanitized living conditions, contaminated food or water will contribute to contracting the bacteria.
Acute fever, acute abdominal cramping, cramping rectal pain, nausea, water diarrhea, or blood, mucus, or pus in the stool may occur within 1-7 days after coming in contact with the bacteria.
- Blood stream infections may occur from Shigella damaging the intestines that cause it and other germs to travel into the bloodstream.
- Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is a complication that occurs when bacteria enter the digestive system and produce toxins to destroy red blood cells that may cause bloody diarrhea as a symptom.
- Dehydration and seizures will occur most often in children, although the main source as to how Shigella causes these complications as of now is unknown.
- Rectal prelapse which is straining during the bowel movements can cause lining of rectum to move out the anus.
- Toxic megacolon paralyzes bowel movements or passing gas.
- Reactive arthritis which is the inflammation of joints.
Antibiotic resistance has been reported.
Growth in lab
Can be grown on MAC agar and TSA. Will grow at 37°C optimally, but also grows at 25°C. Facultatively anaerobic as well as chemoorganotrophic. Produces acid when carbohydrates are catabolized.
- Shigella sonnei at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Shigellosis~clinical at eMedicine
- Carl Olaf Sonne at Who Named It?
- Shigella sonnei at Who Named It?
- https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Shigella_sonnei[full citation needed]
- Holt, Kathryn E; Baker, Stephen; Weill, François-Xavier; Holmes, Edward C; Kitchen, Andrew; Yu, Jun; Sangal, Vartul; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; Kim, Dong Wook; Choi, Seon Young; Kim, Su Hee; da Silveira, Wanderley D; Pickard, Derek J; Farrar, Jeremy J; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R (2012). "Shigella sonnei genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicate recent global dissemination from Europe". Nature Genetics 44 (9): 1056–9. doi:10.1038/ng.2369. PMC 3442231. PMID 22863732.
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Shigellosis
- Mayo Clinic Staff. "Shigella Infection." Shigella Infection Complications. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 24 Aug. 2012. Web. 13 May 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/shigella/basics/complications/con-20028418>.
- Jain, Sanjay K.; Gupta, Amita; Glanz, Brian; Dick, James; Siberry, George K. (2005). "Antimicrobial-Resistant Shigella sonnei". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 24 (6): 494–7. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000164707.13624.a7. PMID 15933557.
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