Shimano

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Shimano, Inc.
Public KK
Traded asTYO: 7309
IndustryLeisure products
Founded(February 1921; 97 years ago (1921-02))
FoundersShozaburo Shimano
Headquarters3-77 Oimatsu-cho, Sakai-ku, Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture 590-8577, Japan
Key people
Yozo Shimano, (CEO and President)
Products
RevenueIncrease $ 2.93 billion (FY 2017) (¥ 322.99 billion) (FY 2017)
Increase $ 462.65 million (FY 2017) (¥ 50.89 billion) (FY 2017)
Number of employees
12,967 (consolidated, as of December 31, 2013)
WebsiteOfficial website
Footnotes / references
[1][2][3][4]

Shimano, Inc. (株式会社シマノ, Kabushiki-gaisha Shimano) is a Japanese multinational manufacturer of cycling components, fishing tackle and rowing equipment. It produced golf supplies until 2005 and snowboarding gear until 2008. Headquartered in Sakai, Japan, the company has 32 consolidated subsidiaries and 11 unconsolidated subsidiaries. Shimano's primary manufacturing plants are in Kunshan, China; Malaysia; and Singapore.

In 2017, Shimano had net sales of US $3.2 billion, 38% in Europe, 35% in Asia, and 11% in North America. Bicycle components represented 80%, fishing tackle 19%, and other products 0.1%. The company is publicly traded, with 93 million shares of common stock outstanding.[5]

Cycling[edit]

Shimano 600, late 1980s
A 2008 Shimano XT rear derailleur

Shimano product sales constitute 50% of the global bicycle component market.[citation needed] Its products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for road, mountain, and hybrid bikes.

The components include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear chain sprockets or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or dérailleurs. Shimano Total Integration (STI) is Shimano's integrated shifter and brake lever combination for road bicycles.

The Italian firm Campagnolo as well as US based SRAM are Shimano's primary competitors in the cycling marketplace.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano initially paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as Positron shifting (a precursor to index shifting) and front freewheel systems at the low end of the market.

In the 1980s, with Shimano pushing technological innovation and lower prices, the more traditional European component manufacturers lost significant market presence. During this period, in contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano and SunTour (to a lesser extent) introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upmarket if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

In the 1980–1983 period, Shimano introduced three groupsets with "AX" technology: Dura-Ace & 600 (high-end), and Adamas in the low-end. Features of these components include aerodynamic styling, centre-pull brakes, brake levers with concealed cables, and ergonomic pedals.

By 1985 Shimano introduced innovation only at the highest quality level (Dura-Ace for road bikes and XT for mountain bikes), then trickled the technology down to lower product levels as it became proven and accepted. Innovations include index shifting (known as SIS, Shimano Index System introduced in 1984),[6] freehubs, dual-pivot brakes, 8-9-10 speed drivetrains, and the integration of shifters and brake levers. Also, these components could only work properly when used with other Shimano components, e.g. its rear dérailleurs have to be used with the correct Shimano gear levers, cables, freehub and cassette.

SunTour tried to catch up to this technological leap, but by the end of the 1980s SunTour had lost the technological and commercial battle and Shimano had achieved the status as the largest manufacturer of bicycle components in the world.

Ultegra series road bike component

Shimano's marketplace domination that developed in the 1990s quickly led to the perception by some critics that Shimano had become a marketplace bully with monopolistic intentions. This viewpoint was based on the fact that Shimano became oriented towards integrating all of their components with each other, with the result being that if any Shimano components were to be used, then the entire bike would need to be built from matching Shimano components. The alternative perspective is that by controlling the mix of components on the bicycle, a manufacturer such as Shimano can control how well their own product functions. Shimano's primary competitors (Campagnolo and SRAM) also make proprietary designs that limit the opportunity to mix and match componentry.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers. This development was controversial, as the use of Dual Control integrated shifting for hydraulic disc brakes required using Shimano hydraulic disc brakes, locking competitors out of the premium end of the market. However, with their 2007 product line, Shimano moved back to making separate braking and shifting components fully available in addition to the integrated "Dual Control" components, a move to satisfy riders that wished to use Shimano shifting with other brands of disc brakes.

Shimano in 1990 introduced the Shimano Pedaling Dynamics (SPD) range of clipless pedals and matching shoes, specifically designed so that the shoes could be used for walking. The shoes have a recess in the bottom of the sole for fitting the smaller cleats and therefore it does not protrude, while conventional clipless road pedals are designed for road cycling shoes which have smooth soles with large protruding cleats, which are awkward for walking. The SPD range, in addition to other off-road refinements, were designed to be used with treaded soles that more closely resemble rugged hiking boots. SPD pedals and shoes soon established themselves as the market standard in this sector, although many other manufacturers have developed alternatives which are arguably less prone to being clogged by mud and/or easier to adjust. However, the SPD dominance in this sector has meant that alternative pedal manufacturers nearly always design their pedals to be usable with Shimano shoes, and likewise mountain bike shoe manufacturers make their shoes "Shimano SPD" compatible. SPD has spawned 2 types of road cleats which are incompatible with standard SPD pedals and some shoes – SPD-R and SPD-SL. SPD-R is a now defunct pedal standard. SPD-SL is basically a copy of the standard Look clipless pedal system. It has a wide, one-sided platform and a triangular cleat that is Look 3-bolt compatible.

Shimano products[edit]

Shimano has developed many new items, some successful and others not.

  • "Shimano Alfine" – The Alfine 700 is an internally geared hub with 8 or 11 speeds, weighing less than 1700 grams (auxiliary components not included). The product was introduced to the market in the fall of 2010. It comprises four stepped planetary series offering up to 11 speeds.
Biopace chainrings.
  • "Biopace" – is the Shimano tradename for a type of ovoid cycle chainring manufactured from 1983 to 1993. Biopace chainrings are non-round, but unlike traditional oval chainrings which tend to have the largest effective gearing coincide with the downstroke, with Biopace the rings are oriented so the effectively reduced chainring diameter now coincides with the cranks being (at or near) horizontal, and the increased chainring diameter coincides with the pedals being close to TDC and BDC. The reasoning behind this is that it smooths the pedaling action, allowing the rider to carry a lot of momentum through the (downwards-based) power stroke, having it smoothly removed at the bottom of the stroke.
  • "Dyna Drive" – A pedal system with no pedal axle and with the bearings located in the part of the pedal which screws into the crank. This required an oversized hole in the crank 25mm (1" diameter) to accept the Dyna Drive pedals. The theory behind this was to allow the foot to be lower than the pedal axle for better biomechanics. This system was relatively short lived, one reason being that the pedal bearings wore out quickly. However, they were used by Alexi Grewal (USA) in his gold medal winning ride in the 1984 Olympic cycling road race in Los Angeles.
File:Shimano Hyperglide cassette 8 speed CS-HG51 11-32.jpg
Shimano 8 speed cassette showing the Hyperglide teeth profiles.
  • "Freehub" – Shimano introduced a combined rear hub and freewheel in the late 1970s which they named "freehub". But it did not catch on, as its arrangement of internally splined sprockets sliding onto the matching externally splined freehub was incompatible with the then standard separate hub and screw-on freewheel. When a larger number of rear sprockets came to be used, the freehub concept was re-introduced, and is now the dominant rear hub type. Freehub style hubs are inherently stronger than screw on sprocket and freewheel set ups because it allows the bearings on the drive side of the hub to sit nearer to the end of the hub axle, reducing bending in the axle caused by chain tension and rider weight, a significant problem leading to fatigue failure in many axles as 6 and 7 speed blocks were introduced.
  • "Hollowtech" cranks – These are cranks which are pressure die cast as tubes open at the pedal end and forged closed before being threaded for the pedals. Previous to this hollow cranks tended to be tubes with a solid part welded to each end to take the pedals and the bottom bracket.
  • "Hollowtech II" – This was the next iteration after Hollowtech cranks. For this system the bottom bracket axle was fused to the drive side crank and the non drive side crank fitted on a spline on the axle using pinch bolts. The bottom bracket bearings sat outside the BB shell in the frame, allowing the BB axle to be a larger diameter, making it stiffer and lighter. The bearing reliability of this system remains quite variable compared to previous Shimano cartridge BB's as Hollowtech II bearing alignment is at the mercy of the alignment of the BB shell threads and the facing of the BB shell rather than factory set by Shimano in the case of the cartridge BBs. Race Face make a system with compatible bearings which they call X-Type.
SPD clipless pedal PD-M520
  • "Hyperglide HG" – Cutaways on the rear gear sprockets (called the cassette if it slides onto a freehub body) that allow smoother downshifting (shifting from a small sprocket to a bigger one) as the cutaways allow the chain to roll from one sprocket to another without lifting as far off the sprocket teeth. This allows a certain amount of gear shifting under power, though this remains hard on the drivetrain.
  • "Interactive Glide" (IG) – Gears feature "pick-up teeth" and specially shaped tooth profiles for smoother and faster shifting.
  • Metric chain – Shimano designed chains with a 10 mm pitch instead of the conventional half inch pitch as well as sprockets and chainrings for use with this metric chain; however this did not catch on. For a time 10 mm pitch chains, sprockets, and chainrings, were used for motor-paced racing, to reduce the size and weight of the transmission system.
  • "Shimano Nexus" – Shimano's family of internally geared hubs. Available in 3-, 7- and 8 speed with or without a coaster brake. The Nexus hubs are comparable in range to a full 16–20 speed system.
  • "Servo Wave" – Introduced in the mid-1990s, this system allowed brake levers to pull more brake cable at the start of the lever stroke than at the end. This improved separation between the brake blocks and the rim to accommodate for mud and lack of trueness in the wheels, while still delivering the same braking power as traditional systems. This was implemented initially by mounting the brake cable on a roller that moves towards the lever pivot in a slot in the lever blade as the lever is pulled. A second design pulled the brake cable downwards towards a cam near to the brake lever pivot instead. Servo Wave appeared for the first time on a hydraulic disk brake lever on the 2008 Shimano XT groupset.
Shimano 105 1055SC 7 speed rear derailleur
Shimano 105 1055SC downtube shifters
Shimano 105 9 speed STI levers.
Shimano 600 Tricolor brake caliper (Shimano Ultegra 6400)
  • SLR ("Shimano Linear Response") – Integration of a return spring into the brake lever, pushing the brake cable back when the lever is released. The idea behind this was that the return spring in the actual brake could be designed to be weaker, thus giving an overall feeling of easier operation.
  • SPD ("Shimano Pedaling Dynamics") – The SPD pedal was released by Shimano in 1990 and forms one part of a clipless bicycle shoe/pedal system. While not the first, its innovation was its small cleat which fitted into a recess in the sole of a shoe designed for SPD use. The recess allowed an SPD-equipped shoe to be used for relatively comfortable short walks, whereas previous systems tended to have a large, protruding cleat which prevented this. Clipless pedals use a system of cleat retention which resembles that of downhill skis, allowing for rapid shoe release, ergo clipless pedals are deemed safer than the older style(s) of pedal/shoe integration using toe-straps, et al.
  • STI ("Shimano Total Integration") – The marketing terminology for the integration of shifting into the brake levers for road bikes, enabling the rider to shift without taking the hands off the brake levers. This made it possible to shift during uphill passages that require getting out of the saddle, and added general convenience for the rider. Although first generation of STI was unable to downshift multiple cogs which wasn't a problem in downtube shifters.

Results[edit]

Alexi Grewal used a bicycle equipped with Shimano DynaDrive chainset and pedals (the remainder of the components on his bicycle were primarily Suntour and DiaCompe) to win the 1984 Olympic road race in Los Angeles. In the 1988 Giro d'Italia, Andy Hampsten rode Shimano to its first Grand Tour victory. In 2002, world championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. Alberto Contador's 2007 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano-equipped bicycle represents the first official General Classification victory in that race by a rider using Shimano components.[7]

VIA[edit]

"VIA" ("Vehicle Inspection Authority") is stamped on all Shimano parts. It is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles – including bicycles. This mark signifies compliance with certain quality standards and is similar to the "UL" (Underwriters Laboratories) mark.

Road groupsets[edit]

Di2 electronic front derailleur
Di2 electronic shifting control unit and battery pack mounted to bottom of bottom bracket and left chain stay. Hollowtech II external bearing cups are also visible, between the crank arms and the bottom bracket shell.
Di2 electronic rear derailleur
Di2 electronic shift lever
Groupset Dura-Ace[8] Ultegra 105 Tiagra Sora Claris
1973 7100 : introduction
1974 6000
1975
1976 track 6100
1977
1978 7200 EX 6200
1979
1980 7300 AX
1981 6300
1982
1983 A105 : Golden Arrow
1984 7400 : 6 speed and SIS
1985 7600 : track
1986
1987 7400 : 7 speed 105SC : 6 speed
1988 7400 : 8 speed 6400
1989
1990 7400 : STI levers 105SC : 7 speed
1991
1992
1993 FC-7410 low profile crankset
FD-7410 front derailleur
105SC : 8 speed
1994
1995
1996 7700 : 9 speed
1997 6500 : 9 speed
1998
1999 5500 : 9 speed
2000
2001 4400 : 9 speed
2002 3300 : 8 speed
2003 7800 : 10 speed 2200
2004
2005 6600 : 10 speed
2006 5600 : 10 speed 4500 : 9 speed
2007
2008 7900 : 10 speed 3400 : 9 speed
2009 7970 : 10 speed Di2 6700 : 10 speed 2300 : 8 speed
2010 5700 : 10 speed
2011 6770 : 10 speed Di2 4600 : 10 speed
2012 9000 : 11 speed

9070 : 11 speed Di2

3500 : 9 speed with STI
2013 6800 : 11 speed 2400 : 8 speed
2014 6870 : 11 speed Di2 5800 : 11 speed[9][10]
2015 4700 : 10 speed[11]
2016 R9100 : 11 speed
R9120 : 11 speed, w/ disc brakes
R9150 : 11 speed Di2
R9170 : 11 speed Di2, w/ disc brakes
R3000 : 9 speed internal cable routing
2017 R8000 : 11 speed[12]
R8020 : 11 speed, w/ disc brakes
R8050 : 11 speed Di2
R8070 : 11 speed Di2, w/ disc brakes
R2000 : 8 speed internal cable routing
2018 R7000 : 11 speed[13]
R7020 : 11 speed, w/ disc brakes

Mountain bike groupsets[edit]

The first Shimano mtb groupset was Deore XT in 1983. It was based on a 1981 Deore derailleur built for touring.

Current mountain bike groupsets include:

groupset XTR Saint Deore XT SLX Deore Alivio Acera Altus
1983 M700 : 6 speed
1984
1985
1986
1987 M730 : indexed 6 speed MT60 : 6 speed
1988
1989 M732 : 7 speed MT62 : 7 speed (Deore II) M500 : 7 speed (Mountain LX) M450 : 6 speed (Exage Mountain) M350 : 6 speed (Exage Trail) M250 : 6 speed (Exage Country)
1990 M735 : 7 speed rapidfire M650/550 : 7 speed (Deore DX/Deore LX) 500LX : 7 speed (Exage) 400LX : 7 speed (Exage) 300LX : 7 speed (Exage) 200GS : 7 speed
1991
1992 M900 : 8 speed rapidfire+
1993 M560 : 7 speed (Deore LX) M520 : 7 speed (Exage ES) (discontinued) M320 : 7 speed (Exage LT) A10, A20, C10 : 7 speed

C20 : 6 speed

1994 M737 : 8 speed MC30/31 : 7 speed (STX/STX-SE) MC10/MC11 : 7 speed (Alivio) (discontinued) C50 : 6 speed
1995 M910 : 8 speed M565 : 8 speed (Deore LX) MC32/MC33 : 7 speed (STX/STX-RC) MC12 : 7 speed M290 : 7 speed (Acera-X) C90 : 7 speed
1996 M950: 8 speed M739: 8 speed M567 : 8 speed (Deore LX) MC34/MC36 : 7 speed (STX/STX-RC) MC14 : 7 speed
1997 M569 : 8 speed (Deore LX) MC37/MC38 : 7/8 speed (STX/STX-RC) MC16 : 7 speed CT92 : 7 speed
1998 M951: 8 speed M291 : 7 speed (Acera X)
1999 M953 : 9 speed M750 : 9 speed M570 : 9 speed (Deore LX) MC18 : 8 speed M330 : 8 speed
2000 M510 : 9 speed (Deore) MC20 : 8 speed
2001
2002 M340 : 8 speed CT95 : 8 speed
2003 M960 : 9 speed M800 : 9 speed M760 : 9 speed
2004 M580 : 9 speed (Deore LX)
2005 M530 : 9 speed M410 : 8 speed
2006 M970 : 9 speed M801 : 9 speed
2007 M770 : 9 speed M310 : 8 speed
2008 M810 : 9 speed M660/T660 : 9 speed (SLX/Deore LX) M360 : 8 speed
2009 M590 : 9 speed
2010 M980 : 10 speed M773 : 10 speed M663 : 10 speed M430 : 9 speed
2011 M985 : 10 speed M780/T780 : 10 speed M593 : 10 speed M390 : 9 speed
2012 M986 : 10 speed M820 : 10 speed M781/786 : 10 speed M670/T670 : 10 speed (SLX/Deore LX)
2013 M610/T610 : 10 speed M370 : 9 speed
2014 M9000 : 11 speed

M9050 : 11 speed Di2

M4000/T4000 : 9 speed
2015 M8000 : 11 speed M3000/T3000 : 9 speed
2016 T8000 : 10 speed

M8050 : 11 speed Di2

M7000 : 11 speed
2017 M6000/T6000 : 10 speed M2000 : 9 speed
2018 M9100 : 12 speed New Freehub[14]

Other groupsets[edit]

Other current groupsets include:

  • Capreo [F700] – This is a groupset designed for small-wheeled bikes such as folders and features a cassette with a 9-tooth sprocket
  • Nexave [C810] – This consists of several sub-groupsets designed for comfort and commuting bikes some of which feature internal hub gears and roller brakes.
  • DXR [MX70] – Performance BMX racing component
  • Zee [M640] - Lower-priced version of Saint, SLX-performance level.
  • Tourney - lowest-end groupset, there is a mix of cheap components including 6-, 7- and 8 speed.

Groupsets no longer offered include:

  • 70GS and 100GS - budget groupsets in 1990-1992
  • Hone [M600] (9 speed) – discontinued in 2008
  • RSX
  • RX100

Fishing[edit]

Shimano offers a vast range of fishing reels, rods, fishing line, fishing lures, as well as various fishing accessories clothing and electronics.[15] Their spinning reels are most popular product series.[16]

Partnerships[edit]

Shimano is a founding Member[17] of the Global Alliance for EcoMobility, an international partnership that works to promote EcoMobility and thus reduce citizens’ dependency on private motorized vehicles worldwide. The EcoMobility Alliance was founded by a group of leading global organizations on the occasion of the Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007.

Financial results[edit]

Financial results[18][19][20]
Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Revenue (in $ billion) 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.8 3.0
Operating Margin (%) 15 12.3 14.8 15 11 - - - - - - - -
Free Cash Flow (in $ million) 200 98 252 109 373 - - - 261 231 452 297 500

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Company Profile". Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  2. ^ "Company History". Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  3. ^ "Shimano Financial Statements". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  4. ^ "Financial Statement 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  5. ^ Summary of Consolidated Financial Results for FY2017 (English)
  6. ^ "Key Events in Shimano History"
  7. ^ "Tour de France Winner Groupsets, Year by Year". Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  8. ^ "Dura-Ace History". Cycling-Passion.
  9. ^ "Shimano 105 5800 2014/15 groupset - first look - Cyclingnews.com". Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-05.
  11. ^ "Shimano launch Tiagra 4700 groupset". 31 March 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  12. ^ "Shimano launches new Ultegra R8000 groupset". Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  13. ^ "Shimano Line-up Chart Version 1.8". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  14. ^ "NEW XTR – Next level MTB Components". www.ridextr.com. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  15. ^ "Fishing: Quality Fishing Tackle by Shimano Fishing Australia". Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Shimano Spinning Reels". Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  17. ^ "EcoMobility". Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  18. ^ Wolinsky, Jacob (June 7, 2010). "Shimano Inc". Daily Markets. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  19. ^ "Shimano Inc (7309:Osaka)". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2013-06-04. Currency in Millions of Japanese Yens at 100 JPY per USD for 2009-2012 Revenues = 186,686.0; 213,596.0; 221,770.0; 245,843.0
  20. ^ "Annual Financials for Shimano Inc". MarketWatch. Retrieved 11 November 2018.

External links[edit]