Shiromani Akali Dal

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Shiromani Akali Dal
PresidentSukhbir Singh Badal
Lok Sabha leaderHarsimrat Kaur Badal
Rajya Sabha leaderNaresh Gujral
Founded14 October 1920 (99 years ago) (1920-10-14)
HeadquartersBlock #6, Madhya Marg
Sector 28, Chandigarh
NewspaperAkali Awaaz
Student wingStudent Organisation of India [1] (SOI)[2]
Youth wingYouth Akali Dal
Women's wingIstri Akali Dal[3]
Labour wingShiromani Akali Dal SC wing[4]
Peasant's wingShiromani Akali Dal BC wing[5]
IdeologyPunjabiyat[6]
Punjabi regionalism[7]
Strong Federalism[8][9]
Conservatism[10]
Political positionRight-wing
International affiliationShiromani Akali Dal NRI wing[11]
ColoursSaffron
ECI StatusState Party[12]
AllianceNational Democratic Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
2 / 545
Seats in Rajya Sabha
3 / 245
Seats in Punjab Legislative Assembly
13 / 117
Election symbol
Weighing Balance
Website
www.shiromaniakalidal.net

The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India. Although, there are many parties with the name Akali Dal but the party recognised as "Shiromani Akali Dal" by the Election Commission of India is the one led by Sukhbir Singh Badal. It controls Sikh religious bodies Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee and is the largest and most influential Sikh political party worldwide.[13] The basic philosophy of Akali Dal is to give a political voice to Sikh issues and it believes that religion and politics go hand in hand.[14] Shiromani Akali Dal is part of the BJP led NDA.

History[edit]

British India[edit]

Akali Dal was formed on 14 December 1920 as a task force of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, the Sikh religious body. The Akali Dal considers itself the principal representative of Sikhs. Sardar Sarmukh Singh Chubbal was the first president of a unified proper Akali Dal, but it became popular under Master Tara Singh.[15]

In the provincial election of 1937, the Akali Dal won 10 seats. The Khalsa Nationalists won 11 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist leader Sikander Hyat Khan. The Akalis sat in opposition and made occasional forays into reaching an understanding with the Muslim League, which never reached fruition.[16]

In the provincial election of 1946, the Akali Dal won 22 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana, along with the Indian National Congress. The Muslim League was unable to capture power, despite having won the largest number of seats, which perhaps suited it fine as it strengthened its Pakistan demand. The Muslim League launched a civil disobedience campaign, bringing down the Tiwana government by March 1947. The rest of the period till Indian independence was filled by Governor's Rule.[17]

Independent India[edit]

In the 1950s, the party launched the Punjabi Suba movement, demanding a state with majority of Punjabi speaking people, out of undivided East Punjab under the leadership of Sant Fateh Singh. In 1966, the present Punjab was formed. Akali Dal came to power in the new Punjab, but early governments didn't live long due to internal conflicts and power struggles within the party. Later, party strengthened and party governments completed full term.

Party presidents[edit]

Following is the list of presidents of the party as given on party website.

Current Members in Houses[edit]

House Current Members Leader
Union Parliament
Rajya Sabha 3 Naresh Gujral
Lok Sabha 2 Harsimrat Kaur Badal
State Legislature
Punjab Legislative Assembly 13/117 Parminder Singh Dhindsa

Punjab Chief Ministers belonging to Akali Dal[edit]

In general elections[edit]

Year General election Seats won Change in # of seats Percentage of vote Vote swing
1945 Indian general election 6th Central Legislative Assembly 2 Increase 2
1951 Indian general election 1st Lok Sabha 4 0.99%
1957 Indian general election 2nd Lok Sabha 0 Decrease4
1962 Indian general election 3rd Lok Sabha 3 Increase3 0.72%
1967 Indian general election 4th Lok Sabha 0[18][better source needed] Decrease3
1971 Indian general election 5th Lok Sabha 1 Increase1 0.87%
1977 Indian general election 6th Lok Sabha 9 Increase8 1.26%
1980 Indian general election 7th Lok Sabha 1 Decrease 8 0.71%
1984 Indian general election 8th Lok Sabha 7 Increase 7 17.9%
1989 Indian general election 9th Lok Sabha 0 Decrease7
1991 Indian general election 10th Lok Sabha 0 Steady
1996 Indian general election 11th Lok Sabha 8 Increase 8 0.76%
1998 Indian general election 12th Lok Sabha 8 Steady 0.81%
1999 Indian general election 13th Lok Sabha 10 Increase 2 25.58%
2004 Indian general election 14th Lok Sabha 8 Decrease 2 34.28%
2009 Indian general election 15th Lok Sabha 4 Decrease 4 0.96%
2014 Indian general election 16th Lok Sabha 4 Steady 20.30% Decrease 13.55%
2019 Indian general election 17th Lok Sabha 2 Decrease 2

In state elections[edit]

Punjab[edit]

Haryana[edit]

Delhi[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SOI".
  2. ^ "SOI Clash". Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  3. ^ Pioneer, The. "Istri Akali Dal protests in front of CM residence". The Pioneer. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  4. ^ "SAD's SC wing feels 'powerless' in Pathankot". The Indian Express. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  5. ^ Jerath, Arati R (14 January 2017). "SAD activists seek BC candidate". The Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  6. ^ "SAD aims to widen reach, to contest UP poll". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  7. ^ Pandher, Sarabjit (3 September 2013). "In post-Independence India, the SAD launched the Punjabi Suba morcha in the 1960s, seeking the re-organisation of Punjab on linguistic basis". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  8. ^ "Parkash Singh Badal calls for 'genuinely federal structure' for country". The Economic Times. 7 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  9. ^ Bharti, Vishav (6 August 2019). "Article 370: SAD 'dumps' its core ideology of federalism". The Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  10. ^ Grover, Verinder (1996). Encyclopaedia of India and Her States: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab, Volume 4. Deep & Deep. p. 578.
  11. ^ "SAD announces party organisation for Canada". Hindustan Times. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  12. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  13. ^ Kumar, Ashutosh (2004). "Electoral Politics in Punjab: Study of Akali Dal". Economic and Political Weekly. 39 (14/15): 1515–1520. ISSN 0012-9976.
  14. ^ Narang, Amarjit Singh (1 March 2014). "The Shiromani Akali Dal". The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199699308.013.020.
  15. ^ "Punjab Ke Dangal Mein Kiska Mangal?". NewsClick. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  16. ^ Jalal, The Sole Spokesman 1994, p. 23, 97.
  17. ^ Talbot, Pakistan: A Modern History 1998, p. 74.
  18. ^ Akali Dal – Sant Fateh Singh, a splinter group won 3 seats

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]