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The Shalmani,[1] or Shilmani (Pashto: شلمانى‎) is a Pashtun tribe who is primarily concentrated in the Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Shalmani is also known as Sulemani (Pashto: سليمانى‎) in Abbottabad, Mansehra and Haripur. The tribe is present in different parts of Pakistan. In Pakistan, the tribe lives in Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Bajour, Buner, Shangla, Malakand District, Dargai, Sakha Koat,Shodag, Charsadda (Hashtnagar).

According to Khan Roshan Khan, in his book about Pashtun's history "Tazkira" at page-379/380 [2] ,"Shalmanis(Shilmanis) are "Banu Bakhtar"(بنو بختر) who were living in an area "Shalman" in Syria.These Banu Bakhtar were the land lords of areas like Shalman(شلمان), Ainab(عيناب) and Baiswad(بيسود) in Syria.

Similar to Shalman of Khyber, a city by name Shalman is also present in Gilan Province of Iran, and the fourth largest river in Iran is also named as Shalman. [3]. These landmarks with synonym Shalman suggest that this tribe could have moved from Syria through Iran (Gilan Shalman) to current Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


Khan Roshan Khan a Pakhtun historian says that Shalmani were originally brought to Swat District by one of the famous conquerors and kings, Muhammad of Ghor,[4] from Shalman Valley of khyber Agency in present Pakistan and Karman of today's Afghanistan.

M.Saida Khan Shinwari states in his book that, Shilmani are Ghoryakhel tribe divided as Shamsher Khel, Halimzai and Kam Shilmanis and considers them to be Mohmand. He states that Shamsher Khels are related to Morcha Khel Mohmands, Halimzai to Halimzai Mohmands and Kam Shilmanis to Tarakzai Mohmands. Officially the Shilmanis are treated as a separate tribe since the Khyber Agreement of 1881. The Shilmanis are closer to Mohmands in characteristics and based on historical evidence they appear to be close kinsmen of the Mohmand.[5]

Shalmani are called as "Shalmani Momands" by Harold Carmichael Wylly, at page-317 in his book "From the Black Mountain to Waziristan". [6]

Hashtnagar State of Shalmanis[edit]

Suleman Shahid suggests In his book, that Shilmani were the strongest tribe among other Pashtun tribes. Primarily they were under Swat District state and Swati King by name Sultan Pakal, but later on Mir Hinda, who was a combatant leader, occupied Hashtnagar and announced it as "Hashtnagar State of Shalmanis".[7]

It is assumed by some local historians that, after centuries when Yusufzai exiled by Mughal Empire from Afghanistan, So Yusufzai tribe attacked on Shilmani tribe and took Charsada Hashtnagar from them with support of Dilazak and other allied tribes of Yusufzai and later gave to Muhammadzai (Charsadda) son of Zamand tribe. Muhammadzai were Yusufzai allies in the battle of Bajawar against the Ghoryakhel tribe and Shalmanis are sub-tribe of Momand Ghoryakhel, therefore Muhammadzai were awarded with Hashtnagar by Yusufzai after the conquest of Bajawar . Shalmani were very strong and it was unable to defeat them, in the Hashtnagar battle and it was ended after two years.

However this local story seems to be invalid as the ancient Skha Koat landlords are still living since centuries there and this is the evidence of no foreign invasion over Shalmani tribe in Hashtnagar. If so, then in addition to Skha Koat the Shilmani of Mandani (Charsaddah), Naguman (charsaddah) and Turlandai (Nowshera) would not exist today in there villages and lands.

When Pakistan had not yet come into being, Bacha Khan Shalmani of Sakha Kot Malakand Agency, was the prominent figure of the Shalmani tribe and was a politician. Mr. Naek Amal Khan Shalmani and Rahat Khan Shalmani belong to the family of Bacha Khan.


  1. ^ Pete Heiden (2012). Pakistan. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 75. ISBN 9781617876318.
  2. ^ Khan Roshan Khan (1992). Tazkira: Pathano Ki Asliyat Aur Inki Tarikh. Al Makhzan Printers.
  3. ^ Trip to Persia: Iran Seas, Lakes and Lagoons.
  4. ^ Khan Roshan Khan. Yūsufzaʻī Qaum kī Sarguzasht:K̲h̲ashshī Qabāʻil aur G̲h̲auriyāk̲h̲īl...kī ḥairat angaez, mufassil aur tahqīqī sarguzasht (in Urdu). OCLC 81889189."
  5. ^ M. Saida Khan (1926). The Khyber: A Historical Sketch. A.R. Yusuñ. OCLC 5705079.
  6. ^ Harold Carmichael Wylly. From the Black Mountain to Waziristan.
  7. ^ Sulaimān Shāhid (2005). Gumnām riyāsat : Dīr ke lākhon̲ maz̤lūmon̲ ke nām. Muḥammad Raḥmán Buk Ḍipo. p. 73. OCLC 62110093.

Further reading[edit]