The shinkansen section consists of two opposed side platforms serving two tracks, with two centre tracks for non-stop passing trains. The Tohoku Main Line section of the station consists of one side platform and one island platform, serving three tracks.
The station first opened as Iwaki-Nishigō Station (磐城西郷駅?) on 7 April 1959. On 23 June 1982, it was renamed Shin-Shirakawa Station, coinciding with the opening of the Tohoku Shinkansen. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) on 1 April 1987