Shimabara, Nagasaki

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Shimabara
島原市
Shimabara Castle
Flag of Shimabara
Official seal of Shimabara
Location of Shimabara in Nagasaki Prefecture
Location of Shimabara in Nagasaki Prefecture
Shimabara is located in Japan
Shimabara
Shimabara
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 32°47′16″N 130°22′11″E / 32.78778°N 130.36972°E / 32.78778; 130.36972Coordinates: 32°47′16″N 130°22′11″E / 32.78778°N 130.36972°E / 32.78778; 130.36972
CountryJapan
RegionKyushu
PrefectureNagasaki Prefecture
First official record1618
City StatusApril 1, 1940
Government
 • MayorRyūzaburō Furukawa (from December 2012)
Area
 • Total82.77 km2 (31.96 sq mi)
Population
 (October 1, 2016)
 • Total44,936
 • Density540/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address537, Uenomachi, Shimabara-shi, Nagasaki-ken
855-8555
ClimateCfa
Website Shimabara City[dead link]
Symbols
FlowerPrunus mume
Treecamphor tree

Shimabara (島原市, Shimabara-shi) is a city located on the north-eastern tip of the Shimabara Peninsula, facing Ariake Bay in the east and Mount Unzen (including Fugendake) in the west, in Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. As of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 44,936 and a population density of 540 per km². The total area is 82.77 km².

Economy[edit]

Shimabara is a popular tourist destination, due to its historical associations, location in Unzen-Amakusa National Park, and numerous onsen. The most popular tourist destination within the urban area is Shimabara Castle and the nearby "Samurai Street". The city has so much natural spring water, both hot and cold, that it runs through the streets.[citation needed] On Carp Street, koi swim in the canals.[citation needed]

Principal agricultural products include mandarin oranges, tea, and tobacco.

History[edit]

Shimabara is a castle town, which was the capital of Shimabara Domain during the Edo period. It was the site of considerable foreign trade and missionary activity during the late Muromachi period, and in the early Edo period, a large percentage of the population were Kirishitan. Due to misgovernment, high taxes and persecution of Christianity, the population rose up during the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637, which was suppressed with extreme severity by the Tokugawa Bakufu. Shimabara was ruled by a branch of the Matsudaira clan from 1668 to 1774 and from 1774 to 1871.

Modern Shimabara City was founded on April 1, 1940 by the merger of former town of Shimabara with several surrounding villages.

On January 1, 2006, the town of Ariake (from Minamitakaki District) was merged into Shimabara.

Throughout its history, Shimabara has been dominated by the seismic activity of Mount Unzen. A major volcanic eruption in 1792 resulted in a tsunami that destroyed most of the town and killed over 15,000 people, in one of Japan's worst volcanic disasters. In more recent history, major eruptions in 1990–1991 resulted in pyroclastic flows, which killed 43 people and forced the temporary evacuation of hundreds of others. The 5th International Conference of Cities on Volcanoes was held in Shimabara on November 19–23, 2007.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Shimabara has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen:Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. The average annual temperature in Shimabara is 17.4 °C (63.3 °F). The average annual rainfall is 2,210.8 mm (87.04 in) with June as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), and lowest in January, at around 7.0 °C (44.6 °F).[1] Its record high is 37.8 °C (100.0 °F), reached on 11 August 2016, and its record low is −6.2 °C (20.8 °F), reached on 25 January 2016.[2]

Climate data for Shimabara (2006−2020 normals, extremes 2006−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
23.5
(74.3)
25.1
(77.2)
27.8
(82.0)
32.1
(89.8)
34.4
(93.9)
37.0
(98.6)
37.8
(100.0)
35.9
(96.6)
31.7
(89.1)
26.3
(79.3)
24.4
(75.9)
37.8
(100.0)
Average high °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
11.8
(53.2)
15.3
(59.5)
20.1
(68.2)
24.8
(76.6)
27.0
(80.6)
31.2
(88.2)
32.7
(90.9)
29.0
(84.2)
24.0
(75.2)
18.1
(64.6)
12.4
(54.3)
21.4
(70.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
8.1
(46.6)
11.1
(52.0)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68.0)
23.1
(73.6)
27.0
(80.6)
28.3
(82.9)
25.0
(77.0)
20.3
(68.5)
14.6
(58.3)
9.0
(48.2)
17.4
(63.3)
Average low °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
4.5
(40.1)
7.1
(44.8)
11.1
(52.0)
15.7
(60.3)
20.0
(68.0)
24.0
(75.2)
25.1
(77.2)
22.0
(71.6)
17.0
(62.6)
11.0
(51.8)
5.4
(41.7)
13.9
(57.0)
Record low °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−5.4
(22.3)
0.5
(32.9)
2.6
(36.7)
8.1
(46.6)
13.8
(56.8)
18.0
(64.4)
18.8
(65.8)
15.1
(59.2)
8.1
(46.6)
1.4
(34.5)
−1.5
(29.3)
−6.2
(20.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.2
(2.53)
117.5
(4.63)
144.9
(5.70)
183.0
(7.20)
185.7
(7.31)
475.8
(18.73)
414.9
(16.33)
207.4
(8.17)
173.9
(6.85)
118.4
(4.66)
84.1
(3.31)
79.2
(3.12)
2,210.8
(87.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.8 8.5 9.1 9.3 8.8 15.0 12.7 9.6 9.5 6.5 7.3 7.9 110
Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.2 143.2 184.9 198.4 215.3 128.9 194.8 235.7 180.3 192.0 149.7 135.6 2,094.5
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[2][1]

Demographics[edit]

Per Japanese census data, the population of Shimabara in 2020 is 43,338 people.[3] Shimabara has been conducting censuses since 1920. The city's population peaked in the 1950s with more than 60,000 people. In 2020, Shimabara's population is only about 75% of what it was in the 1950s.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 41,482—    
1925 43,338+4.5%
1930 46,254+6.7%
1935 46,703+1.0%
1940 46,748+0.1%
1945 62,501+33.7%
1950 62,028−0.8%
1955 60,370−2.7%
1960 58,693−2.8%
1965 56,724−3.4%
1970 56,692−0.1%
1975 57,289+1.1%
1980 58,890+2.8%
1985 58,457−0.7%
1990 56,903−2.7%
1995 52,853−7.1%
2000 51,563−2.4%
2005 50,045−2.9%
2010 47,471−5.1%
2015 45,436−4.3%
2020 43,338−4.6%
Shimabara population statistics[3]

Culture[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Shimabara is host of the Shimbara Water Festival on the first weekend of August. There are also festivals in Minamishimabara, like the Marine Festival in Kuchinotsu and the Minamishimabara Sakura Festivals.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  2. ^ a b 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Shimabara population statistics
  4. ^ "「人間ひな行列」城下町彩る 島原城下ひなめぐり". 長崎新聞.

External links[edit]