Shina language

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Shina
Shina Alphabets.png
Native to Pakistan, India
Region Gilgit-Baltistan, Chitral, parts of Kashmir
Native speakers
unknown (500,000 cited 1981–1998)[1]
Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
scl – Shina
plk – Kohistani Shina
Glottolog shin1264  (Shina)[2]
kohi1248  (Kohistani Shina)[3]
Shina language.png
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Shina (Urdu: شیناŠīnā) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas of Pakistan.[4] The separate nature of the Dardic languages is still clear, however, form their close relationship with other Indo-Aryan languages, especially Punjabi.[5][not in citation given]

Dialects are Gilgiti (the prestige dialect), Astori, Chilasi Kohistani, Drasi, Gurezi, Jalkoti, Kolai, and Palasi. Related languages spoken by ethnic Shina are Brokskat (the Shina of Baltistan and Ladakh)[citation needed], Domaa, Kohistani Shina, Palula, Savi, and Ushojo. Shina is the language of 40% people of Gilgit Baltistan.The valleys in which it is spoken include Astore, Chilas, Darel, Tangir, Gilgit, Ghizer, Gurez, Drass, Juglot Valley, Drotte Palas, Kolai, and Kohistan.

Writing[edit]

Shina is usually written with a variation of the Urdu alphabet. The additional letters to write Shina are:

  • ݜ for /ʂ/
  • ڙ for /ʐ/
  • څ for /ts/
  • ڇ for /ʈʂ/
  • ݨ for /ɳ/

The language is also written in Devanagari script as well, using the nuqta dot for additional Shina sounds.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The Shina principal vowel sounds:[6]

Front Mid Back
unrounded rounded
High i u
Lower high e o
Higher low ɛ ə ʌ ɔ
Low a

All vowels but /ɔ/ can be either long or nasalized, though no minimal pairs with the contrast are found.[6]

Diphthongs[edit]

In Shina there are the following diphthongs:[7]

  • falling: ae̯, ao̯, eə̯, ɛi̯, ɛːi̯, ue̯, ui̯, oi̯, oə̯;
  • falling nasalized: ãi̯, ẽi̯, ũi̯, ĩũ̯, ʌĩ̯;
  • raising: u̯i, u̯e, a̯a, u̯u.

Consonants[edit]

Labial Coronal Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop Plain p t ʈ k
Aspirated ʈʰ
Voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate Plain ts
Aspirated tsʰ tʂʰ tʃʰ
Voiced dz[a] [a]
Fricative Plain (f) s ʂ ʃ x[a] h
Voiced z ʐ ʒ[a] ɣ[a] ɦ[a]
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ
Lateral l
Rhotic r ɽ[b]
Semivowel ʋ~w j
  1. ^ a b c d e f According to Rajapurohit (2012, p. 33–34)
  2. ^ Degener (2008, p. 14) lists it as a phoneme

Tone[edit]

Shina has three contrasting tones: level, rising, and falling tones.

Example: 1.the............2.thee.........3.thee 1. The first example "the" has a level tone and is translated by the imperative "Do". 2. When the stress falls on the first mora of a long vowel, the tone is falling. Thus the second example means "Will you do?". 3. When the stress falls on the second mora of a long vowel, the tone is rising. Thus the third example means "After having done". There are many minimal pairs in Tshina to prove that it contains three tones.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Shina at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Kohistani Shina at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Shina". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kohistani Shina". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ "Mosaic Of Jammu and Kashmir". 
  5. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dardestan-
  6. ^ a b Rajapurohit 2012, p. 28–31.
  7. ^ Rajapurohit 2012, p. 32–33.

References[edit]

  • Calvin R. Rensch, Sandra J. Decker, Daniel G. Hallberg. (1992). Languages of Kohistan (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 1). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 263 pp. ISBN 969-8023-11-9.
  • Backstrom, Peter C. (1992). Languages of Northern Areas (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 2). 417 pp. ISBN 969-8023-12-7.
  • Degener, Almuth. (2008). Shina-Texte aus Gilgit (Nord-Pakistan): Sprichwörter und Materialien zum Volksglauben, gesammelt von Mohammad Amin Zia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. Contains a Shina grammar, German-Shina and Shina-German dictionaries, and over 700 Shina proverbs and short texts.
  • Rajapurohit, B. B. (2012). Grammar of Shina Language and Vocabulary (PDF). 
  • Zia, Muhammad Amin. (1986). Shina Grammar. First Shina grammar to be written in Shina.
  • Zia, Muhammad Amin. Shina Lughat (Shina Dictionary). First available Shina dictionary, containing 15000 words plus material on the phonetics of Shina.
  • Zia Muhammad Amin. Bayaak (Meeting Place) Shina Radio Features, translation and inter linear explanation in English by Prof. Dr. Gearg Buddruss and Almuth Degener. Published in Germany

External links[edit]