October 11, 1926
|Died||April 11, 2006 (aged 79)|
|Other names||Simon Sheen|
|Spouse(s)||Choi Eun-hee (divorced 1976, remarried 1983)|
|Revised Romanization||Shin Sangok|
Shin Sang-ok (October 11, 1926 – April 11, 2006) was a South Korean film producer and director with more than 100 producer and 70 director credits to his name. His best-known films were made in the 1950s and 60s when he was known as The Prince of South Korean Cinema. He received the Gold Crown Cultural Medal, the country's top honor for an artist. He is also known for having been kidnapped by the then North Korean leader, Kim Jong-il, for the purpose of producing critically acclaimed films. He was born Shin Tae-seo; he later changed his name to Shin Sang-ok when he started working in the film industry.
The son of a prominent doctor of Chinese medicine, Shin Sang-ok was born in Chongjin, in the northeastern part of the Korean Peninsula, at the time occupied by Japan and currently a part of North Korea. Shin studied in Japan at Tokyo Fine Arts School, the predecessor of Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, before returning to Korea three years later.
Shin started his film career as an assistant production designer on Choi In-kyu's Viva Freedom!, the first Korean film made after the country achieved independence from Japan. During the "Golden Age" of South Korean cinema in the late 1950s and 1960s, Shin worked prolifically, often directing two or more films per year, earning the nickname the "Prince of South Korean Cinema" Shin featured the Western princess, female sex workers for American soldiers, in The Evil Night (1952) and A Flower in Hell (1958). The production company he started, Shin Films, produced around 300 films during the 1960s, including Prince Yeonsan (1961), the winner of the Best Film prize at the first Grand Bell Awards ceremony, and a Grand Bell Award-winning 1964 remake of Na Woon-gyu's 1926 Beongeoli Sam-ryong.
During the 1970s, Shin became less active, while South Korea's cinema industry in general suffered under strict censorship and constant government interference. Most of the films he directed during this period ended up being flops. After Shin ran afoul of the repressive government in 1978, General Park Chung-hee closed Shin's studio.
North Korean period (1978–1986)
In 1978, Shin's former wife, Choi Eun-hee, an actress who starred in many of his films, was kidnapped in Hong Kong and taken to North Korea. Shin himself came under suspicion of causing her disappearance, and when he traveled to Hong Kong to investigate, he was kidnapped as well. The kidnappings were on orders of future leader Kim Jong-il, who wanted to establish a film industry for his country to sway international opinion regarding the views of the Workers' Party of Korea. The North Korean authorities have denied the kidnapping accusations, claiming that Shin came to the country willingly. Shin and Choi made secret audiotapes of conversations with Kim Jong-il, which supported their story.
Shin was put in comfortable accommodation, but after two escape attempts was placed in a prison for over two years. Once his re-education in North Korean ideology was thought complete, he was taken to Pyongyang in 1983 to meet Kim Jong-il and learn why he had been abducted to North Korea. His ex-wife was brought to the same dinner party, where she first learned that Shin was also in North Korea. They remarried shortly afterwards, as suggested by Kim Jong-il.
From 1983 on, Shin directed seven films, with Kim Jong-il acting as an executive producer. The last and best-known of these films is Pulgasari, a giant-monster film similar to the Japanese Godzilla. In 1986, eight years after his kidnapping, Shin and his wife escaped while in Vienna for a film festival. They managed to obtain political asylum from the US embassy in Vienna and Kim Jong-il became convinced that the couple had been kidnapped by the Americans. Shin and his wife lived covertly for two years in Reston, Virginia, under American protection, and authorities debriefed the couple about Kim Jong-il and their experiences in North Korea.
Later career (1986–2006)
Shin and his wife moved to Los Angeles, where he worked in the 1990s under the pseudonym Simon Sheen, directing 3 Ninjas Knuckle Up and working as an executive producer for 3 Ninjas Kick Back and 3 Ninjas: High Noon at Mega Mountain.
At first, Shin was reluctant to go back to South Korea, because he feared that the government's security police would not believe the kidnapping story; he eventually returned to South Korea permanently in 1994 and continued to work on new movies. The same year, he was invited to the Cannes Film Festival as a jury member. His last movie as a director was an unreleased 2002 film called Kyeoul-iyagi (The Story of Winter).
In 2004, Shin underwent a liver transplant. He died of complications caused by hepatitis two years later. At the time of his death he was planning a musical about Genghis Khan. South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun posthumously awarded Shin the Gold Crown Cultural Medal on April 12, 2006, the country's top honor for an artist.
In 2015, an English language biography of his life (along with Choi Eun-hee), called A Kim Jong-Il Production: The Extraordinary True Story of a Kidnapped Filmmaker, was published by Paul Fischer.
In January 2016, at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival, in the World Cinema Documentary Competition, a documentary about the North Korean ordeal, entitled The Lovers and the Despot and directed by Robert Cannan and Ross Adam, was presented.
Partial filmography as director:
- A Flower in Hell (1958)
- To the Last Day (1960)
- Prince Yeonsan (1961)
- Seong Chun-hyang (1961)
- The Houseguest and My Mother (1961)
- The Memorial Gate for Virtuous Women (1962)
- Rice (1963)
- Red Scarf (1964)
- Deaf Sam-yong (1964)
- Phantom Queen (1967)
- Prince Daewon (1968)
- Ghosts of Chosun (1970)
- A Woman with Half Soul (1973)
- The Three-Day Reign (1973)
- At 13 Years Old (1974)[circular reference]
- An Emissary of No Return (1984)
- Runaway (1984)
- Love, Love, My Love (1985)
- Salt (1985)
- The Tale of Shim Chong (1985)
- Pulgasari (1985)
- Breakwater (1985)
- Mayumi (1990)
- Vanished (1994)
- 3 Ninjas Knuckle Up (1995)
- Shin Sang-ok (2007). I Was a Film (in Korean). Seoul: Random House Korea.
- Shin Sang-ok; Choi Eun-hee (1988). Chogugŭn Chŏhanŭl Chŏmŏlli [My Motherland is Faraway] (in Korean). 2. Monterey: Pacific Artist Cooperation.
- —; — (1988). The Kingdom of Kim Jong-il (in Korean). Tonga Il-bosa.
- —; — (1994). Sugi: Nere Kim Jong il Ipnida [Diary: My Name is Kim Jong-il] (in Korean). Seoul: Haenglim Publisher.
- —; — (2001). Uriŭi Talchurŭn Kkŭnaji Anatta [Our Escape has not Ended yet] (in Korean). Seoul: Wŏlgan Chosŏnsa.
- Shin Sang-ok; Choi Eun-hee; Yi Chang-ho (2009). Yŏnghwa kamdok Sin Sang-o: kŭ ŭi sajin p'unggyŏng kŭrigo parŏn 1926-2006 영화 감독 신 상옥: 그 의 사진 풍경 그리고 발언 1926-2006 [Walks and Works of Shin Sang-ok: The Mogul of Korean Film] (in Korean). P'aju-si: Yŏrhwadang. ISBN 9788930103459.
- "Accounting practices blamed for slump in Japanese films" by Kakumi Kobayashi, Japan Times, October 13, 2000, retrieved January 26, 2006
- Biography at asianfilms.org Archived 2006-02-10 at the Wayback Machine
- "Pleasure and Pain" by Chuck Stephens, The Village Voice, February 27 – March 5, 2002
- Cho, Inēs (2002-01-18). "The Reel Story". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- "Same Bed, Different Dreams". This American Life. 2015-05-02. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
- "The producer from hell" by John Gorenfeld, The Guardian, April 4, 2003, retrieved January 26, 2006
- Sebag-Montefiore, Clarissa (Jan 28, 2015). "The Day North Korea Really Did Steal the Show - The Book 'A Kim Jong-Il Production' Explores a Bizarre Case in Cinema History". The Wall Street Journal. New York. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved Aug 27, 2015.
- Fischer 2015.
- Kirby, Michael Donald; Biserko, Sonja; Darusman, Marzuki (7 February 2014). "Report of the detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - A/HRC/25/CRP.1". United Nations Human Rights Council: 288–289 (Paragraph 905). Archived from the original on February 27, 2014.
In 1978, South Korean Actress Ms Choi Un-hee was abducted from Hong Kong after travelling there to meet people in the movie industry. After being forced onto a boat by DPRK agents, Ms Choi demanded an explanation from the abductors, to which they replied "Madam Choi, we are now going to the bosom of General Kim Il-sung". On her arrival in the DPRK on 22 January, she was met by Kim Jong-il who took her on a tour of Pyongyang. Upon learning of her disappearance, Ms Choi's ex-husband Shin Sang-ok, a leading filmmaker, went to Hong Kong to look for her. He was also abducted from Hong Kong by the same DPRK agent in July 1978. Kim Jong-il said to Mr Shin upon his arrival in the DPRK "I had ordered the operations group to carry out a project to bring you here as I wanted a talented director like you to be in the North." This information is consistent with the accounts from former DPRK officials who were personally involved in abductions who indicated that Kim Jong-il personally signed off on abduction orders. During their time in the DPRK, Mr Shin Sang-ok and Ms Choi Un-hee were involved in a number of DPRK-produced movies of which Kim Jong-il was the executive producer. The couple escaped into the United States Embassy while visiting a film festival in Vienna in 1986. They later settled in the United States; Mr Shin has since passed away.
- Obituary The Economist, April 27, 2006
- Paul Fischer (2015). A Kim Jong-Il Production: The Extraordinary True Story of a Kidnapped Filmmaker. Flatiron Books. ISBN 978-1250054265. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- "The Lovers and the Despot: study of Kim Jong-Il's cinephilia is hard to adore" by Jordan Hoffman, The Guardian, 24 January 2016, retrieved October 22, 2016
- List of South Korean films of 1974
- Schönherr 2011, p. 11.
- Schönherr 2011, p. 14.
- Lee Hyangjin (2000). Contemporary Korean Cinema: Culture, Identity and Politics. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7190-6008-3.
- Schönherr 2011, p. 15.
- Schönherr 2012, p. 81.
- Schönherr 2011, p. 18.
- Schönherr 2012, p. 85.
- Fischer 2015, p. 312.
- Fischer, Paul (2015). A Kim Jong-Il Production: The Incredible True Story of North Korea and the Most Audacious Kidnapping in History. London: Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-241-96999-1.
- Schönherr, Johannes (2011). "The North Korean Films of Shin Sang-ok" (PDF). 社会システム研究 (22). Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- — (2012). North Korean Cinema: A History. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-9052-3.
- Breen, Michael (2011). Kim Jong-il: North Korea's Dear Leader (2nd ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118153796.
- Bärtås, Magnus; Ekman, Fredrik (2015). All Monsters Must Die: An Excursion to North Korea. Toronto: House of Anansi. ISBN 978-1-77089-881-3.
- Choi Eun-hee (2007). Ch'oe Ŭn-hŭi ŭi kobaek: yŏnghwa poda tŏ yŏnghwa kat'ŭn sam 최 은희 의 고백: 영화 보다 더 영화 같은 삶 [Confessions of Choi Eun-hee] (in Korean). Seoul: Random House Korea. ISBN 9788925513997.
- Chung, Steven (2014). Split Screen Korea: Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-9134-0.
- Gombeaud, Adrien (December 23, 2000). "A Conversation with Shin Sang-okk". www.koreanfilm.org. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Shin Sang-ok on IMDb
- The Korea Society Film Journal: Review of "Flowers of Hell"