A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. Replicas can range from authentically reconstructed, fully seaworthy ships, to ships of modern construction that give an impression of a historic vessel. Some replicas may not even be seaworthy, but built for other educational or entertainment purposes.
Reasons to build a replica include historic research into shipbuilding, national pride, exposition at a museum or entertainment (e.g., for a TV series), and/or education programs for the unemployed. For example, see the project to build a replica of the Continental brig Andrew Doria. Apart from building a genuine replica of the ship, sometimes the construction materials, tools and methods can also copied from the ships' original era, as is the case with the replica of Batavia in Lelystad and the ship of the line replica Delft in Rotterdam (Delfshaven).
A ship replica may also be a generic replica, one that represents a certain type of ship rather than a particular historic example, like Kamper Kogge, replicating the Cogs that were used extensively in Northern Europe by the Hanseatic League in the Middle Ages, but where there is little knowledge of specific ships.
Some generic type replicas such as Thor Heyerdahl's Ra II, qualify as true replicas as these ships were built to investigate the craft and or culture of the original era. That they do not replicate a specific vessel is mainly because no details of such a specific vessel are available.
Some other ships that are modeled after ships of a certain type or era (and are in that sense replicas) do not qualify as true replicas. Some ships may be borderline cases, such as Kanrin Maru, which is actually twice the size of the original, but built following the plans of the original.
Replicas can be temporary, cheap and very simple, such as the replica of a Viking ship that was burnt at the Leixlip Festival.
Notable historic type ships that are not replicas include:
- USS Constitution (1795) is strictly speaking not a replica but the original vessel. However, most of the ship's timber has been replaced over time, with only 10-15% of the original remaining. This is a modern version of the philosopher's dilemma concerning replica versus original; known as the Ship of Theseus dilemma.
- HMS Victory (1765) is still the original vessel, although unlike Constitution, she is in dry dock and does not sail. She has also been heavily restored, with only 10-15% of her original timber remaining.
- Mircea, which is an almost exact copy of Gorch Fock. Mircea was built as a copy because Gorch Fock was a very successful ship. Thus Mircea was not built as a replica per se, but as a copy for other reasons (i.e. to perform economically, in this case as a training vessel).
- Stad Amsterdam is a generic clipper type ship combining the best qualities of clippers of the past with modern materials and technologies.
Another ambiguous case subject to the Ship of Theseus dilemma is Niagara. The original was sunk in 1820 for preservation, and the ship has been rebuilt three times since. The third reconstruction was considerably more extensive, and the only parts from the original which were retained are non-structural, leading many authorities to classify her as a replica, rather than a reconstructed original.
Notable ship replicas
Some sailing ship replicas with their home port; and key information of the original (many articles are about the original ship):
Europe, Middle East, Australia, America
|Ship name||Type||Current porta||Current affiliation||Country||Original affiliation||Original built||Notable for||End||Remark|
|Ra II||Reed boat||Oslo, Norway||Bygdøy maritime museum||Egypt||c.4000BC||Ancient Egyptian merchant. Heyerdahl crossed Atlantic in it||c.2000BC||Class replica|
|Min of the Desert||Seafaring ship||Suez, Egypt||Suez National Museum||Egypt||c.1500BC||18th Dynasty trading ship||Class replica|
|Uluburun II||Merchant||Bodrum, Turkey||Bodrum Underwater Archaeological Museum||Turkey||c.14th century BC||Late Bronze Age merchant||Sank c.1316–1305 BC||Oldest known merchant shipwreck.|
|Argo||Bronze Age galley||Greece||c.1300BC||Hand built replica of a Bronze Age galley||?||Class replica|
|Argo||Penteconter||Volos, Greece||Greece||?||A replica of a Greek penteconter, with a 50-oar crew made up from all 27 European Union member countries.||?||Class replica|
|Ivlia||Bireme||Ukraine||c.800BC||Ancient Greek rowing warship (galley) with oars at two levels.||c.100BC||Class replica|
|Kybele||Bireme||Istanbul, Turkey||Turkey||c.600BC||Phoacean Greek bireme||?||Class replica|
|Olympias||Trireme||Faliro, Greece||Greece||c.700BC||Ancient Greek warship||c.400BC||Class replica|
|Kyrenia II||Merchant||Cyprus||c.4th century BC||Ancient Greek merchant ship||Sank c.288BC|
|Hugin||Viking ship||Ramsgate, England||Plinthed at Pegwell Bay||Denmark||449||Hengist and Horsa land in Kent||Rowed across the North Sea to commemorate the 1500th anniversary in 1949.
Actually a copy of the 9th Century Gokstad ship
|Brendan's currach||Currach||Craggaunowen, Ireland||Ireland||512-530||Legenday voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to America in a small open boat||?|
|Myklebust Ship||Viking ship||Rundehåjen in Nordfjordeid||SAGASTAD – The impressive Science and Experience center in Nordfjordeid, will open in spring 2019.||Norway||was built in the 800s.||Norways biggest Vikingship||end of 800 (876?)||The building will be built by Eid Industrihus KF with construction start in 2017 in the new Saga park in Nordfjordeid center.|
|Sea Stallion from Glendalough||Viking ship||Roskilde||Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde||Denmark||1042 in Dublin Ireland||Main warship of the Viking age||Scuttled in Roskilde Fjord c.1100|
|Sebbe Als||Viking ship||Augustenborg||Denmark||Around 1050, somewhere in the Baltic area||Baltic warship of the Viking age||Scuttled in Roskilde Fjord c.1100|
|Lisa von Lübeck||Caravel||Lübeck, Germany||Germany||c.1200||Main medieval merchant||c.1500||Class replica|
|Kamper Kogge||Hanseatic cog||Kampen, the Netherlands||Netherlands||c.1200||Main medieval merchant||c.1500||Class replica|
|Roland von Bremen||Bremen cog||Bremen, Germany||Germany||1380||Main medieval merchant||Sank 1380|
|São Cristóvão||Caravel||Mossel Bay, South Africa||Bartolomeu Dias Museum Complex||Portugal||1488||Bartolomeu Dias' ship|
|Santa María||Carrack||Columbus, US||United States||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Grounded 1492||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Santa María||Carrack||Palos de la Frontera, Spain||Wharf of the Caravels museum||Spain||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Grounded 1492||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Santa María||Carrack||Edmonton, Alberta, Canada||West Edmonton Mall||Canada||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Grounded 1492||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Santa María||Carrack||Funchal, Portugal||Portugal||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Grounded 1492||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Pinta||Caravel||Tortola, British Virgin Islands||The Columbus Foundation||British Virgin Islands||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Pinta||Caravel||Palos de la Frontera, Spain||Wharf of the Caravels museum||Spain||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Pinta||Caravel||Bayona, Spain||Caravel Pinta Museum||Spain||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Niña||Caravel||Tortola, British Virgin Islands||The Columbus Foundation||British Virgin Islands||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Niña||Caravel||Palos de la Frontera, Spain||Wharf of the Caravels museum||Spain||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Niña||Caravel||El Puerto de Santa María, Spain||Spain||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Niña||Caravel||Corpus Christi, US||United States||c.1490||Columbus's 1492 squadron||Several replicas, all based on conjectures|
|Matthew||Caravel||Bristol, UK||United Kingdom||c.1495||John Cabot's ship to America in 1497|
|Nau Capitânia||Nau||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||Brazilian Naval Cultural Centre||Brazil||ca 1500||Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral||Class replica|
|Victoria||Carrack||Seville, Spain||Fundacion Nao Victoria||Spain||c.1515||Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first circumnavigation of the planet||Achieved the circumnavigation of the globe again in 2006.|
|Victoria||Carrack||Punta Arenas, Chile||Nao Victoria Museum||Chile||c.1515||Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first circumnavigation of the planet|
|Victoria||Carrack||Puerto San Julián, Argentina||Museo Tematico Nao Victoria||Argentina||c.1515||Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first circumnavigation of the planet|
|Grande Hermine||Carrack||Jordan Harbour, Ontario||c.1520||Brought Jacques Cartier to Saint-Pierre on 15 June 1535||abandoned, vandalised and arsoned, beached|
|San Salvador||Galleon||San Diego Bay, Spain||Maritime Museum of San Diego, United States||US||1540||First European exploration of Coastal California 1542-43|
|Real||Galley||Barcelona, Spain||Spain||c.1570||Flagship of Don John of Austria in the Battle of Lepanto|
|Golden Hind(e)||Galleon||London, UK
||United Kingdom||c.1575||1577-1580 circumnavigation|
|Golden Hind(e)||Galleon||Brixham, UK
||United Kingdom||c.1575||1577-1580 circumnavigation||Second replica of the ship anchored in 1963 used in the TV series Sir Francis Drake|
|Duyfken||East Indies Explorer||Perth, Australia||Netherlands||1595||Discovery of Australia 1606||Irreparable damage 1608|
|Andalucía (es:)||Galleon||Seville, Spain||Fundacion Nao Victoria||Spain||c.1600||Main Spanish galleon|
|Discovery||Barque||Jamestown, USA||Jamestown Settlement museum||United Kingdom||1602||First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607|
|Godspeed||Brigantine||Jamestown, USA||Jamestown Settlement museum||United States||c.1605||First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607||The 1984/85 replica sailed the Atlantic (without the aid of engines) departing London on April 30, 1985 with a crew of 14.|
|Susan Constant||Merchant||Jamestown, USA||Jamestown Settlement museum||United Kingdom||c.1605||First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607|
|Halve Maen||Jacht||Hoorn, Netherlands||Netherlands||c.1608||Original explorer of what is now called the Hudson River, Henry Hudson, 1609||Destroyed around 1618 in Jakarta|
|San Juan Bautista||Galleon||Ishinomaki, Japan||Japan||1613||Crossed the Pacific Ocean from Japan to New Spain in 1614||Sold to the Spanish government in 1618||Survived the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami with minor damage|
|Mayflower II||Merchant||Plymouth, MA, USA||United States||c.1607||Pilgrim ship 1620||Dismantled 1623?|
|Kalmar Nyckel||Dutch full-rigged pinnace||Kalmar Nyckel Foundation, USA||Sweden||1625||Founded New Sweden colony at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware, USA)||Late 17th century||Charters, Daysails, Appearances|
|Batavia||East Indiaman||Lelystad, The Netherlands||Netherlands||1628||Mutiny 1629||Wrecked 1629|
|Prins Willem||East Indiaman||Den Helder, the Netherlands||Netherlands||1649||Sank 1662||Replica destroyed in fire, July 2009|
|Nonsuch||Ketch||Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada||Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada||United Kingdom||1650||Original trading mission into Hudson Bay 1668-69) for precursor of the Hudson's Bay Company||Unknown (possibly sunk in the 1670s)||Crafted for 1970 tercentenary of HBC. Sailed up and down Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America.|
|De Zeven Provinciën||Ship of the Line (80 guns)||Lelystad, the Netherlands||Netherlands||1665||Flagship of Michiel de Ruyter||Decommissioned 1694||Under construction|
|Lenox||Ship of the line (70 guns)||Proposed for Deptford, London, UK||Proposed Deptford Dockyard Museum||United Kingdom||1678||Took part in capture of Gibraltar (1704)||Scuttled to serve as breakwater in 1756||Proposed (in 2013) full-size sailing replica, to be built in a dedicated museum on the site of old Deptford Dockyard where the original was built.|
|Goto Predestinatsia||Ship of the line (58 guns)||Voronezh||Voronezh shipyard||Russia||1700||First ship of the line of Russia||1712 sold||Ship-museum|
|Shtandart||Frigate (24 guns)||Saint Petersburg||Baltic ports||Russia||1703||Flagship of Peter the Great of Russia||1727 Decommissioned||In Limbo|
|Götheborg||East Indiaman||Gothenburg, Sweden||Globetrotter||Sweden||c.1740||Sank 1745||Sail training vessel (volunteers)|
|Amsterdam||East Indiaman||Amsterdam, the Netherlands||Scheepvaart Museum||Netherlands||1749||Grounded 1749|
|Lady Washington||Brig||Aberdeen, USA||United States||c.1750||First US merchant to reach Japan||Foundered 1798|
|Jacobstads Wapen||Galeas||Jakobstad, Finland||Sweden||c.1750|
|Surprise/Rose||Frigate||San Diego, USA||San Diego Maritime Museum||United Kingdom||1757||1776 attack New York.||Scuttled 1779||Renamed Surprise after movie Master and Commander|
|HMS Sultana||Schooner||Chestertown, Maryland, USA||United Kingdom||1767||US colony coast patrol||Sold 1772|
|Endeavour||Barque||Sydney, Australia||Australian National Maritime Museum||United Kingdom||1768||Captain Cook's ship|
|La Grace||Brig||Czech Republic||ca 1768||Named after earlier frigate of Augustin Heřman||Class replica|
|Beaver||Brig||Boston USA||Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum||United Kingdom||ca 1770||One of the merchant ships involved in the "Boston Tea Party" protest in 1773||Generic period merchant ship|
|Eleanor||Brig||Boston USA||Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum||United Kingdom||ca 1770||One of the merchant ships involved in the "Boston Tea Party" protest in 1773||Generic period merchant ship|
|Hector||Fluyt||Pictou, Canada||Ship Hector Foundation||Canada||ca 1720||Immigrant Ship||after 1773|
|l'Hermione||12-pounder Concorde-class frigate||Rochefort, France||L'Association Hermione-La Fayette||France||1779||Used by Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War||Sank 1792||Replica Hermione started sea trials in September 2014; set sail for comemorial voyage on April 18, 2015.|
|Delft||Ship of the Line (56-gun)||Rotterdam, the Netherlands||Scheepswerf De Delft||Batavian Republic||1783||Battle of Camperdown||Sank 1797||Under Construction|
|Bounty||Armed Transport||1) Greenport, New York,
2) Discovery Bay, Hong Kong
|United Kingdom||1787||Mutiny 1789||Burned 1790||Foundered in Hurricane Sandy|
|Maryland Federalist||Miniature square rigger||Maryland State House, Annapolis, USA||Maryland State Archives||United States||1788||Original vessel presented as a gift to George Washington||Original vessel sunk in a storm in the Potomac River in 1788|
|Étoile du Roy||Frigate||Saint-Malo, France||United Kingdom||c.1790||Generic Nelson age war ship replica used in Hornblower|
|Friendship of Salem||East Indiaman||Salem, Massachusetts USA||Salem Maritime National Historic Site||United States||1797||Captured in the War of 1812 and condemned as a prize of war.|
|Lady Nelson||Brig||Tasmania, Australia||United Kingdom||1799||Explored Australian coastline||Captured by pirates 1825|
|Lynx||Schooner||Newport Beach, USA||United States||c.1810||UK blockade running privateer|
|Fame||Schooner||Salem, Massachusetts USA||Salem Maritime National Historic Site||United States||c.1812||UK blockade running privateer. Captured 20 ships||Wrecked 1814|
|Pride of Baltimore II||Topsail Schooner||Baltimore, USA||United States||c.1812||UK blockade running privateer||Type replica|
|USS Niagara||Brig||Erie, Pennsylvania, USA||Erie Maritime Museum||United States||1813||Battle of Lake Erie||Sunk for preservation 1820, rebuilt three times since||Sail training vessel and museum|
|HMS Buffalo||Store ship
later convict ship
|Gleneig, Adelaide, Australia||United Kingdom||1813||Carried the first Governor and 179 colonists to South Australia||Wrecked in a gale in 1840||Used as a floating restaurant|
|Goleta Ancud||Schooner||Punta Arenas, Chile||Nao Victoria Museum||Chile||1843||Claim the Strait of Magellan on behalf of the Chilean independent government||Uncertain discommission, displayed at Nao Victoria Museum|
|Freedom Schooner Amistad||Schooner||New Haven, USA||Spain||c.1825||Involved in the Amistad revolt, 1839||Unknown after 1844|
|Enterprize||Schooner||Melbourne, Australia||Enterprize Trust, Melbourne||Australia||1829||Transported European settlers to Melbourne||Replica of Australian built ship. Charters, School Trips, daysails|
|William the Fourth||Steam Paddle Wheeler||Newcastle, NSW, Australia||Newcastle City Council||Australia||1831||Oceangoing steam-powered side paddlewheeler||Replica of Australian built ship|
|Pilgrim||Brig||Dana Point, USA||Ocean Institute||United States||1825||1834 memoir by Richard Henry Dana, Jr.||Burned at sea 1856||Used in Amistad movie|
|Dunbrody||Barque||New Ross, Ireland||Canada||1845||Famine Ship||Grounded 1875, Labrador||A Famine History museum|
|Jeanie Johnston||Barque||Dublin, Ireland||Canada||1847||Famine Ship||Sail Training vessel, a Famine History Museum and a Corporate Entertainment venue|
|Californian||Schooner||San Diego, USA||United States||Patrolled California coast c.1850||Based on C.W. Lawrence|
|Bluenose II||Schooner||Lunenburg, Canada||Canada||1921||Winning Racing Schooner||Grounded 1946||Fundraising for Bluenose III|
^a If more than one replica is made the home port of the different current ports are given in a numbered list
- SS Bandırma; Turkish passenger cargo vessel
- Kanrin Maru; Minami Awaji harbour, Japan; a double-size replica of a Japanese warship
- Namihaya; Osaka Maritime Museum, Japan; 5th-century Japanese ship replica
- Naniwa Maru; Osaka Maritime Museum, Japan; Edo period merchant ship
- San Juan Bautista; Ishinomaki, Japan; a Japanese warship
- Turtle ship; a generic replica of a Korean ship
- Michinoku Maru; Michinoku Traditional Wooden Boat Museum, Japan; 18th-century Japanese trade ship (Kitamae Bune) replica
- Jewel of Muscat; Omani 9th-century sailing ship built to retrace the route of the original ship from Oman to Singapore.
- Princess Taiping; a replica of a Ming Dynasty Chinese junk.
- Replica (stationary, not seaworthy) of a Chinese treasure ship, in the Treasure Boat Shipyard Park, Nanjing
- Dingyuan; a replica of an Imperial Chinese ironclad from the late 19th century
- Hokule'a; Honolulu, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
- Makali'i; Kawaihae, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
- Alingano Maisu; Kawaihae, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
- Hokualakai; Hilo, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
- Iosepa; Honolulu, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
- Hawaiiloa; Honolulu, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
- Te Aurere; Auckland, New Zealand; an ancient Maori vessel.
- Aotearoa One; Auckland, New Zealand; an ancient Maori vessel.
- Te Au O Tonga; Rarotonga, Cook Islands; an ancient Polynesian vessel.
- Takitumu; Rarotonga, Cook Islands; an ancient Polynesian vessel.
- Tahiti Nui; Tahiti, French Polynesia; an ancient Polynesian vessel, formerly named "Hawaiki Nui".
- Ictineu II; Barcelona, Spain; a replica of the first mechanically powered steam driven submarine.
- The Hjortspring Boat is replica of a Danish Iron Age rowing boat.
- At the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, replicas of Viking ships are built.
- Various projects for building replicas of the ill-fated RMS Titanic have been proposed over the years. The first Titanic replica to actually commence construction is being built by Chinese firm Seven Star Energy Investment, likely to be completed in 2020 (delayed from an original target date of 2017). It will not sail on any ocean, but be permanently docked on a river in Sichuan province to function as the main attraction for the Romandisea Seven Star International Cultural Tourism Resort.
- Various "replicas" of Noah's Ark have been built. Whether they are properly regarded as "replicas" depends on whether one takes the Biblical flood story as mythology or fact. Since the Biblical description of the vessel is very brief beyond the basic measures, the exact design of any "replica" is necessarily conjectural.
- Barcelona Charter
- Experimental archaeology
- List of museum ships
- Ship of Theseus
- Tim Severin - Recreating ancient voyages
- Viking ship replica
- "Andrew Doria - The First Salute, Inc". Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "Het oorspronkelijke schip 'De Delft'" (in Dutch). Historische werf Rotterdams Welvaren. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "FAQ". Collections & History. USS Constitution Museum. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "Interview: HMS Victory's Commanding Officer, Lt Cdr John Scivier". Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "Diving into History: Min of the Desert". Archaeology. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "How Hatshepsut Helped Build The Good Ship Min. Min of the Desert takes to the sea". Zenobia: Empress of the East. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "Min of the Desert". ferrebeekeeper. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "Uluburun II Project". 360° Arastirma Grubu. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Starting from Odessa (Ukraine) in 1989, Ivlia followed the routes of the ancient mariners on the Black Sea and the Mediterranean as well as the Atlantic, covering more than 3.000 nautical miles in six expedition seasons and visiting over 50 European ports, finally sailing up the river Seine to reach Paris.
- "The ship Kybele is ready for travel". Turkish Maritime. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "A Journey into History: İzmir-Phokaia-Marseille". Narkive. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "Historical ship returns to Turkey". Hurriet Daily News. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "A historic deja vu: Phokaians taking civilization to Marseille". Hürriyet. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "Kybele, andar per mare come gli antichi greci". La Republicca. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- "Build the Lenox". www.councilmeetings.lewisham.gov.uk. Lewisham Borough Council. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "The Lenox Project: a lasting legacy for Deptford". www.buildthelenox.org. The Lenox Project. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Construirán réplicas navegables de la goleta Ancud y del bergantín Beagle" (in Spanish). La Prensa Austral. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "Jeanie Johnston Update". Dublin Docklands Development Authority. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- "The Guild of the Hjortspring Boat". Archived from the original on 1997-04-08.
- "Chinese firm Seven Star to build full-size Titanic replica and sink it". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "State-run shipbuilder begins assembling parts for full-scale Titanic replica - Global Times". globaltimes.cn. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "Titanic II or Titanic III". The Maritime Executive. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- Williams, Sophie (2017-04-13). "Raising the Titanic: Full-size replica of doomed ship takes shape at Chinese theme park (but owner scraps plans to introduce the 'iceberg experience' amid outcry)". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
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