Shilajit

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Shilajit in a glass of water.
Shilajit, as commonly consumed.

Shilajit (Sanskrit: शिलाजीत) or Mumijo is a blackish-brown powder or an exudate from high mountain rocks, often found in the Himalayas, Karakoram, Nepal, Bhutan, Girda (Buldhana, MH, India), Russia, Mongolia and in the north of Chile, where it is called Andean Shilajit.[1]

Although shilajit is sometimes referred to as a mineral tar or resin, it is not actually either of those. It is a highly viscous substance like a tar or resin that is very dark brown or black in color, but unlike these is readily soluble in water but insoluble in ethanol. Shilajit is a phytomineral exudate that is composed of 60% to 80% humic substances such as humic and fulvic acids, along with trace oligoelements including selenium [2].

Some researchers hypothesize that shilajit is produced by the decomposition or humification of latex and resin-bearing plant material from species such as Euphorbia royleana and Trifolium repens over a period of centuries [3] [4].

While Shilajit has been used in Ayurveda,[5] there is no reliable evidence for its efficacy.[6][7]

Shilajit is likely relatively safe at doses of 0.2 – 1.0 g/kg body weight when used chronically[8]. There are concerns however that when diluted with chlorinated water, the humic and fulvic acids may potentially react to form toxic dihaloacetonitriles.

Etymology[edit]

The English word Shilajit is a phonetic adaptation of "śilājīt" (Hindi: शिलाजीत), which in turn goes back to Sanskrit (Sanskrit: शिलाजतु, śilājatu). The literal meaning of the Sanskrit compound is "mountain tar", the first element शिला (śilā) meaning "pertaining to, or having the properties of a rock, mountain", the second जातु (jatu) denoting "gum, lac; any tarry substance"[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hill, Carol A.; Forti, Paolo (1997). Cave minerals of the world. 2 (2nd ed.). National Speleological Society. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-879961-07-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  2. ^ Khanna, Rajesh; Witt, Matthias; Anwer, Md. Khalid; Agarwal, Suraj P.; Koch, Boris P. (1 December 2008). "Spectroscopic characterization of fulvic acids extracted from the rock exudate Shilajit". Organic Geochemistry. Elsevier. pp. 1719–1724. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.08.009. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  3. ^ Agarwal, Suraj P.; Khanna, Rajesh; Karmarkar, Ritesh; Anwer, Md. Khalid; Khar, Roop K. (13 February 2007). "Shilajit: a review". Phytotherapy Research. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  4. ^ Ghosal, S.; Reddy, J.P.; Lal, V.K. (1 May 1976). "Shilajit I: Chemical Constituents". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. doi:10.1002/jps.2600650545. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  5. ^ Nadkarni, Dr. K. M. (1994). Nadkarni, A. K. (ed.). Indian Materia Medica. 2. Popular Prakashan. pp. 23–32. ISBN 8171541437.
  6. ^ Wilson, Eugene; Rajamanickam, G. Victor; Dubey, G. Prasad; Klose, Petra; Musial, Frauke; Saha, F. Joyonto; Rampp, Thomas; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav J. (June 2011). "Review on shilajit used in traditional Indian medicine". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 136 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.033. PMID 21530631.
  7. ^ Shafiq, Muhammad Imtiaz; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Batool, Nayab (2006). "Biochemical and Trace Mineral Analysis of Silajit Samples From Pakistan". Nutritional Sciences. 9 (3): 190–4.
  8. ^ Kel'ginbaev, N.S.; Sorokina, V.A.; Stefanidu, A.G.; Ismailova, V.N. (1973). "Treatment of long tubular bone fractures with Mumie Assil preparations in experiments and clinical conditions". Eksperimental'naia Khirurgiia i Anesteziologiia. 18 (4): 31–35.