Shillong Accord of 1975

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The Shillong Accord of 1975 was an agreement signed between the Government of India, also referred to as the Federal government, or Union government, or Central government of India, and Nagaland's underground government, also referred to as the Naga Federal government, or Naga guerillas, or Naga rebels, to accept the supremacy of Constitution of India without condition, surrender their arms and renounce their demand for the secession of Nagaland from India.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

This historic agreement was signed at Shillong, Meghalaya, on 11 November 1975; thus, the name Shillong Accord of 1975.[1][2][3]

Representatives[edit]

  • The Indian government was represented by Lallan Prasad Singh, Governor of Nagaland. The governor was assisted by M.L. Kampani, Joint secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA), and by two advisors for Nagaland—M. Ramunny and H. Zopianga.
  • The Nagaland's underground organisations were represented by leaders including I. Temjenba, S. Dahru, Veenyiyl Rhakho, Z. Ramyo, M. Assa, and Kevi Yalie—younger brother of Angami Zapu Phizo, who was then-President of the Naga National Council(NNC) and was in exile in London from 1956 till his death.
  • The Liaison committee of Nagaland Peace Council(NPC) were represented by five church leaders like Longri Ao, M. Aram, L. Lungalang, Kenneth Kerhuo, and Lungshim Shaiza.[1][2][3][4][6]

Discussions[edit]

There were a series of four discussions held with governor alone; at times, assisted by his advisors and Joint secretary of MHA. In all the four discussions held on 10 and 11 November 1975, the representatives from underground government and liaison committee participated.[1][2][3][4][6]

Agreement details[edit]

The outcome of the discussions were compiled into three-point agreement, that ultimately came to be known as historic "Shillong Accord of 1975."[1][2][3][4][5][6]

  1. The representatives of the underground organisations conveyed their decision, of their own volition, to accept, without condition, the Constitution of India.
  2. It was agreed that the arms, now underground, would be brought out and deposited at appointed places. Details for giving effect of this agreement will be worked out between them and representatives of the Government, the security forces, and members of the Liaison Committee.
  3. It was agreed that the representatives of the underground organisations should have reasonable time to formulate other issues for discussion for final settlement.

Signatory details[edit]

The "Shillong Accord" was signed on 11 November 1975 at Shillong, by the Governor of Nagaland L.P. Singh representing Indian government and the Nagaland's underground leadership represented by Kevi Yalie, M. Assa, S. Dahru, Veenyiyl Rhakho, and Z. Ramyo.[1][2][3][4]

Supplementary Agreement[edit]

A supplementary agreement, detailing the process of depositing arms as per Clause 2 of Shillong Accord of 1975, was signed on 5 January 1976. The agreement included the implementation process of Clause 2, including the modalities for housing the underground members in peace camps.

  1. It was decided that the collection of arms, initially at collection centres, would commence as early as possible, and will be completed by 25 January 1976. Initial places of collection to be decided through discussion between Commissioner, representatives of underground organisations and the members of the Liaison Committee.
  2. Once all arms are collected, these will be handed over to Peace Council team at the respective places of collection.
  3. Peace Council team will arrange to transport the arms from collection centres to Chedema peace camp and arrange guards, etc., for safe custody of arms.
  4. Similar arrangement at agreed place/places will be made in Manipur with the concurrence of the Manipur Government.
  5. The underground may stay at peace camps to be established at suitable places, and their maintenance will be arranged only by the Peace Council. Any voluntary contribution from any source will be made to the Peace Council who will utilize the fund according to necessity.

[1][4]

Signatory details[edit]

The "Supplementary Agreement" was signed on 5 January 1976 at Shillong, by the Governor of Nagaland L.P. Singh representing Indian government and the Nagaland's underground leadership represented by Biseto Medom Keyho, Pukrove Nakhro, I. Temjenba, and Z. Ramyo.[1][4][5]

Post-agreement consequences[edit]

The signing of Shillong Accord appears to have provided the final solution for the last twenty-years of conflict that inflicted suffering and neglect; accordingly, a large-scale of arms were surrendered, and the villagers enthusiastically participated in persuading the Naga underground rebels to come out and join the mainstream. The agreement also seems to be a victory for Indian government as Naga rebels agreed to accept the Indian constitution of their own volition, agreed to deposit the arms, and formulate other issues for discussions as part of final settlement.[3] [7]

Criticism[edit]

The detractors and critics of the Shillong Accord maintained that the Clause 3 that stated "reasonable time for the underground representatives to formulate other issues for discussion for the final settlement," still remained unimplemented -- as most of the Naga people and the Naga National Council(NNC) leaders abroad didn't agree to endorse the agreement. They even criticized saying that the agreement was signed by "representatives of the Naga underground," rather than the organizations like NNC or the Federal Government of Nagaland(FGN).[4][5][8]

However, many Nagas, who were not reconciled being part of Indian union of states, condemned the agreement that ultimately created factionalism among the rebels. When the negotiations were going on before signing the agreement, it is said that Isak Chisi Swu, then-NNC Vice-president, and Thuingaleng Muivah, then-NNC General secretary, with 150 rebels were on their way back from China and Burma-Naga territory where they established their base. Some critics also point out that Phizo, then-NNC president and who was in exile from 1956 in London, neither endorsed nor renounced the agreement; though, his younger brother Kevi Yalley represented underground organizations and signed Shillong Accord. It is also believed that both Isak and Muivah tried their best to convince some of their colleagues, especially Phizo to condemn the agreement, including sending a seven-member delegation urging Phizo to condemn the Shillong Accord without delay; however, it looks Phizo remained silent and their voice went unheard.[4][5][6]

Both Isak and Muivah after five years of signing the accord, decided to restore the damaged image of the NNC for having accepted the Indian constitution, openly rejected the agreement terming it as a "betrayal" by the NNC and censured it as a complete "sell-out" of the Naga rights, including derogatory remarks against Phizo, and swore to fight for unquestionable sovereignty; thus, the trio Muivah, Isaac and S. Khaplang created National Socialist Council of Nagaland(NSCN) breaking-up[abandoning] from their old organization NNC on 2 February 1980. NSCN, in spite of emerging as a strong rebel group, never enjoyed the popular support that NNC enjoyed at its peak. By 1988, NSCN was further splintered on tribal lines into two different factions—NSCN(K), under Khaplang leadership, and NSCN(IM), under Isak and Muivah leadership. After the death of Phizo on 30 April 1990 in London, NNC further splintered into two more factions—NNC(A), under Phizo's daughter Adino leadership, and NNC(K), led by previous NNC Vice-president Khodao Yanthan.[4][5][6][9][10][11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Nagaland Accord - The Shillong Agreement of November 11, 1975". satp.org/. Retrieved April 27, 2012. representatives of the underground organisations met the Governor of Nagaland, Shri L.P. Singh representing the Government of India, at Shillong on 10th and 11th November, 1975. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "THE SHILLONG ACCORD OF 11 NOVEMBER 1975 BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND THE UNDERGROUND NAGAS". npmhr.org. Retrieved April 27, 2012. There was a series of four discussions. Some of the discussions were held with the Governor alone; at others, the Governor was assisted by the two Advisers for Nagaland, Shri Ramunny and Shri H. Zopianga, and Shri M.L. Kampani, Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs. All the five members of the Liaison Committee namely Rev. Longri Ao, Dr. M. Aram, Shri L. Lungalang, Shri Kenneth Kerhuo and Shri Lungshim Shaiza, participated in the discussions. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Dawn of Peace in Nagaland - SHILLONG ACCORD". nagaland.nic.in. Retrieved April 27, 2012. the historic "Shillong" signed at Shillong on November 11, 1975, by the Governor of Nagaland Mr. L.P Singh representing the Government of India and the underground leadership represented by Mr. Assa and Mr. Kevi Yalley 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Reisang, Vashum (December 2000). Nagas' Rights to Self Determination. Mittal Publications. pp. 93–211. ISBN 9788170997740. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The Peace Process in Nagaland". safhr.org. Retrieved April 27, 2012. An Accord that never was: a critique of the 1975 Shillong Accord 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Nagaland: The Beginning of Insurgency - II : The Shillong Accord". indiandefencereview.com. May 10, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2012. The liaison committee held talks with Biesto Medom, Keviyalle (Phizo’s brother), Ramyo and M Asa of the underground. When it became clear to the Governor, Shri LP Singh, that the agreement had a fair chance of success, he met the committee at Shillong. The Governor was assured that the underground on their own volition accepted without condition the Constitution of India and promised to deposit their arms at an appointed place. The agreement, which came to be called the Shillong Accord, was finally signed on November 11, 1975 - When the Shillong Accord was being negotiated, Isak Swu and Muivah with a group of 150 hardcore rebels were on their way back from China - When Muivah and Isak Swu were informed about the developments, they rejected the Accord and termed it as betrayal by the NNC and swore to fight on. - Soon cracks developed in the group. Isak and Muivah made derogatory remarks against Phizo and the policy adopted by the NNC. 
  7. ^ "SHILLONG ACCORD". nagaland.nic.in. Retrieved January 29, 2012. JThe signing of the Shillong Accord had ushered in a general feeling of well-being all throughout and hope for peace and for a final solution of the twenty-year-old conflict once again appeared in the horizon. 
  8. ^ "Clarification on ‘Shillong Accord’". nagalandpost.com. October 23, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2012. I say that in the name of Almighty God that the Naga National Council (NNC) never signed the Shillong Accord. Some of our leaders and I do have already clearly made known earlier about the signing of the Shillong Accord in 1975, that NNC was never a part of it. I therefore sincerely advise him to read once the text of Shillong Accord and not to repeat to write so in the near future, lest Mongaimo commits crime against the nation and it will be irreparable for him. 
  9. ^ "http://www.telegraphindia.com/1120201/jsp/northeast/story_15074618.jsp#.T5wnWGGgKa8". telegraphindia.com. February 1, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2012. On January 31, 1980, Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S.S. Khaplang formed the NSCN after the Naga National Council (NNC) signed the Shillong Accord in 1975 and unconditionally decided to accept the Constitution of India when some of its top leaders and cadres were still in China for training. After many fratricidal killings among the cadres of the NNC, the trio formed the NSCN at Nokpa in Burma (eastern Nagaland).  External link in |title= (help)
  10. ^ "Naga solution: ‘Supra state’ may don new avatar". sevensisterspost.com. Retrieved April 28, 2012. NSCN-IM general secretary Thuingaleng Muivah and chairman Isak Chishi Swu are in Delhi for another round of talks with the Government of India. 
  11. ^ "NNC slams Shillong Accord". articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. May 30, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2012. Naga National Council (NNC), led by Senka Yaden, reiterated that it was against the Shillong Accord and added that it would not budge an inch from its demand for Naga sovereignty - "Naga sovereignty is our birthright. We shall never compromise on this," NNC vice-president Kiumukam Yimchunger 

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