Cultural Capital of Iran
City of poets
City of gardens
City of flowers and nightingale
|• Type||City Council|
|• Mayor||Heydar Eskandarpour|
|• City||240 km2 (86.487 sq mi)|
|• Land||240 km2 (86.487 sq mi)|
|• Water||0 km2 (0 sq mi) 0%|
|Elevation||1,500 m (5,200 ft)|
|• Density||6,670/km2 (18,600/sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,565,572 |
|• Population Rank in Iran||5th|
|Time zone||UTC+3:30 (IRST)|
|Routes|| Road 65|
Shiraz (// (listen); Persian: شیراز, Šīrāz, [ʃiːˈrɒːz] (listen)) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars). At the 2016 census, the population of the city was 1,869,001 and its built-up area with "Shahr-e Jadid-e Sadra" (Sadra New Town) was home to 1,565,572 inhabitants. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the "Rudkhaneye Khoshk" (The Dry River) seasonal river. It has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. Shiraz is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia.
The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. The modern city was founded or restored by the Umayyads in 693 and grew prominent under the successive Iranian Saffarid and Buyid dynasties in the 9th and 10th–11th centuries, respectively. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. It was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800. Two famous poets of Iran, Hafez and Saadi, are from Shiraz, whose tombs are on the north side of the current city boundaries.
Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature, wine (despite Iran being an Islamic republic since 1979), and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city, for example Eram Garden. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes. In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant. Recently the city's first wind turbine has been installed above Babakuhi mountain near the city.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demography
- 7 Culture
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Neighborhoods
- 10 Higher education
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Sports
- 13 Famous people
- 14 Twin towns – sister cities
- 15 Panoramic view
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 Bibliography
- 19 External links
The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BCE, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city. The tablets written in ancient Elamite name a city called Tiraziš. Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiračis/ or /ćiračis/. This name became Old Persian /širājiš/; through regular sound change comes the modern Persian name Shirāz. The name Shiraz also appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd-century CE Sassanid ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras, the third Shāh (King) of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma.
Though there is no definitive record of its existence prior to the late 7th century CE, few archaeological finds dating from 1933 and beyond indicate that the site or vicinity of Shiraz was likely settled in the pre-Islamic era as early as the 6th century BCE. A number of Sasanian-era remains have been discovered around the city, including reliefs at Barm-e Delak to the east and Guyim to the northwest, and ruins of Sasanian fortresses at Qasr-e Abu Nasr to the east and Fahandezh. The latter is identified with the fortress of Shahmobad mentioned as being in Shiraz by the 10th-century geographical work, Hudud al-'alam. The names "Tirrazish" and "Shirrazish" were found on Elamite tablets in Persepolis, while Sasanian and early Islamic-era clay seals found at Qasr-e-Abu Nasr mention the name "Shiraz" alongside the name of the Sasanian administrative district of the area, Ardashir-Khwarrah. According to the diplomat and academic John Limbert, this indicates that the name "Shiraz" is traced back to the Elamite "Shirrazish" and that both refer to a settlement that existed at the site of Qasr-e-Abu Nasr. This settlement prospered between the 6th and 8th-centuries CE and was possibly the administrative center for the Shiraz plain until the modern city of Shiraz was founded. Nonetheless, the lack of references to Shiraz in early Persian sources suggests the city could not have been more than a way-station in the plain in which it lays.
Early Islamic era
The present city of Shiraz was founded or restored in 693 by Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the brother of the Umayyad viceroy of the eastern half of the caliphate, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, or the latter's kinsman Muhammad ibn Qasim. The Arab Muslim army had conquered the wider region of Fars, where the site of Shiraz is located, in several expeditions launched from their garrison town of Basra between 640 and 653, and specifically captured the immediate area around Shiraz early on, in 641. This area did not possess any cities, though there were a number of forts which were forced to pay tribute to the Arabs. The Sasanians held firm in Istakhr, their capital in Fars, until the Arabs captured it in a heavy battle in 653, during which the plain of Shiraz had been utilized as an Arab campground. Because of Istakhr's deep association with the Sasanian Empire and the Zoroastrian religion, the Arabs sought to establish in nearby Shiraz a rival cultural and administrative center. Thus, during its initial founding in 693, the city was planned to be much larger than Isfahan. However, the initial ambitions were not realized and Shiraz remained a "provincial backwater" in the shadow of Istakhr until at least the late 9th century, according to Limbert. This is partly attributed to the reticence of the largely Zoroastrian population of Fars to inhabit the Islamic Arab city. As the population gradually shifted to Islam from Zoroastrianism and Istakhr concurrently declined, Shiraz grew into the practical center of Fars.
According to Muslim traditional sources, Shiraz was used as a hideout by three of the brothers of the Shia Muslim imam Ali al-Ridha following the latter's death in 817/18 and later by one of the brothers' sons, Ali ibn Hamza ibn Musa, until he was found and executed by the Abbasid authorities in circa 835. As Abbasid authority waned during this period, regional dynasties emerged with considerable autonomy. In the late 9th century, the Iranian Muslim Saffarid dynasty under Ya'qub ibn al-Layth made Shiraz the capital of their autonomous state, which encompassed most of modern-day Iran. In 894, Ya'qub's brother and successor, Amr, founded the city's first congregational mosque, today known as the Atigh Jame' Mosque.
The Iranian Buyid dynasty under Imad al-Dawla Ali ibn Buya ousted the Saffarids in 933 and his nephew and successor, 'Adud al-Dawla Fana Khusraw, took over and ruled Fars between 949 and 983, and added Iraq, the seat of the Abbasid Caliphate, to his Shiraz-based domains in 977; the Abbasids thenceforth became a puppet state of the Shiraz-based dynasty. Shiraz developed into the largest and most prosperous city of Fars and an important economic and cultural center of the caliphate. Adud al-Dawla had a large library, a hospital and several mosques, bazaars, caravanserais, palaces and gardens built in the city, while south of it he erected a fortified camp for his troops, known as Kard Fana Khusraw, in 974. One of the congregational mosques built by Adud al-Dawla has survived until the present day. Two Zoroastrian fire temples also existed in Shiraz, catering to the Persians who had not converted to Islam. One of Adud al-Dawla's palaces stretched out for nearly three miles and consisted of 360 rooms.
Under the Buyids, Shiraz was divided into twelve quarters and had eight gates. It owed its economic prosperity to the booming agricultural trade of Fars. The city largely consumed the agricultural products of the province, including grapes, linen, wool, cotton, collyrium, rose, violet and palm-blossom water. It was also a market for rug weavers and painters to sell their pricey products, a testament to the residents' wealth. At the time, wine, grains, gold and silver were exported from the Farsi port cities of Siraf and Najairam. Adud al-Dawla patronized scientific, medical and Islamic religious research in Shiraz.
The city was spared destruction by the invading Mongols, when its local ruler offered tributes and submission to Genghis Khan. Shiraz was again spared by Tamerlane, when in 1382 the local monarch, Shah Shoja agreed to submit to the invader. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. For this reason the city was named by classical geographers Dar al-‘Elm, the House of Knowledge. Among the Iranian poets, mystics and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di and Hafiz, the mystic Ruzbehan, and the philosopher Mulla Sadra. Thus Shiraz has been nicknamed "The Athens of Iran". As early as the 11th century, several hundred thousand people inhabited Shiraz. In the 14th century Shiraz had sixty thousand inhabitants. During the 16th century it had a population of 200,000 people, which by the mid-18th century had decreased to only 55,000.
In 1504, Shiraz was captured by the forces of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Throughout the Safavid empire (1501–1722) Shiraz remained a provincial capital and Emam Qoli Khan, the governor of Fars under Shah Abbas I, constructed many palaces and ornate buildings in the same style as those built during the same period in Isfahan, the capital of the Empire. After the fall of the Safavids, Shiraz suffered a period of decline, worsened by the raids of the Afghans and the rebellion of its governor against Nader Shah; the latter sent troops to suppress the revolt. The city was besieged for many months and eventually sacked. At the time of Nader Shah's murder in 1747, most of the historical buildings of the city were damaged or ruined, and its population fell to 50,000, one-quarter of that during the 16th century.
Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the rule of Karim Khan Zand, who made it his capital in 1762. Employing more than 12,000 workers, he constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the finest covered bazaars in Iran. He had a moat built around the city, constructed an irrigation and drainage system, and rebuilt the city walls. However, Karim Khan's heirs failed to secure his gains. When Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, eventually came to power, he wreaked his revenge on Shiraz by destroying the city's fortifications and moving the national capital to Tehran. Although lowered to the rank of a provincial capital, Shiraz maintained a level of prosperity as a result of the continuing importance of the trade route to the Persian Gulf. Its governorship was a royal prerogative throughout the Qajar dynasty. Many of the famous gardens, buildings and residences built during this time contribute to the city's present skyline.
Shiraz is the birthplace of the co-founder of the Bahá'í Faith, the Báb (Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad, 1819–1850). In this city, on the evening of 22 May 1844, he first declared his mission as the bearer of a new divine revelation. For this reason Shiraz is a holy city for Bahá’ís, and the city, particularly the house of the Báb, was identified as a place of pilgrimage. Due to the hostile climate towards Baha'is in Iran, the house has been the target of repeated attacks; the house was destroyed in 1979, to be paved over two years later and made into a public square.
In 1910, a pogrom of the Jewish quarter started after false rumours that the Jews had ritually murdered a Muslim girl. In the course of the riots, 12 Jews were murdered and about 50 were injured, and the 6,000 Jews of Shiraz were robbed of all their possessions.
During Pahlavi dynasty Shiraz has become center of attention again. Many important landmarks like Tombs of Poets' such as Sa'di and Hafiz, has been constructed and presented to public. Also the ruins of the Achaemenid palace and city of Persepolis were re-discovered by the order of the Shah, excavated, and made into a major tourist attraction.
Lacking any great industrial, religious or strategic importance, Shiraz became an administrative center, although its population has nevertheless grown considerably since the 1979 revolution.
The city's municipality and other related institutions have initiated restoration and reconstruction projects.
Some of the most recent projects have been the complete restoration of the Arg of Karim Khan and of the Vakil Bath, as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. Other noteworthy initiatives include the total renovation of the Qur'an Gate and the mausoleum of the poet Khwaju Kermani, both located in the Allah-u-Akbar Gorge, as well as the restoration and expansion of the mausoleum of the famous Shiraz-born poets Hafiz and Saadi.
After the Iranian Revolution, Shiraz was re-established as the capital of Iranian Art and Culture among the people. Shiraz is known[by whom?] as the capital of Persian Art, Culture and Literature. However, the current government has tried to re-brand the city as "Sevomin haram-e ahle beit" meaning "Third home of Saints" referring to the Shahcheragh shrine and some other holy places in the city.
Shiraz is located in the south of Iran and the northwest of Kerman Province. It is built in a green plain at the foot of the Zagros Mountains 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level. Shiraz is 800 kilometres (500 mi) south of Tehran.
Gardens and Clean Shiraz
During the Zand dynasty when Shiraz was the capital of Iran, it was a small village limited around the Arg of Karim Khan and naturally there were several villages near it. The north part of old Shiraz (now Qasr al-dasht and Chamran) was completely covered with gardens and green trees that still remain. A number of municipal laws prohibit construction in any of the garden areas. In another view, these gardens are the city's lungs and help to clean the dust, and haze or carbon dioxide that cars produce, by photosynthesis. On the other hand, we see Shiraz as being more likely to have clean air in Iran; this is when it is compared to big cities such as Tehran or Isfahan, and the reason behind it may lie in Shiraz's many gardens.
Shiraz’s climate has distinct seasons, and is overall classed as a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh), though it is only a little short of a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). Summers are hot, with a July average high of 38.8 °C (101.8 °F). Winters are cool, with average low temperatures below freezing in December and January. Around 300 mm (12 in) of rain falls each year, almost entirely in the winter months, though in some cases as much as this has fallen in a single month (as in January 1965 and December 2004), whilst in the year from July 1965 to June 1966 as little as 82.9 millimetres (3.3 in) fell. The wettest year has been 1955/1956 with as much as 857.2 millimetres (33.75 in), though since 1959 the highest has been around 590 millimetres (23.2 in) in each of 1995/1996 and 2004/2005.
Shiraz contains a considerable number of gardens. Due to population growth in the city, many of these gardens may be lost to give way to new developments. Although some measures have been taken by the Municipality to preserve these gardens, many illegal developments still endanger them.
|Climate data for Shiraz (1961–1990, extremes 1951–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.4
|Average high °C (°F)||12.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||79.8
|Average rainy days||8.7||7.9||7.9||6.4||2.1||0.2||0.8||0.4||0.1||1.2||3.7||7.2||46.6|
|Average snowy days||1.5||0.6||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.6||2.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||65||58||51||46||32||22||24||24||26||34||48||61||41|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||217.0||218.5||236.2||247.7||324.1||357.8||344.6||329.7||318.0||297.7||238.3||216.2||3,345.8|
|Source #1: NOAA|
|Source #2: Iran Meteorological Organization (records)|
Shiraz is the economic center of southern Iran. The second half of the 19th century witnessed certain economic developments that greatly changed the economy of Shiraz. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the extensive import into southern Iran of inexpensive European factory-made goods, either directly from Europe or via India. Farmers in unprecedented numbers began planting cash crops such as opium poppy, tobacco, and cotton. Many of these export crops passed through Shiraz on their way to the Persian Gulf. Iranian long-distance merchants from Fars developed marketing networks for these commodities, establishing trading houses in Bombay, Calcutta, Port Said, Istanbul and even Hong Kong.
Shiraz's economic base is in its provincial products, which include grapes, citrus fruits, cotton and rice. Industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries. 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Shiraz. This is partially due to a relative abundance of water compared to the surrounding deserts. Shirāz is famous for its carpet production and flowers as well. Viticulture has a long history in the region, and Shirazi wine used to be produced here. Shiraz is also an Iranian center for IT, communication, electronic industry, and transportation.
The Vakil Bazaar, one of the oldest bazaars in the world, is located in the old city centre of Shiraz. Featuring courtyards, caravansarais, and bath houses, its shops sell different types of spices, Persian rugs, copper handicrafts and antiques.
As of 2011[update], Shiraz has a population of 1,700,665 the majority of whom are Persian. Most of the population of Shiraz are Muslims. Shiraz also was home to a 20,000-strong Jewish community, although most emigrated to the United States and Israel in the latter half of the 20th century. Along with Tehran and Esfahan, Shiraz is one of the handful of Iranian cities with a sizable Jewish population, and more than one active synagogue. Though officially Muslims, many Shirazis privately practice Zoroastrianism or at least hold it in high regard.
Shiraz also has a significant Baha'i population, the largest in the country after Tehran.
Shiraz is known as the city of poets, gardens, wine, nightingales and flowers. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; carpet-weaving, and the making of the rugs called gilim (Shiraz Kilim) and "jajim" in the villages and among the tribes.
The garden is an important part of Iranian culture. There are many old gardens in Shiraz such as the Eram garden and the Afif abad garden. According to some people,[who?] Shiraz "disputes with Xeres [or Jerez] in Spain the honour of being the birthplace of sherry." Shirazi wine originates from the city; however, under the current Islamic regime, liquor cannot be consumed except by religious minorities.
Shiraz is proud of being mother land of Hafiz Shirazi, Shiraz is a center for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Saadi, a 12th- and 13th-century poet was born in Shiraz. He left his native town at a young age for Baghdad to study Arabic literature and Islamic sciences at Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad. When he reappeared in his native Shiraz he was an elderly man. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (1231–1260) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but he was highly respected by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. He seems to have spent the rest of his life in Shiraz. Hafiz, another famous poet and mystic was also born in Shiraz. A number of scientists also originate from Shiraz. Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, a 13th-century astronomer, mathematician, physician, physicist and scientist was from Shiraz. In his The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens, he also discussed the possibility of heliocentrism.
This section contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length.September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)(
Tourist attractions in Shiraz
The city is one of the key tourism sites in Iran, its cultural heritage is of global importance.
- The tombs of Hafiz, Saadi, and Khaju e Kermani (whose tomb is inside a mountain above the city's old Qur'an Gate). Other lesser known tombs are that of Shah Shoja' (the Mozafarid emir of Persia, and patron of Hafiz), and the Haft Tanan mausoleum, where seven Sufi mystics are buried. The Tomb of Baba Kuhi sits atop a mountain overlooking the city, and the tomb of Karim Khan Zand is at the Pars Museum of Shiraz.
- The oldest mosque is Atigh Jame' Mosque, which is one of the older mosques of Iran, followed by Vakil Mosque and Nasir al-Mulk mosque. The Vakil Mosque is situated west of the famous Vakil Bazaar. It covers an area of 8,660 square metres (93,200 square feet) and was built in 1187 (AH) during the Zand Dynasty. On the two sides of the entrance gate there are magnificent tile-works and arches. The left and right corridors of the entrance gate are connected to the main room.
- The citadel of Arg of Karim Khan sits adjacent to the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath at the city's central district. The most famous of houses are Zinat-ol-Moluk House and Gahavam's House, both in the old quarters of the city.
- The Qur'an Gate is the entrance to Shiraz. It is located near the gorge of Allah-o-Akbar and is flanked by the Baba Kuhi and Chehel Maqam mountains. The gateway once contained two hand-written Qur’āns by Sultan Ibrahim Bin Shahrukh Gurekani in an upper room, which have now been moved to the Pars Museum.
- The Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram) in Shiraz is a striking location for visitors with a variety of plants as well as a historic mansion. Although the exact date of the construction of the garden is not clear, historical evidence suggests it was constructed during the Seljuk Dynasty on the orders of the celebrated Seljuk monarch Sanjar. Other historical Persian gardens are Afifabad Garden and The Museum of Weapons, Delgosha Garden and Jahan Nama Garden.
Within a relatively short driving distance from Shiraz are the ruins of Persepolis, Bishapur, Pasargadae, and Firouzabad. At Naqsh-e Rustam can be found the tombs of the Achaemenid kings as well as the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, which has been thought to be either a Zoroastrian fire temple or possibly even the true tomb of Cyrus the Great. Maharloo Lake is a popular breeding ground for various bird species.
- Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BC). Persepolis is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province, Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.
- Tomb of Cyrus is the monument of Cyrus the Great approximately 1 kilometre (0.62 miles) southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae, According to Greek sources, it dates back to 559-29 B.C. The most extensive description based on a lost account by Aristobulus. who had accompanied Alexander the Great on his eastern campaign in the late 4th century B.C., is to be found in the Anabasis of Arrian (6.29). written in the 2nd century A.D.
- Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods. It lies a few hundred m from Naqsh-e Rajab, with a further group of Sassanid reliefs. Naqsh-e Rostam site contains funerary related works belonging to the Elamite (second millennium BCE), Achaemenid (550–330 BCE) and Sassanid (226–651 CE) eras. Naqsh-e Rostam is a site believed by archaeologists to have been a cemetery for Persepolis, where Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid royalty were laid to rest.
- Bishapur was an ancient city in Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. The road linked the Sassanid capitals Estakhr (very close to Persepolis) and Ctesiphon. It is located south of modern Faliyan in the Kazerun County of Pars Province, Iran. Bishapur was built near a river crossing and at the same site there is also a fort with rock-cut reservoirs and a river valley with six Sassanid rock reliefs.
- Margoon Waterfall is located in the Fars province of Iran near the city of Sepidan. Its name means in Persian "snake like".
- Shapur cave is located in the Zagros Mountains, in southern Iran, about 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) from the ancient city of Bishapur. This cave is near Kazerun in Chogan valley, which was the site of polo (Persian čōgān چُوگان), in the Sasanian period.
- Palace of Ardashir, also known as the Atash-kadeh, is a castle located on the slopes of the mountain on which Dezh Dokhtar is situated. Built in AD 224 by King Ardashir I of the Sassanian Empire, it is located two kilometres (1.2 miles) north of the ancient city of Gor, i.e. the old city of Piruz-Apad in Pars, in ancient Persia (Iran).
- Pooladkaf is a ski resort in the south of Iran. It opened in 2002. In spite of its low latitude, it receives adequate snow due to its high elevation (usually 2 metres or 6.6 feet of snow in February). The skiing season starts in December and lasts to the end of March, or in some years April.
- The Sarvestan Palace is a Sassanid-era building in the Iranian city of Sarvestan, some 90 kilometres (56 miles) southeast from the city of Shiraz. The palace was built in the 5th century AD, and was either a gubernatorial residence or a Zoroastrian fire temple.
- Qal'eh Dokhtar, is a castle made by Ardashir I, in present-day Fars, Iran, in 209 AD. It is located on a mountain slope near the Firouzabad-Kavar road.
List of neighborhoods in Shiraz:
- Farhang Shahr
- Kuye Zahra
- Ma'ali Abad
- Molla Sadra
- kolbeh saadi
- Bagh-e Nari (Narvan)
- Siahatgar BLVD
- Abiari Ave
- Artesh square (Army Square)
- Kuye Jamaran(siman)
- Baskul nader
- Sare dozak
- Sange siah
- Amir kabir Blvd
- Darvazeh kazeron
- Darvaze Isfahan
- Bagh safa
Shiraz is home to a vibrant academic community. The Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was the first university in Shiraz and was founded in 1946. Much older is the august Madrasa-e-Khan, or Khan Theological School, with about 600 students; its tile-covered buildings date from 1627.
Today Shiraz University is the largest university in the province, and one of Iran's best academic centers. Other major universities in or nearby Shiraz are the Islamic Azad University of Shiraz, Shiraz University of Technology, and Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology.
Virtual University of Shiraz is one of the sub colleges of Shiraz University.
Shiraz International Airport serves as the largest airport in the southern region of Iran. After undergoing renovation and redevelopment work in 2005, Shiraz Airport was identified as the second-most-reliable and -modern airport in Iran (after Imam Khomeini International Airport of Tehran) in terms of flight safety including electronic and navigation control systems of its flight tower.
A metro system started in Shiraz in 2001 by the Shiraz Urban Railway Organization which contains six lines. The length of the first Line are 22.4 km (13.9 mi), the length of the second line will be 8.5 km (5.3 mi) The length of the third line will be 16 km (10 mi). 21 stations were built in route one. The first three lines, when completed, will have 32 stations below ground, six above, and one special station connected to the railway station. The first line was started in October 2014 between [[Shahid Dastgheib (airport) Metro Station and Ehsan stations. A single ticket costs 10000 rials, with trains operating every 15 minutes. Line 1 is extended from the airport To Ehsan Square (northern part).
Shiraz has 71 bus lines with 50,000 buses. Iran's third Bus Rapid Transit opened in Shiraz in 2009 with two lines, and a further two planned to open in 2010. Service is free on 5 May, the day of the city.
Shiraz is connected with the rest of Iran's railway network. The trains arrive and leave from Shiraz railway station, Iran's largest railway station according to surface area. It has passenger trains, operating six days per week to Isfahan, Tehran and Mashad.
There are 700 000 cars in the city of Shiraz.
There is a tourist information on the main boulevard. It is always good to find a taxi through a reputable "telephone taxi" agency. For a set fee, drivers of these agencies will take passengers to their destination, drive them around, and wait for them while they visit sites or shops. There are also taxis driven by women that specifically cater to women passengers.
Football is the most popular sport in Shiraz and the city has many teams in this sport. The most notable of these teams is Bargh Shiraz who are one of the oldest teams in Iran, Bargh was once a regular member of the Persian Gulf Pro League; however, financial issues and poor management have led them dropping to League 3 where they currently play. Shiraz's other major football team is Fajr Sepasi who also played in the Persian Gulf Pro League; however, now they play in the second tier Azadegan League. Shiraz is host to a number of smaller and lesser known teams as well, such as Kara Shiraz, New Bargh and Qashaei who all play in League 2.
The main sporting venue in Shiraz is Hafezieh Stadium which can hold up to 20,000 people. The stadium is the venue for many of the cities football matches and has occasionally hosted the Iran national football team. Shiraz is also home to another stadium, Pars Stadium, which have been completed in 2017 and can host up to 50,000 spectators.
Rulers and political figures
- Absh Khatun, 13th-century ruler
- Karim Khan, the ruler and de facto Shah of Iran from 1760 until 1779, made Shiraz his capital
- Valerie Jarrett, senior advisor to United States President Barack Obama, born in Shiraz to African-American parents.
- Kamran Bagheri Lankarani was Iran's Minister of Health and Medical Education
- Jimmy Delshad 67th and 70th Mayor of Beverly Hills
Religious figures, philosophers and theologians
- Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi lived during the Fatimid Caliphate and was considered one of the most learned scholars of that time, known as an author of Islamic books, a poet, and scientist.
- Mulla Sadra, Islamic philosopher, theologian who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century
- Siyyid 'Alí Muḥammad Shírází, the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith
Academics and scientists
- Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, 13th-century Iranian poet and scholar
- Sibawayh, was an influential linguist and grammarian of the Arabic language
- Firouz Naderi, Scientist and currently the Director for Solar System Exploration at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
- Gholam A. Peyman inventor of LASIK
- Ali Asghar Khodadoust, Professor of Ophthalmology, originator of the Khodadoust line method
- M. Hashem Pesaran, Most famous Iranian Economist, Emeritus Professor of Economics at University of Cambridge
Poets and writers
- Saadi, poet of the medieval period
- Hafez, poet
- Nicolò Gabrielli di Quercita is the author of a melodrama entitled L'assedio di Sciraz (The siege of Shiraz, 1840), whose main character is Karim Khan
- Shahriyar Mandanipour, writer
- Simin Daneshvar, novelist and author
- Mehdi Hamidi Shirazi, contemporary poet
- Fereidoon Tavallali, contemporary poet and intellectual
- Abdolali Dastgheib, literary critic writer
- Shirazeh Houshiary, artist, born in Shiraz in 1955, lives in London
- Arsi Nami award-winning singer and songwriter
- Ebrahim Golestan, writer and filmmaker
- Tooji, singer, model and television host; represented Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 2012 in Baku, Azerbaijan.
- Bahar Pars, actress.
- Mohammad Namazi, philanthropist & founder of the Namazi hospital in Shiraz. This later became the catalyst for the establishment of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 1955; one of the country's top medical schools
- Mohammad Bahmanbeigi, activist, founding father of instructions for tribes in Iran
- Omid Norouzi, Iranian wrestler, world and Olympic champion
- Abbas Dowran Skillful phantom and fighter jet pilot who died during the Iran–Iraq War
Twin towns – sister cities
- Zand Dynasty
- Shiraz Arts Festival
- Shirazi Wine
- List of mayors of Shiraz
- Islamic City Council of Shiraz
- Shirazi salad – originated from and is named after Shiraz
- Shiraz travel guide from Wikivoyage
- "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps". citypopulation.de. 13 September 2018. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018.
- ^ After Tehran, Mashhad, Esfahan, Tabriz and Karaj; in 2015 Shiraz had a total population of 1,800,655
- "IRAN: Fars / فارس". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948:115.
- (Iran Chamber Society) "Shiraz" (php file)
- محمد جواد مطلع. "the physical features of Shiraz". Shirazcity.org. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Tore Kjeilen (26 September 2005). "Looklex Encyclopaedia". I-cias.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "ARSH Co. site". Arshksco.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Iran's first solar power plant comes on stream". tehran times. 11 January 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948, pp. 115.
- Conder, Josiah (1827). Persia and China. Printed for J. Duncan. p. 339.
- Berney and Ring, p. 644.
- Limbert, pp. 4–5.
- Limbert, p. 5.
- Limbert, pp. 5–6.
- Lambton, p. 472.
- Limbert, p. 4.
- Limbert, p. 6.
- Limbert, pp. 6–7.
- Lambton, p. 473.
- Limbert, pp. 6–8.
- Limbert, p. 9.
- "History of Shiraz". Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
- "(pdf file)" (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Persian Language & Literature: Saadi Shirazi, Sheikh Mosleh al-Din. Iran Chamber Society.
- Khorramshahi, Bahaʾ-al-Din (2002). "Hafez II: Life and Times". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- Rizvi, Sajjad (2002), Reconsidering the life of Mulla Sadra Shirazi, Pembroke College, pp. 181
- "List of the day". The Guardian. London. 3 November 2005.
- "Shiraz, Iran" Archived 26 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- John W. Limbert (2004). Shiraz in the age of Hafez: the glory of a medieval Persian city. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98391-2. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Browne, E.G. (1890). "Babism". Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion. London: Swann Sonnenschein. pp. 333–53. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Shiraz: the House of the Báb". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6.
- Littman (1979). Jews Under Muslim Rule: The Case Of Persia. pp. 12, 14.
- Clint Lucas (29 April 2011). "Shiraz History – Shiraz Travel Guide". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "شیراز ۱۴۰۰، شیراز پایتخت فرهنگی ایران | پایگاه اطلاع رسانی شیراز ۱۴۰۰". Shiraz1400.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Shiraz". Landofaryan.tripod.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Sykes, Percy (1921). A History of Persia. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 75.
- Shiraz rainfalls 1951 to 2005
- "Highest record temperature in Shiraz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Lowest record temperature in Shiraz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Shiraz Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Religious Dissidence and Urban Leadership: Baha'is in Qajar Shiraz and Tehran". Personal.umich.edu. 20 April 1968. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Tore Kjeilen (26 September 2005). "Shiraz". I-cias.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Projects – Shiraz Special Electronic Economic Zone". Arsh K S Co. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Overview". Shiraz Special Economic Electronic Zone (SEEZ). Retrieved 17 October 2013 – via freeservers.com.
- "World Free Trade Zones". Kishtpc.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Iran to open 830m Fars Shopping Centre, Construction Weekly Online
- "Iran – City Population – Cities, Towns & Provinces – Statistics & Map". Citypopulation.de. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Huggler, Justin (4 June 2000). "Jews accused of spying are pawns in Iran power struggle". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Tait, Robert (27 December 2005). "Bearing the cross". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Iranian Monuments: Historical Churches in Iran". Iranchamber.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Iranian Cities: Shiraz". Iranchamber.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Shiraz". Asemangasht.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Maclean, Fitzroy, Eastern Approaches. (1949). Reprint: The Reprint Society Ltd., London, 1951, p. 215
- A. Baker and L. Chapter (2002), "Part 4: The Sciences". In M. M. Sharif, “A History of Muslim Philosophy”, Philosophia Islamica.
- Butler, Richard; O'Gorman, Kevin D.; Prentice, Richard (1 July 2012). "Destination Appraisal for European Cultural Tourism to Iran". International Journal of Tourism Research. 14 (4): 323–338. doi:10.1002/jtr.862. ISSN 1522-1970.
- Salak, Kira. "National Geographic article about Iran". National Geographic Adventure.
- "Quran Gate (Darvazeh-e Quran)".
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2006). "Pasargadae". Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- Tomb of Cyrus the Great. Old Persian (Aryan) - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)
- "Khan Mosque and Madrasa". Archnet.org. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "iaushiraz.ac.ir". iaushiraz.ac.ir. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "shirazjju.ac.ir". shirazjju.ac.ir. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- http://www.idehshot.com/shiraz-day/ روزشیراز
- "Archived copy" (in Persian). Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "روزنامه خبر جنوب :: نیازمندیهای خبر جنوب". Khabarads.ir. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Sister Cities of Shiraz". Shiraz Municipality. 12 June 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- محمد جواد مطلع. "شهرهای خواهرخوانده". Shiraz.ir. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Twinnngs". Nicosia Municipality. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Archived copy" (in Persian). Shiraz Municipality. 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Lambton, Ann K. S. (1997). "Shīrāz". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P.; Lecomte, G. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IX: San–Sze. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 772–479. ISBN 90-04-10422-4.
- Limbert, John (2004). Shiraz in the Age of Hafez: The Glory of a Medieval Persian City. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98391-4.
- Berney, K. A.; Ring, Trudy, eds. (2013). Middle East and Africa: International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 4. Routledge. ISBN 1-884964-03-6.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Shiraz.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shiraz.|
| Capital of Iran (Persia)
| Capital of Zand dynasty
Largest cities or towns in Iran
|2||Mashhad||Razavi Khorasan||3,001,184||12||Zahedan||Sistan and Baluchestan||587,730|