Shinsengumi

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Shinsengumi
新選組
Flag of Shinsengumi.svg
Flag of Shinsengumi
Active August 18, 1863 (August 18, 1863)
Disbanded June 23, 1869 (June 23, 1869)
Country Kyoto, Japan
Allegiance Tokugawa bakufu
Branch Rōshigumi (disbanded in 1863)
Type special police
Role To protect the Tokugawa bakufu representatives and Kyoto
Size 302
Colors light blue, white
Engagements Ikedaya incident
Kinmon incident
Zenzaiya incident
Akebonotei incident
Sanjo Seisatsu incident
Aburanokōji incident
Tenmaya incident
Boshin War:
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Serizawa Kamo (1863)
Kondō Isami (1863–1868)
Tonouchi Yoshio (1863)
Hijikata Toshizō (1868–1869)
Sōma Kazue (1869)

The Shinsengumi (新選組, "New Selected Group") was a special police force organized by the Bakufu (military government) during Japan's Bakumatsu period (late Tokugawa shogunate) in 1863. It was active until 1869.[1] It was founded to protect the shogunate representatives in Kyoto at a time when a controversial imperial edict to exclude foreign trade from Japan had been made and the Chōshū clan had been forced from the imperial court. The men were drawn from the sword schools of Edo.

History[edit]

Rōshigumi[edit]

Japan's forced opening to the west in 1854, which required it to open its shores for trade or face military conflict, exacerbated internal political instability. One long-standing line of political opinion was sonnō jōi (meaning, "revere the emperor, expel the barbarians").[2] Loyalists (particularly in Chōshū Domain) in Kyoto began to rebel. In response, the Tokugawa shogunate formed the Rōshigumi (浪士組, meaning "the rōnin squad") on October 19, 1862. The Rōshigumi was a squad of 234 rōnin (samurais without masters) drawn from the sword schools of Edo.[3](p168)

The squad's nominal commander was the hatamoto Matsudaira Katamori, and their leader was Kyokawa Hachirō, a rōnin from Shōnai Domain. The Rōshigumi's mission was to protect Tokugawa Iemochi, the 14th shōgun, during an important trip to Kyoto to meet with the Emperor Kōmei.[4](p65) There had not been such a meeting since the third shōgun of the Tokugawa Bakufu, Tokugawa Iemitsu, had visited Kyoto in the 17th century. Tokugawa Iemochi, the head of the military government, the Bakufu, had been invited to discuss how Japan should enact the recent imperial edict calling for the expulsion of foreigners.[5](p186)

Although the Rōshigumi was funded by the Tokugawa bakufu, the leader Kyokawa Hachirō and others had strong loyalties to the emperor and planned to gather other rōnin in Kyoto to police the city from insurgents. In March 26 (lunar calendar February 8), 1863, Kiyokawa led the Rōshigumi out of Edo as the vanguard of Shogun Iemochi’s procession to Kyoto, which they arrived in April 10 (lunar calendar February 23), 1863.

Mibu Rōshigumi[edit]

When Kyokawa's scheme was revealed in Kyoto, he immediately commanded the Rōshigumi to return to Edo. The members were disbanded and then returned to Edo where they would later form the Shinchōgumi (新徴組) under the patronage of Shōnai Domain. But nineteen Rōshigumi members, mainly from the Mito clan, remained and formed the Mibu Rōshigumi (壬生浪士組).

Founding members[edit]

Serizawa's faction:
Kondō's faction:
Tonouchi's faction:

Initially, the Mibu Rōshigumi were called Miburō (壬生浪), meaning "rōnin of Mibu". At the time, Mibu was a village south west of Kyoto, and was the place where they were stationed. Mibu Rōshigumi was initially formed in three factions under Serizawa (the Mito group), Kondō (the Shieikan group) and Tonouchi. Abiru Eisaburō later died of illness, a month after arriving Kyoto.

Internal strife soon developed within the group, Tonouchi was assassinated by Kondō on Yojō bridge, Serizawa had ordered a member, Iesato Tsuguo, to commit seppuku for deserting, Negishi Yūzan also deserted and returned to Edo, where he joined the Shinchōgumi.

Shinsengumi[edit]

Flag of Shinsengumi.

Matsudaira Katamori, after the careful evaluation of the political scene in Kyoto, felt it was needed to change the scope of the Mibu Roshigumi's mission from protecting the Shogunate to patrolling the streets of Kyoto and restoring order in the name of the Tokugawa bakufu. In August 18, 1863, the Mibu Rōshigumi was renamed the Shinsengumi (新選組, "New Selected Group").

The new name "Shinsengumi" may have been coined by Matsudaira Katamori (the daimyō of the Aizu clan) around this time.[6] The opposition forces included the Mori clan of the Chōshū and the Shimazu clan of Satsuma.

The Shinsengumi were led by Serizawa Kamo (b. 1830, Mino Province), Niimi Nishiki, and Kondō Isami (b. 1834, Musashi Province – he came from a small dojo in Edo called Shieikan). The Shinsengumi submitted a letter to the Aizu clan, another powerful group who supported the Tokugawa regime, requested for their permission to police Kyoto. The request was granted.

Saeki Matasaburō, having killed Araya Shingorō, was believed to be killed by a Chōshū samurai Kusaka Genzui in September 22, 1863.

On September 30, 1863 (lunar calendar August 18), the Chōshū (anti-Tokugawa) clan were forced from the imperial court by the Tokugawa, Aizu and Satsuma clans. The Shinsengumi were sent to aid the Aizu and guard the gates of the imperial court. The opposition forces included the Mori clan of the Chōshū and the Shimazu clan of Satsuma.

Serizawa's erratic and disruptive behavior in Kyoto eventually led to Matsudaira Katamori of Aizu giving the Shinsengumi an order to assassinate Serizawa and his group. In October 19, 1863, Niimi Nishiki, a member of the Serizawa faction was forced by Yamanami Keisuke and Hijikata Toshizō to commit seppuku for breaking regulations. In October 30 (or October 28), a few selected Shinsengumi members led by Hijikata went into the Yagi Gennojō's house and assassinated Serizawa, his woman Oume, and Hirayama Goro, with Hirama Jūsuke been the only survivor fled that night. All this infighting left Kondō as leader. Three months later, Noguchi Kenji was ordered to commit seppuku for unknown reason.

In July 8, 1864, in an incident at the Ikedaya Inn in Kyoto, thirty Shinsengumi suppressed a cell of twenty Chōshū revolutionaries, possibly preventing the burning of Kyoto. The incident made the squad more famous and led to soldiers enlisting in the squad.

Squad hierarchy after Ikedaya[edit]

Troop Captains (組長, Kumichō):

Members of the group[edit]

Ancient Kondō Isami's quarters at Nagareyama Chiba Prefecture, Japan. One of the former Shinsengumi headquarters

At its peak, the Shinsengumi had about 300 members. They were the first samurai group of the Tokugawa era to allow those from non-samurai classes (farmers and merchants, for example) to join. Many joined the group out of a desire to become samurai and be involved in political affairs. However, it is a misconception that most of the Shinsengumi members were from non-samurai classes. Out of 106 Shinsengumi members (among a total of 302 members at the time), there were 87 samurai, eight farmers, three merchants, three medical doctors, three priests, and two craftsmen. Several of the leaders, such as Sannan, Okita, Saitō, Nagakura, and Harada, were born samurai.

Shinsengumi regulations[edit]

The code of the Shinsengumi, famously created by Hijikata Toshizō, included five articles, prohibiting deviation from the samurai code (Bushido), leaving the Shinsengumi, raising money privately, taking part in others' litigation, and engaging in private fights. The penalty for breaking any rule was seppuku. In addition, if the leader of a unit was mortally wounded in a fight, all the members of the unit must fight and die on the spot and, even in a fight where the death toll was high, the unit was not allowed to retrieve the bodies of the dead, except the corpse of the leader of the unit.

Uniform[edit]

Mannequins dressed in Shinsengumi uniform
Coat of mail and helmet of Kondō Isami

The members of the Shinsengumi were highly visible in battle due to their distinctive uniforms. Following the orders of the Shinsengumi commander Serizawa Kamo, the standard uniform consisted of the haori and hakama over a kimono, with a white cord called a tasuki crossed over the chest and tied in the back. The function of the tasuki was to prevent the sleeves of the kimono from interfering with movement of the arms. The Shinsengumi wore a light chainmail suit beneath their robes and a light helmet made of iron.

The uniform was best defined by the haori, which was colored asagi-iro (浅葱色, light blue). The haori sleeves were trimmed with "white mountain stripes", resulting in a very distinctive uniform, quite unlike the usual browns, blacks, and greys found in warrior clothing.[7]

Boshin War[edit]

In 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu withdrew from Kyoto, the Shinsengumi left peacefully under the supervision of the wakadoshiyori, Nagai Naoyuki.[4](p172–174) The new emperor had been named the head of a new government (meaning the end centuries of military rule by the shōguns). This marked the beginning of the Boshin civil war.[3]

Following their departure from Kyoto, the Shinsengumi fought in the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in January 1868 where Kondō suffered a gunshot wound at Fushimi. The Shinsengumi returned to Edo and was later reformed into a unit known as the Kōyō Chinbutai (甲陽鎮撫隊, Pacification Corps). They departed from Edo for Kōfu Castle in March 1 on orders to suppress uprisings there. But upon receiving news in March 5 that the Kōfu Castle was taken by Imperial Court forces led by Itagaki Taisuke, they settled at a town of Katsunuma five miles east of Kōfu.

In March 6, 1868, the Kōyō Chinbutai resisted an attack by the Imperial forces at the Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma for about two hours but lost, with eight dead and more than thirty wounded, while the Imperial forces had only one dead and twelve wounded. The surviving members were scattered and retreated to Edo.

Right after the Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma, Nagakura Shinpachi, Harada Sanosuke and some of the members left the Kōyō Chinbutai after disagreements with long-time comrades Kondo and Hijikata and later formed a new unit Seiheitai with a former Tokugawa retainer Haga Gidou as its commander.

In March 13, 1868, the Kōyō Chinbutai departed Edo again and set up a temporary headquarters at the Kaneko family estate, northeast of Edo, they would later moved to a new headquarters in Nagareyama in April 2, 1868.

However, on the following day, the Imperial forces' Staff Officer Kagawa Keizo of Mito Domain received news that an armed unit had set up camp at Nagareyama and dispatched the forces there.

During their training at Nagareyama in April 3, 1868, the Kōyō Chinbutai members were caught by surprise by the 200-strong Imperial forces, the Imperial forces' Vice-chief of Staff Arima Tota of Satsuma Domain ordered Kondō to go with them to their camp at Koshigaya. Kondō later brought to Itabashi in April 4 for questioning. Kondō was declared guilty of participation in the assassination of Sakamoto Ryōma in April 8, 1868 and was beheaded three weeks later at the Itabashi execution grounds in May 17, 1868.[3]

Due to Hijikata being incapacitated as a result of the injuries sustained at the Battle of Utsunomiya Castle in May 1868, the Kōyō Chinbutai fought in defense of Aizu territory under Saitō Hajime. After the Battle of Bonari Pass in October 1868, when Hijikata decided to retreat from Aizu, Saitō parted with Hijikata and continued to fight with the Aizu army until the very end of the Battle of Aizu. In December 1868, Hijikata and the Kōyō Chinbutai would later joined the forces of the Republic of Ezo in the north.[4](p217–230)

The Kōyō Chinbutai numbers decreased to around one hundred in this period and they fought on despite the fall of Edo and clear defeat of Tokugawa.[3] In the Battle of Miyako Bay in 6 May 1869, Hijikata led a daring but doomed raid to steal the imperial warship Kōtetsu, in the early morning, from the Kaiten warship, a number of oppositionists, including Nomura Risaburō, managed to board the ship, but were soon mowed down by its Gatling gun. Many others including the captain of Kaiten were also killed by gunfire from the Imperial ships. The battle lasted only thirty minutes and the survivors and Kaiten retreated to Hakodate.

On the fourth week of May 1869, Hijikata led 230 Republic of Ezo forces and the surviving Shinsengumi against the 600 strong Imperial forces during the Battle of Futamata for sixteen hours and were forced to retreat. The Imperial forces attacked again on the next day, only to retreat. On the following night, Hijikata led a successfully raid on the Imperial forces' camp, forcing them to flee.

End of Shinsengumi[edit]

Hijikata was killed from a gunshot wound on June 20 (lunar calendar May 11), 1869, during the Battle of Hakodate in Hokkaido. Before his death, he wrote of his loyalty to the Tokugawa on the death poem sent by his page Ichimura Tetsunosuke to the house of his brother-in-law:

"Though my body may decay on the Island of Ezo,
My spirit guards my lords in the East."

[8]

A remaining group of survivors, under the last commander Sōma Kazue, who had been under Nagai Naoyuki's supervision at Benten Daiba, surrendered three days later in June 23, (lunar calendar May 14), 1869, marked the end of the Shinsengumi.[4](p246) The forces of the Republic of Ezo would later surrendered in June 27, (lunar calendar May 18), 1869, which marked the end of the Boshin War.

A few core members, such as Nagakura Shinpachi, Saitō Hajime, and Shimada Kai survived the war. Some members, such as Takagi Teisaku (ja), went on to become prominent figures.[9]

Monument[edit]

In 1875, Nagakura Shinpachi, with the help of the physician Matsumoto Ryōjun and several surviving former Shinsengumi comrades including Saitō Hajime among others, erected the monument for Kondō Isami, Hijikata Toshizō, and the fallen comrades of the Shinsengumi at Jutoku-ji temple boundary known as Graves of Shinsengumi in Itabashi, Tokyo and held requiems for their past comrades' souls.

In popular culture[edit]

The Shinsengumi have become a staple of Japanese popular culture in general,[7] and of period dramas (jidaigeki) in particular.

  • The Shinsengumi have often been adapted in television drama, for example "Shinsengumi Shimatsuki" (Shinsengumi, its birth to end) (TBS, 1961); and "Shinsengumi Keppuroku" (NTV, 1967). In 2004, the Japanese television broadcaster NHK made a year-long television drama series following the history of the Shinsengumi, called Shinsengumi!, which aired on Sunday evenings.[10]
  • An early film, The Legend of Shinsengumi (1963) was based on a 1928 novel of the same name.[3] In 1969, a full-length film, Shinsengumi: Assassins of Honour, starring Toshiro Mifune was released.[11] It depicted the rise and fall of the Shinsengumi. The 1999 film, Taboo (Gohatto) depicted the Shinsengumi one year after the Ikedaya affair. The film shows the Shinsengumi's strict code and acceptance of homosexuality among the samurai members.[3] In 2003, a Japanese samurai drama, When the Last Sword Is Drawn, depicted the end of Shinsengumi, focusing on various historical figures such as Saitō Hajime.[12]
  • Manga artist Nobuhiro Watsuki is a self-proclaimed fan of the Shinsengumi and many of his characters in Rurouni Kenshin are based on its members, including Sagara Sanosuke (inspired by Harada Sanousuke); Shinomori Aoshi (modeled after Hijikata Toshizō); Seta Sōjirō (based on Okita Souji); and Saitō Hajime.[citation needed] The 2003 manga, Getsu Mei Sei Ki or Goodbye Shinsengumi by Kenji Morita depicted the life of Hijikata Toshizō. The manga Kaze Hikaru presents a fictional tale of a girl joining the Shinsengumi in disguise and falling in love with Okita Soji. The manga, Peacemaker Kurogane by Nanae Chrono is a historical fiction taking place during the end of the Tokugawa period, following a young boy, Ichimura Tetsunosuke, who tries to join the Shinsengumi. In Hideaki Sorachi's action-comedy manga, Gin Tama, the Shinsengumi (真選組) are popular characters. Their depiction however, being freely adapted for comedy purposes, was sometimes criticised for lacking historical precision. The anime series Soar High! Isami features three 5th graders who are fictional descendants of the Shinsengumi and they fight against the evil organization, the Black Goblin.
  • The game series/anime series/anime movie franchise Hakuōki (Hakuōki Shinsengumi Kitan, lit. Demon of the Fleeting Blossom: The Mysterious Tale of the Shinsengumi) follows a girl, looking for her lost father (a doctor who worked with the Shinsengumi). The premise mixes supernatural elements and fictional enemies and historical events. The Shinsengumi characters are fictionalized adaptations of the real members and retain their real names throughout the show.[13]
  • Touken Ranbu (2015) is a free-to-play collectible card browser video game developed by Nitroplus and DMM Games. It has spawned multiple different anime series, Touken Ranbu: Hanamaru (2016) and Zoku Touken Ranbu: Hanamaru (2018), both for a younger audience, as well as the more sophisticated Katsugeki/Touken Ranbu (2017). In the Touken Ranbu universe, the legendary swords, spears, and guns of famous warriors from Japan's feudal past are granted human form and come to life in a swashbuckling historical adventure. The swords of Shinsegumi heroes like Okita Souji, Hijikata Toshizo, and Isami Kondo are featured. One of the most prominent characters in Touken Ranbu is Hijikata's long sword, which bore the name Izuminokami Kanesada.
  • The 2004 video game, Fu-un Shinsengumi which was developed by Genki and published by Konami is based on the Shinsengumi. In March 2012, the stand-alone expansion for Total War Shogun 2, Fall of the Samurai features the Shinsengumi as recruitable agents used for assassination and bribery, and as an elite combat unit capable of fighting both at range and in melee.
  • Moeyo Ken (anime) is a video game and also an anime series about girl members of the Shinsegumi.
  • Moeyo Ken ("Burn My Sword") is the name of a famous 1964 novel by Ryōtarō Shiba about the Boshin War from the point of view of Hijikata Toshizō. It is regarded by Shinsengumi fans as the 'bible' of Shinsengumi fiction and was the first literary work to focus on Hijikata; previously, Shinsegumi stories tended to focus on the commander Isami Kondo. Shiba also published short stories about the Shinsengumi. His Shinsengumi fiction has not yet been translated into English; it is available in Japanese and Chinese.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ryōtarō Shiba, Moeyo Ken 燃えよ剣(Burn My Sword). 1972 ISBN 410115208X
  • Ryōtarō Shiba, Shinsengumi Keppu Roku 新選組血風錄 (Shinsengumi: Chronicles of Blood and Tempest). 2004 ISBN 4041290074
  • Hillsborough R. Shinsengumi: the Shogun's last samurai corps. 2005 ISBN 0-8048-3627-2.
  • Hillsborough R. Samurai sketches: from the bloody final years of the shogun. 2001 ISBN 0-9667401-8-1
  • Kikuchi A. 菊地明 and Aikawa T. 相川司. Shinsengumi Jitsuroku 新選組実錄". Chikuma-shobō 筑摩書房, Tokyo 1996.
  • Ōishi M. 大石学. Shinsengumi: Saigo no Bushi no Jitsuzō 新選組:最後の武士」の実像. Chūōkōron-shinsha 中央公論新社, Tokyo, 2004.
  • Sasaki S. 佐々木克. Boshin sensō: Haisha no Meiji ishin 戊辰戦争 : 敗者の明治維新. Chūōkōron-shinsha 中央公論社, Tokyo,1977.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Watsuki, N. "Glossary of the Restoration." Rurouni Kenshin Volume 3. Viz Media p190.
  2. ^ Wakabayashi B. T. Anti-foreignism and Western learning in early-modern Japan: the new theses of 1825. Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1986.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Dougill J. "Kyoto: a cultural history". Oxford University Press, 2006 p171. ISBN 0195301374, 9780195301373.
  4. ^ a b c d e Oishi M. Shinsengumi: Saigo no Bushi no Jitsuzō. Shin Jinbutsu Oraisha, Tokyo, 2004.
  5. ^ Turnbull S. "The Samurai swordsman – master of war." Tuttle Publishing, 2013 ISBN 1462908349, 9781462908349.
  6. ^ "Bessengumi" An argument for Matsudaira Katamori bestowing the name can be made by comparing the similarity of the name "Shinsengumi" to one of Aizu's later frontline combat units, the Bessengumi (別選組, the "Separately Selected Corps").
  7. ^ a b Zwier L. and Cunnungham M. "The End of the Shoguns and the birth of modern Japan (Pivotal moments in history series)." Twenty-First Century Books, revised edition, 2013 p63 ISBN 146770377X, 9781467703772.
  8. ^ Clements J. "A brief history of the samurai" Constable & Robinson, 2013 ISBN 1472107721, 9781472107725.
  9. ^ "Takagi became a professor of economics at Hitotsubashi University". Archived 2007-03-18 at the Wayback Machine. Kuwana city website.
  10. ^ 新選組! NHK website.
  11. ^ "Shinsengumi: Assassins of Honour IMDB website.
  12. ^ "When the last sword is drawn." IMDB website
  13. ^ Kapell M. and Elliot A. (ed.)"Playing with the past: digital games and the simulation of history." A&C Black, 2013 p140 ISBN 1623563879, 9781623563875.

External links[edit]

  • Hajimenokizu A site dedicated to Saitou Hajime and the Shinsengumi in various fictional and historical incarnations.
  • [1] Samurai archives – Shinsengumi.