Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Shipibo has three attested dialects:
- Shipibo and Konibo (Conibo), which have merged
- Kapanawa of the Tapiche River, which is obsolescent
Extinct Xipináwa (Shipinawa) is thought to have been a dialect as well, but there is no linguistic data.
|Close||ɯ̟ ɯ̟̃ u|
|Near-close||i̞ ĩ̞ i|
|Mid||e ẽ||o̽ o̽̃ o|
|Near-open vowel||ɐ ɐ̃ a|
- /i̞/ is near-close front unrounded.
- /ɯ̟/ is close near-back unrounded.
- Before coronal consonants (especially /n, t, s/) it can be realized as close central unrounded [ɨ].
- /o̽/ is mid near-back unrounded.
- /i̞, ɯ̟, o̽/ tend to be more central in closed syllables.
- /ɐ/ is near-open central unrounded.
- In connected speech, two adjacent vowels may be realized as a rising diphthong.
- The oral vowels /ɯ̟, i̞, o̽, e, ɐ/ are phonetically nasalized [ɯ̟̃, ĩ̞, o̽̃, ẽ, ɐ̃] after a nasal consonant, but the phonological behaviour of these allophones is different from the nasal vowel phonemes /ɯ̟̃, ĩ̞, o̽̃, ẽ, ɐ̃/.
- Oral vowels in syllables preceding syllables with nasal vowels are realized as nasal, but not when a consonant other than /w, j/ intervenes.
- The second one of the two adjacent unstressed vowels is often deleted.
- Unstressed vowels may be devoiced or even elided between two voiceless obstruents.
|Plosive||voiceless||p||t||k c/qu||ʔ h|
|Affricate||voiceless||ts ts||tʃ ch|
|Fricative||voiceless||s s||ʂ s̈h||ʃ sh||h j|
|Approximant||w hu||ɻ r||j y|
- /m, p, β/ are bilabial, whereas /w/ is labialized velar.
- /β/ is most typically a fricative [β], but other realizations (such as an approximant [β̞], a stop [b] and an affricate [bβ]) also appear. The stop realization is most likely to appear in word-initial stressed syllables, whereas the approximant realization appears most often as onsets to non-initial unstressed syllables.
- /n, ts, s/ are alveolar [n, ts, s], whereas /t/ is dental [t̪].
- The /ʂ–ʃ/ distinction can be described as an apical–laminal one.
- /tʃ, ʃ/ are palato-alveolar, whereas /j/ is palatal.
- Before nasal vowels, /w, j/ are nasalized [w̃, j̃] and may be even realized close to nasal stops [ŋʷ, ɲ].
- /w/ is realized as [w] before /a, ã/, as [ɥ] before /i, ĩ/ and as [ɰ] before /ɯ, ɯ̃/. It does not occur before /o, õ/.
- /ɻ/ is a very variable sound:
- Intervocalically, it is realized either as an approximant [ɻ], or sometimes as a (weak) fricative [ʐ].
- Sometimes (especially in the beginning of a stressed syllable) it can be realized as a postalveolar affricate [d̠͡z̠], or a stop-appproximant sequence [d̠ɹ̠].
- It can also be realized as a postalveolar flap [ɾ̠].
- Shipibo-Conibo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Tapiche Capanahua at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Shipibo-Konibo–Kapanawa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Fleck (2013), p. 18. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFFleck2013 (help)
- Fleck (2013), p. 14. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFFleck2013 (help)
- Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 282.
- Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 283.
- Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 281.
- Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
- Elias-Ulloa, Jose (2000). El Acento en Shipibo (Stress in Shipibo). Thesis. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima - Peru.
- Elias-Ulloa, Jose (2005). Theoretical Aspects of Panoan Metrical Phonology: Disyllabic Footing and Contextual Syllable Weight. Ph. D. Dissertation. Rutgers University. ROA 804 .
- Fleck, David W. (10 October 2013). Panoan Languages and Linguistics (PDF). Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (no. 99). ISSN 0065-9452.
- Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
- Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
- Loriot, James and Barbara E. Hollenbach. 1970. "Shipibo paragraph structure." Foundations of Language 6: 43-66. (This was the seminal Discourse Analysis paper taught at SIL in 1956-7.)
- Loriot, James, Erwin Lauriault, and Dwight Day, compilers. 1993. Diccionario shipibo - castellano. Serie Lingüística Peruana, 31. Lima: Ministerio de Educación and Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. 554 p. (Spanish zip-file available online http://www.sil.org/americas/peru/show_work.asp?id=928474530143&Lang=eng) This has a complete grammar published in English by SIL only available through SIL.
- Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
|Shipibo test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shipibo-Conibo.|