Shipping, initially derived from the word relationship, is the desire by fans for two people, either real-life celebrities or fictional characters, to be in a relationship, romantic or otherwise. It is considered a general term for fans' emotional involvement with the ongoing development of a relationship in a work of fiction. Shipping often takes the form of creative works, including fan fiction and fan art, most often published on the internet.
Shipping can involve virtually any kind of relationship: from the well-known and established, to the ambiguous or those undergoing development, and even to the highly improbable or blatantly impossible. Though "shipping" usually refers to romantic relationships, it can also refer to simple friendships; this subset is sometimes known as "friendshipping", or a "BrOTP" (a portmanteau of the terms bromance and one true pairing). Shipping in fan fiction between a same-sex couple is also known as slash fiction, an older term and concept that dates to the late 1970s.
In anime/manga communities, shipping is more commonly referred to as pairing(s); in Filipino pop culture, it is frequently called loveteam(s). In East Asian contexts, the practice is also referred to as coupling or CP.
||This section possibly contains original research. (June 2015)|
The activity of fans creating relationships for fictional characters far predates the term. Though the word "ship" evolved from "relationship", where and when it was first used to indicate involvement with fictional relationships is unclear. The first "ship" that became widely popular and accepted was the characters Kirk and Spock from the television show Star Trek. This began in the mid 1960s, and was often referred to as K/S. This is why relationships between two men are now often referred to as "slash".
The actual term "shipping" was originated in the mid-1990s by internet fans of the TV show The X-Files, who believed the two main characters, Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, should be or were engaged in a romantic relationship.[unreliable source?] They called themselves "relationshippers," at first; then R'shipper, 'shipper, and finally just shipper.
The oldest uses of the nouns ship and shipper, as recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary, date back to 1996 postings on the Usenet group alt.tv.x-files; shipping is first attested slightly later, in 1997. Its earliest attestation of the verb to ship, on the other hand, comes from 2005, from the printed version of the Urban Dictionary.
Notation and terminology
"Ship" and its derivatives in this context have since come to be in wide and versatile use. "Shipping" refers to the phenomenon; a "ship" is the concept of a fictional couple; to "ship" a couple means to have an affinity for it in one way or another; a "shipper" is somebody significantly involved with such an affinity, and so forth.
There are a wide number of terms used among fans who practice shipping. In addition to popular terms used among shippers in general, there are other terms that only specific fandoms use, such as giving special names to the ships in question. For example, a "Sailed Ship" is a pairing that has been established as canonically true. Another common term is an "OTP", an abbreviation of "One True Pairing". To deem a ship OTP, one is declaring their deep emotional investment in it. On occasion, though, a person may not be able to decide on an OTP in a single fandom. This is when the uncommon term "TTP" is used. It simply stands for Two True Pairings.
Various naming conventions have developed in different online communities to refer to prospective couples, likely due to the ambiguity and cumbersomeness of the "Character 1 and Character 2" format. The most widespread appears to be putting the slash character (/) between the two names ("Character1/Character2"). Other methods of identifying relationships between characters often create hybrid terms such as portmanteaus and clipped compounds to abbreviate character pairings. For example, NaruHina forms a clipped compound, abbreviated from the complete names Naruto and Hinata. Another form of hybrid naming is to place an exclamation point (!) between the two names being compounded (i.e.: Naru!Hina). These combinations often follow systematic phonological principles.
Many fandom-specific variants exist and often use fandom-specific terminology. These often employ words that describe the relationship between characters in the context of the fictional universe and simply add the word "Shipping" to the end. For example, MartyrShipping refers to the relationship between Ivypool and Hollyleaf from the Warriors series, because both suffered a great deal for their beliefs. Other terminology is more vague, consisting of codes for the character names. For example, according to Japanese wordplay, Takeshi Yamamoto can be represented by the number 80 and Hayato Gokudera by the number 59, thus the Reborn! pairing is referred to as "8059".
Slash and non-conventional relationships
Within shipping, homosexual pairings are popular; they are known as "slash and femslash", or by borrowed Japanese terms, yaoi for male homosexuality and yuri for female homosexuality. A person who supports homosexual pairings and reads or writes slash fiction may be referred to as a "slasher".
The term "slash" predates the use of "shipping" by at least some 20 years. It was originally coined as a term to describe a pairing of Kirk and Spock of Star Trek, Kirk/Spock (or "K/S"; sometimes spoken "Kirk-slash-Spock", whence "Slash") homosexual fan fiction. For a time in the late 1970s and early 1980s, "K/S" was used to describe such fan fiction, regardless of whether or not they were related to Star Trek, and eventually "slash" became a universal term to describe all homosexual themed fan works.
Parallel to this development, the term "Slash" was also being used in some fandoms to denote fan fiction or other fan works depicting sexual acts with an implied rating of NC-17, whether homosexual or heterosexual. It is likely that this is the same "Slash" term born of the Star Trek fandom, but adapted to the pornographic focus that commonly dominates fanfiction and fan works in the Kirk/Spock ship, as well as the ships of other homosexual couples, (Dean/Castiel, John/Sherlock, Merlin/Arthur, Erik/Charles, Draco/Harry, Hannibal/Will) allowing the use of the term to spread to heterosexual ships. However, this use of the term has now become largely archaic due to the standardization of terminology by large fandom sites such as fanfiction.net. "Slash" now refers only to male/male pairings. "Femmeslash" or "femslash" is for female/female pairings, and the term "smut" or, in anime, "lemon" now refers to pornographic content.
Shipping may defy social standards and taboos. Some online groups support ships which constitute incest or bestiality. Characters of any age, even adults and children, may be paired together in romantic fan fiction. Such pairings are often controversial, however.
Another example of non-conventional shipping is in the Homestuck fandom. Homestuck introduced three new shipping categories, out of a total of four in troll culture, which are all considered to be romantic. This broadens the shipping landscape to include shorthand words and symbols that describe relationships such as a deep-rooted rivalry (Kismesissitude or hatelove); a deep, very powerful platonic friendship (Moirallegiance); or the three-person relationship created between a peer mediator and those whose relationship, regardless of being based in red or black feelings, would be detrimental (Auspisticism). The fourth one is matespritship, which is the usual romantic relationship.[further explanation needed]
Daria fandom was marked through its entire run by shipper debate. From the series' first season, the main conflict was over whether the title character, Daria Morgendorffer, should have a relationship with Trent Lane, a slacker rock-band frontman, whom Daria met through his sister, Jane. A common argument against this possible outcome was that such a development would signal a turn away from the more subversive aspects of Daria's character, and thus the show.
The show's writers responded by having Daria develop a crush on Trent. Trent, however, remained involved with his off-and-on girlfriend Monique, who immediately became a target of shipper ire. The crush ended in the third season's finale, "Jane's Addition", when Daria realized that Trent could never satisfy her in the long run.
That same episode introduced Tom Sloane, a charming and intellectual son of privilege. Although Tom became Jane's boyfriend, threatening Daria and Jane's friendship in the process, Daria and Tom warmed up to each other throughout the fourth season, leading up to its finale, "Dye! Dye! My Darling," broadcast August 2, 2000. With Jane and Tom's relationship in crisis, a heated argument between Daria and Tom led up to a kiss in Tom's car. In the TV movie Is it Fall Yet?, Daria decided to begin a relationship with Tom, and Daria and Jane patched up their friendship.
This caused an instant uproar, and conversation now turned to whether Tom was more appropriate than Trent had been. The debate was satirized by the show's writers in a piece on MTV's website.
In interviews done after the series' run, series co-creator Glenn Eichler revealed that "any viewer who really thought that Daria and Trent could (have) a relationship was just not watching the show we were making," Tom came about because "going into our fourth year... I thought it was really pushing credibility for Daria to have only had one or two dates during her whole high school career," and "teaser" episodes like "Pierce Me" were "intended to provide some fun for that portion of the audience that was so invested in the romance angle. The fact that those moments were few and far between should have given some indication that the series was not about Daria's love life."
Harry Potter fandom
The Harry Potter series' most contentious ship debates came from supporters of the prospective relationship between Harry Potter and his close female friend Hermione Granger, and supporters of Hermione ending up instead with Ron Weasley, close friend of both. Author J.K. Rowling appeared to try to tamp down the possibility, stating at one point that Harry and Hermione "are very platonic friends".
Another alternative was of Harry ending up with Ginny Weasley, Ron's younger sister, whose obvious crush on him served as a comical plot-line starting in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Hermione informs Harry that Ginny has "given up" on him. In the subsequent Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, however, Harry develops a crush on Ginny, convinced that he has missed his opportunity with her. In the end Ginny turns out to never have given up on Harry after all, but merely taken Hermione's advice to try to date other boys to boost her self-confidence. Though their romantic relationship becomes one of the few sources of comfort in Harry's difficult life, he makes a decision to end it for fear that Voldemort would learn of it and target Ginny. Rowling later commented that she had planned Ginny as Harry's "ideal girl" from the very beginning.
An interview with J.K. Rowling conducted by fansite webmasters Emerson Spartz (MuggleNet) and Melissa Anelli (The Leaky Cauldron) shortly after the release of Half-Blood Prince caused significant controversy within the fandom. In the interview, Spartz stated that Harry/Hermione fans were delusional, to which Rowling responded that they were "still valued members of her readership", but that there had been "anvil-sized hints" for future Ron/Hermione and Harry/Ginny relationships, and that Harry/Hermione shippers needed to re-read the books. This incident resulted in an uproar among Harry/Hermione shippers, some of whom announced that they would return their copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and boycott future Harry Potter books, leveling criticism at Spartz, Anelli, and Rowling herself. Many of them complained that both sites had a Ron/Hermione bias and criticized Rowling for not including a representative of their community. The uproar was the subject of an article in the San Francisco Chronicle.
Rowling's attitude towards the shipping phenomenon has varied between amused and bewildered to frustrated. In that same interview, she stated:
|“||Well, you see, I'm a relative newcomer to the world of shipping, because for a long time, I didn't go on the net and look up Harry Potter. A long time. Occasionally I had to, because there were weird news stories or something that I would have to go and check, because I was supposed to have said something I hadn’t said. I had never gone and looked at fan sites, and then one day I did and oh – my – god. Five hours later or something, I get up from the computer shaking slightly [all laugh]. ‘What is going on?’ And it was during that first mammoth session that I met the shippers, and it was a most extraordinary thing. I had no idea there was this huge underworld seething beneath me.||”|
The release of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in July 2007 saw an epilogue, nineteen years after the events at the focus of the series, where Harry and Ginny are married and have three kids, Lily Luna, James Sirius, and Albus Severus, and Ron and Hermione are also married and have two, Rose and Hugo. This has been received negatively by some fans, especially those who ship non-canon pairings. A result has been the "EWE" tag added to the summaries of fan-fiction, meaning "Epilogue, What Epilogue?".
Harry/Hermione shippers were somewhat vindicated in an interview with Rowling in February 2014 in Wonderland Magazine in which she stated that she thought that realistically "in some ways Harry and Hermione are a better fit [in comparison to Ron and Hermione]" and that Hermione and Ron had "too much fundamental incompatibility." She stated that Hermione and Ron were written together "as a form of wish fulfillment" as way to reconcile a relationship she herself was once in. She went on to say that perhaps with marriage counseling Ron and Hermione would have been all right. She also went on to say in a talk at Exeter University that Harry's love for Ginny is true, thereby denying anything between Harry and Hermione. In spite of that, the ship debates still continue.
Xena: Warrior Princess fandom
Shortly after the series' debut, fans started discussing the possibility of a relationship between Xena and her sidekick and best friend Gabrielle. Toward the end of the first season, the show's producers began to play to this perception by deliberately inserting usually humorous lesbian innuendo into some episodes. The show acquired a cult following in the lesbian community. However, Xena had a number of male love interests as well, and from the first season she had an adversarial but sexually charged dynamic with Ares, the God of War, who frequently tried to win her over as his "Warrior Queen." Gabrielle herself had once had a male husband, and his death deeply affected her.
According to journalist Cathy Young, the quarrel between online fans of the show about whether there should be a relationship between Xena and Gabrielle had a sociopolitical angle, in which some on the anti-relationship side were "undoubtedly driven by bona fide bigotry", while some on the pro-relationship side were lesbians who "approached the argument as a real-life gay rights struggle" in which "denying a sexual relationship between Xena and Gabrielle was tantamount to denying the reality of their own lives". She added:
|“||In a way, knowing that the staff paid attention to fan opinions may have made matters worse: There was an incentive for the rival groups to out-shout one another to make themselves heard. Many fans who had no appetite for these wars fled the online fandom. Storylines that were seen as betraying the subtext, particularly the Xena-Ares relationship in the fifth season, were met with intense hostility from a small but vocal group; at other times, non-subtext fans grumbled about what they saw as pandering to the pro-subtext fan base (such as several sixth-season episodes emphasizing Xena and Gabrielle's transcendent bond as soul mates).||”|
In 2000, during the airing of the fifth season, the intensity and sometimes nastiness of the "shipping wars" in the Xena fandom was chronicled (from a non-subtexter's point of view) by Australian artist Nancy Lorenz in an article titled "The Discrimination in the Xenaverse" in the online Xena fan magazine Whoosh!, and also in numerous letters in response.
The wars did not abate after the series came to an end in 2001. With no new material from the show itself, the debates were further fueled by various statements from the cast and crew. In January 2003, Lucy Lawless, the show's star, told Lesbian News magazine that after watching the series finale (in which Gabrielle revived Xena with a mouth-to-mouth water transfer filmed to look like a full kiss) she had come to believe that Xena and Gabrielle's relationship was "definitely gay." However, in the interviews and commentaries on the DVD sets released in 2003–2005, the actors, writers and producers continued to stress the ambiguity of the relationship, and in several interviews both Lawless and Renee O'Connor, who played Gabrielle, spoke of Ares as a principal love interest for Xena. In the interview for the Season 6 episode "Coming Home", O'Connor commented, "If there was ever going to be one man in Xena's life, it would be Ares."
In March 2005, one-time Xena screenwriter Katherine Fugate, an outspoken supporter of the Xena/Gabrielle pairing, posted a statement on her website appealing for tolerance in the fandom:
|“||The show existed as it did, when it did. And it enabled many to be empowered on many levels, for many walks of life. So if one definition doesn't work for you, then discard it. If it does, hold it gently. But please, allow everyone the grace to take what they need from the show and make it theirs. Let them have what moved them – be it that Xena was in love with Gabrielle or Xena was in love with Ares. Please stop the arguing and name-calling and need to be right, because in the end, the show worked, it healed, it changed lives, it created new friendships, new loves and new thought, and it was bloody fantastic. And that's what matters. That it simply lived.||”|
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- DiGirolamo, Cara M. (2012). "The Fandom Pairing Name: Blends and the Phonology Orthography Interface". Names: A Journal of Onomastics (American Name Society): 231–243.
- "Fanfic: is it right to write?" from The Age
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- "1999: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". Accio-quote.org. 1999-10-20. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- "If you’re an obsessed Harry Potter fan, Voldemort isn’t the problem. It’s Hermione versus Ginny.". San Francisco Chronicle. August 3, 2005. Retrieved December 19, 2010.
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- Young, Cathy (September 1, 2005). "What we owe Xena". Salon.
- TV Tropes wiki article on Shipping
- The Shipper's Manifesto – A LiveJournal community that documents multi-fandom shipping essays.
- A Call to End The Shipping Wars – An essay on Mugglenet.
- "Creating a Pocket Universe: 'Shippers', fan fiction and The X-Files online", essay by Christine Scodari and Jenna L. Felder on the "shipper" debate within The X-Files community during the 1990s and how fans' reading of the show differs from that of the creators