Shimodate Station has two island platforms and one side platform all connected by overhead passageways. The side platform has a cutout on its west side, so that the three platforms serve a total of six tracks. The station has a Midori no Madoguchi ticket office.
Shimodate Station was opened on 16 January 1889. The predecessor of the Mooka Railway began operations from 1 April 1912 and the Bōsō Railway (predecessor of the Kantō Railway) from 1 November 1913. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) on 1 April 1987.