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Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee

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Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
Formation16 November 1920[1]
TypeManagement Organisation
HeadquartersTeja Singh Samundri Hall, Sri Harmandir Sahib Complex, Sri Amritsar
Harjinder Singh Dhami

The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (abbr. SGPC; lit. Supreme Gurdwara Management Committee) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship, in the states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the union territory of Chandigarh.[2][3] SGPC also administers Darbar Sahib in Amritsar.[4]

The SGPC is governed by the president of SGPC.[5][6] The SGPC manages the security, financial, facility maintenance and religious aspects of Gurdwaras as well as keeping archaeologically rare and sacred artifacts, including weapons, clothes, books and writings of the Sikh Gurus.[7]

Bibi Jagir Kaur became the first woman to be elected president of the SGPC for the second time in September 2004. She had held the same post from March 1999 to November 2000.[8]



In 1920 the emerging Akali leadership summoned a general assembly of the Sikhs holding all shades of opinion on 15 November 1920 in vicinity of the Akal Takht in Amritsar. The purpose of this assembly was to elect a representative committee of the Sikhs to administer the Harimandir Sahib Complex and other important historical gurdwaras. Two days before the proposed conference the British government set up its own committee consisting of 36 Sikhs to manage the Harimandir Sahib. Sikhs held their scheduled meeting and elected a bigger committee consisting of 175 members and named it Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. The members of the government appointed committee were also included in it. Harbans Singh Attari became vice president and Sunder Singh Ramgarhia became secretary of the committee. By that time Master Tara Singh had started taking interest in Sikh religious affairs. He was one of the 175 members elected to the committee. The formation of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee provided a focal point for the movement for the reformation of Sikh religious places. The committee began to take over management of gurdwaras one by one, and were resisted by incumbent mahants.

Starting in late 1920, a large number of reformers both in urban and rural Punjab had joined to form separate and independent religious orders called jathas. The primary purpose of a jatha was to gain control over local gurdwaras. A jatha under the command of a jathedar would occupy a shrine and try to take over management in its favor from its current incumbents. Sometimes the transfer went peacefully especially in the case of smaller Gurdwaras with less income resources. This was done sometimes with the threat of force.

The Sikh leadership was fully aware of the importance of the press for the success of any movement. It enlisted the active support and sympathy of some of the important nationalist papers in the country like 'The Independent', Swaraj (Hindi), The Tribune, Liberal, Kesri (Urdu), Milap (Urdu), Zamindar (Urdu) and Bande Matram (Hindi).Two of the vernacular dailies Akali (Pbi.) and the Akali-te-Pardesi (Urdu), edited by Master Tara Singh also played an important role. It brought the necessary awakening among the Sikh masses and prepared them to undertake the struggle for reform. With the direct and indirect support of the Central Sikh League, the Indian National Congress and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, the Shiromani Akali Dal started a non-violent struggle against the government for the control of the Gurdwaras. The reports of some immoral acts perpetrated at Tarn-Taran reached the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee at its meeting on 14 January 1921. A fortnight earlier a local jatha was beaten up and not allowed to perform kirtan at the gurdwara. It decided to send a jatha from Amritsar under Jathedar Teja Singh Bhuchar. Jathedar Kartar Singh Jhabbar with Akalis from 'Khara Sauda Bar' joined him. On 25 January, a group of about forty workers took over the control of Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn-Taran from its Mahant. In the ensuing conflict two Akalis were killed and several others wounded by the henchmen of the Mahants. The Mahants were ousted from the Gurdwara and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee appointed a managing committee.

Gurdwaras Act of 1925[edit]

In early 1920s, Malcolm Hailey, the governor of the Punjab showed his readiness to assist the Sikhs in taking possession of all the important Gurdwaras in the province through a five-member committee constituted by the Sikh members of the legislative council. Hailey presented a draft of a new Gurdwara Bill to the Akali leaders imprisoned in Lahore fort. Master Tara Singh, Bhag singh Advocate, Gurcharn singh Advocate, Teja Singh Akerpuri (Jathedar AkalTakht Sahib) Sohan Singh Josh and Sardar Teja Singh Samundri studied each clause of the bill carefully. The bill met all the Akali demands and was signed into law on 28 July 1925 by the Viceroy of India after its ratification by the Punjab legislative council. The Act came into force on 1 November 1925 with a gazette notification from the government of Punjab.

The Act made a Central Gurdwara Board elected by the Sikhs to be the custodian of all important Sikh places of worship. The first meeting of the Gurdwara board passed a resolution that its designation be changed to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, which was accepted by the government. Thus ended what came to be known in common parlance as the 'Third Sikh War'. The Punjab government withdrew its orders declaring the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee and other Akali organs as unlawful associations and recognized the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee as a representative body of the Sikhs. In making the Punjab government agree to such recognition, the Akali leadership undoubtedly scored a victory over the bureaucracy. The Sikh Gurdwara bill met most of the demands of the Sikhs, but the government was willing to release the prisoners conditionally i.e. on the understanding to be given by the Akalis that they would agree to work for the Gurdwara Act. The Shiromani Akali Dal and the executive declared conditions imposed for the release of prisoners as wholly unnecessary, unjust and derogatory. Among the prominent Akalis, Mehtab Singh and Giani Sher Singh along with twenty other Akali leaders accepted the conditional release. Master Tara Singh, Bhag Singh Advocate, Teja Singh Samundari, Teja singh Akerpuri (Jathedar Akal Takht) and Fifteen other Akalis did not come out as government emphasis on eliciting written assurance and acceptance was to Master Tara Singh, an attack on the self-respect of the Sikhs. He said, "We ourselves have enacted this Act and we are responsible for implementing it, then why this condition?" Teja Singh Samundari died of a heart attack in the jail after some time. The Punjab Government failed to prove the charges against Master Tara Singh and the remaining Akalis, few months later they all were released unconditionally. The courage and sacrifice shown by the Akalis during the trial very soon drove the Mehtab Singh's group out of the political field and led to a rift in the Akali ranks, as the newly released Akalis condemned Mehtab Singh's group as collaborators. Mehtab Singh's group was also known as 'Rai Bahadur Party'. This group had majority in the committee and Mehtab Singh was elected its president. The Akali Party launched a campaign against the conditionally released leaders. When the new elections for the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee were held, the Akali Party won majority and the newly elected Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee elected Kharak Singh as the President[9] and Master Tara Singh as the Vice President. Since Baba Kharak Singh had not yet been released the responsibility of the president fell on the shoulders of Master Tara Singh.At the time of 1996 the first time SGPC election is held in Himachal Pradesh and the first person who won from that seat is the candidate of Panthak Akalidal whose name is Satnam Singh Gill.

1953 amendment to Gurdwaras Act of 1925[edit]

In 1953, an amendment to the 1925 act allowed the reservation of 20 out 140 seats on the SGPC for the members of the Sikh scheduled castes[10]

2016 amendment to Gurdwaras Act of 1925[edit]

The 2016 amendment to the act by the Indian parliament stripped around 7 million 'Sehajdhari' Sikhs of voting in the SGPC elections[11]


President of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
Harjinder Singh Dhami
since 29 November 2021
AppointerMembers of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
Inaugural holderSundar Singh Majithia
Formation12 October 1920; 103 years ago (1920-10-12)
WebsiteOfficial website

The president of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) is elected by the Members of SGPC.[12] The president holds powers to organise the meetings of SGPC and deal with matters related with issues of Sikh religion and oversees the managements of the Gurdwaras.[13] Since 2008, the president also serves as Chancellor of Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University.[14]

In 1920 SGPC was established when Gurdwara Reform Movement was started.[15] Sundar Singh Majithia was appointed first President of the committee. This post got legal status after the passing of Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925 by legislation in British India.

After passing of this act Baba Kharak Singh became the President. The longest-served president of SGPC till now[when?] is Gurcharan Singh Tohra and shortest-served is Gopal Singh Qaumi who served only for one day in June 1933. The first and the only woman president was Jagir Kaur.

List of presidents[edit]

S. No. Name Portrait Tenure[16]
Before Sikh Gurdwara Act (1920-1926)
1 Sundar Singh Majithia 12 October 1920 14 August 1921
2 Kharak Singh 14 August 1921 19 February 1922
3 Sundar Singh Ramgarhiya 19 February 1922 16 July 1922
4 Mehtab Singh 16 July 1922 27 April 1925
5 Mangal Singh 27 April 1925 2 October 1926
After Sikh Gurdwara Act (1926-till now)
(2) Kharak Singh 2 October 1926 12 October 1930
6 Tara Singh 12 October 1930 17 June 1933
7 Gopal Singh Qaumi 17 June 1933 18 June 1933
8 Partap Singh Shankar 18 June 1933 13 June 1936
(6) Master Tara Singh 13 June 1936 19 November 1944
9 Mohan Singh Nagoke 19 November 1944 28 June 1948
10 Udham Singh Nagoke 28 June 1948 18 March 1950
11 Chanan Singh Urara 18 March 1950 26 November 1950
(10) Udham Singh Nagoke 26 November 1950 29 June 1952
(6) Tara Singh 29 June 1952 5 October 1952
12 Preetam Singh Khuranj 5 October 1952 18 January 1954
13 Ishar Singh Majhail 18 January 1954 7 February 1955
(6) Tara Singh 7 February 1955 21 May 1955
14 Bawa Harkrishan Singh 21 May 1955 7 July 1955
15 Gian Singh Rarewala 7 July 1955 16 October 1955
(6) Tara Singh 16 October 1955 16 November 1958
16 Prem Singh Lalpur See article 16 November 1958 7 March 1960
(6) Tara Singh 7 March 1960 30 April 1960
17 Ajit Singh Bala 30 April 1960 10 March 1961
(6) Tara Singh 10 March 1961 11 March 1962
18 Kirpal Singh 'Chak Sherewal' 11 March 1962 2 October 1962
19 Sant Chanan Singh 2 October 1962 30 November 1972
20 Mohan Singh Tur 30 November 1972 6 June 1973
21 Gurcharan Singh Tohra 6 June 1973 23 March 1986
22 Kabal Singh 23 March 1986 30 November 1986
(21) Gurcharan Singh Tohra 30 November 1986 28 November 1990
23 Baldev Singh Sibiya 28 November 1990 13 November 1991
(21) Gurcharan Singh Tohra 13 November 1991 16 March 1999
24 Jagir Kaur 16 March 1999 30 November 2000
25 Jagdev Singh Talwandi 30 November 2000 27 November 2001
26 Kirpal Singh Badungar 27 November 2001 27 July 2003
(21) Gurcharan Singh Tohra 27 July 2003 31 March 2004
27 Alwinderpal Singh Pakhoke 1 April 2004 22 September 2004
(24) Jagir Kaur 23 September 2004 22 November 2005
28 Avtar Singh Makkar 23 November 2005 4 November 2016
(26) Kirpal Singh Badungar 5 November 2016 28 November 2017
29 Gobind Singh Longowal 29 November 2017 27 November 2020
(24) Jagir Kaur 27 November 2020 29 November 2021
30 Harjinder Singh Dhami Harjinder Singh Dhami ਹਰਜਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਧਾਮੀ 29 November 2021 Incumbent



The SGPC has been accused of representing the interests of Jat Sikhs over other castes and its membership and leadership being dominated by members of the Jat community, which makes other castes feel left out and discriminated against.[17][18] In defence, the SGPC's early history of fighting casteism has been highlighted[19] and the actions they take against reported instances of caste-based discrimination.[20] Also, a former Jathedar of the Akal Takht claims to be from a lower-caste background.[21]

Allegations of apathy to heritage[edit]

Colour photograph with the caption of ‘Two Sikhs sit in front of the small sanctuary next to the western door of the Darbar Sahib (Golden Temple)’, taken on 15 January 1914 by a Frenchman by the name of Stéphane Passet. This structure and the frescoes seen inside are no longer extant and were demolished some time later

The SGPC has been criticized by Sikh organizations and individuals for having an apathetic and destructive attitude towards historical Sikh heritage sites, artwork, and architecture.[22][23][24][25][26][27] In response to these criticisms, the SGPC announced that it has launched a project to document Sikh heritage.[28][29] As many as ninety percent of Sikh heritage monuments have been destroyed in Punjab in the name of renovation and kar seva.[30] Historic trees associated with Sikh history are also at risk due to neglectful and poorly made judgements without consulting botanical experts, such as strangling the roots and base with concrete and marble, covering the trees with fibre glass, and erecting steel beams around the trunks.[31] Efforts are ongoing to revive and preserve the life of the Beri trees surrounding the Golden Temple.[32][33][34][35] The SGPC has also been criticized for their lack of action on preventing beadbi (desecrations) of the Guru Granth Sahib and other Sikh scriptures from occurring.[36] Large amounts of historical Sikh scriptural manuscripts have been systematically "cremated" (burnt to destruction)[37][38] over the years at secretive ‘Angitha Sahib’ gurdwaras in Punjab.[39]

According to Sikh scholar, Gurtej Singh, on who is to blame for the plight of Sikh historical heritage:[40]

Whether it is the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee or the Akal Takht or even the political Akali Dal which draws its strength from the former two, there is no appreciation for our heritage. Scholars like us do not matter in the scheme of things, because we obstruct their commercial aspirations. The SGPC patronises these babas and they do not realise that they are converting history into mythology by destroying historical evidence.

— Gurtej Singh

On 6 September 2023, the SGPC announced plans to digitize Sikh literature and scriptures kept in the collection of Sri Guru Ramdas Library in Amritsar.[41] There are plans to make the digitized works available to the public on a website in the near future.[41]

Lack of action towards missionaries[edit]

After being criticized for their lack of action in responding the growing number of Sikhs leaving the fold and converting to Christianity and not addressing the caste and social issues that gives impetus to the phenomenon,[42][43][44][45] and as a response to the allegations and growing tension between the local Sikh and Christian communities,[46] the SGPC had announced a drive called Ghar Ghar Andar Dharamsaal (meaning 'sacred shrine within every home') to counter missionaries targeting Sikhs and to educate the Sikh population on the tenets of their faith.[47][48][49][50][51]

Monopoly on determining Sikh identity[edit]

The SGPC has been accused for enforcing their standards on who and who is not considered a Sikh.[18] This leaves many heterodox sects, such as Nirmalas, Nirankaris, Udasis, and others feeling marginalized and erased from the Sikh community by the orthodox SGPC.[52][53][54] The SGPC has clarified that members of the Udasi and Nirmala sects are "Sikhs".[55][56]


Women currently are unofficially banned from singing or performing kirtan (religious devotional singing and musical performance) in sanctum sanctorum of the Golden Temple, a gurdwara under the management of the SGPC.[57][58][59][60] The Punjab Legislative Assembly passed a motion to allow women to perform there in 2019.[61] In 1999, Bibi Jagir Kaur became the first female president of the SGPC.[21]

Religious discrimination[edit]

Traditional Muslim rababis and kirtanis, including claimed descendants of Bhai Mardana (companion of Guru Nanak),[62] have been banned from performing at the Golden Temple since 1947 as the SGPC has altered the rules to only allow baptized Khalsa Sikhs to perform services at the Golden Temple.[63][64][65][66] Before partition, they were granted special allowance to perform at the temple.[62][67]


Allegations of large-scale corruption have been claimed against the SGPC.[68][69][70][71][72][73]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "• ENGLISH ARTICLES- Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC)". Dilgeer.com. 15 November 1920. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  2. ^ "SGPC executive passes Rs 1,064 crore budget". The Times of India. 1 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Education thrust area in Rs 1,064-cr SGPC budget".
  4. ^ "SGPC bans shooting of films at Golden Temple complex". News18. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  5. ^ "Official Website of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar – SGPC Administration / Officials". Official Website of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar (in Latin). Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  6. ^ "SGPC asked to start its own media network".
  7. ^ "About Us". Welcome To DESGPC Website. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  8. ^ "Jagir Kaur is SGPC chief again". The Hindu. 24 September 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2018.[dead link]
  9. ^ Panwar, Ranjit Singh; Shankar, Kripa, eds. (2008). Sikh achievers. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9788170103653.
  10. ^ Puri, H.K (2003). "Scheduled castes in Sikh community: A historical perspective". Economic and Political Weekly. 38 (26(Jun. 28 - 4 Jul. 2003)): 2693–2701. JSTOR 4413731.
  11. ^ Nibber, Gurpreet Singh (2016). "HT Explainer: What's behind excluding Sehajdharis from Sikh body polls?". No. 16 April 2016. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  12. ^ Know What is SGPC Hindustan Times. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  13. ^ Sikh Gurdwara Act, 1925 Laws of India. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  14. ^ Chancellor sggswu.edu.in. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  15. ^ Raghbir Singh (1997). Akali movement, 1926-1947. Omsons. ISBN 978-81-7117-163-7.
  16. ^ Former President of SGPC Archived 4 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine sgpc.net. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  17. ^ Ram, Ronki. “Social Exclusion, Resistance and Deras: Exploring the Myth of Casteless Sikh Society in Punjab.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 42, no. 40, 2007, pp. 4066–74. JSTOR, JSTOR 40276650. Accessed 8 Jan. 2023.
  18. ^ a b Thampi, Praveen S. (8 March 2008). "Simmering discontent: Sikhs in Punjab are fighting many wars". The Economic Times. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  19. ^ "How SGPC fought untouchability, caste system in its formative years". The Indian Express. 13 October 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  20. ^ "Bias against Dalit Sikhs: SGPC forms two-member panel". Hindustan Times. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  21. ^ a b "Explained: Punjab politics and Sikhs' caste identity - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  22. ^ "'Don't demolish history': Sikh groups protest against SGPC's plans to renovate 90-year-old inn". The Indian Express. 2 August 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  23. ^ "Row over heritage structure: SGPC task force, Sikh activists clash at Golden Temple construction site". Hindustan Times. 5 August 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  24. ^ "Sikh Collective starts signature campaign for Sikh Heritage Conservation". The World Sikh News. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  25. ^ Singh, I.P. (7 October 2018). "Heritage under the hammer | Ludhiana News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  26. ^ Singh, I.P.; Rana, Yudhvir (23 August 2021). "Sikhs wake up late to the loss of religious heritage | Ludhiana News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  27. ^ "Frescos of Hindu gods whitewashed". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Main News - www.tribuneindia.com. Tribune News Service. 26 July 2003. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  28. ^ "SGPC drive to conserve Sikh heritage structures on the cards". Hindustan Times. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  29. ^ "Beleaguered over Destruction of Heritage, SGPC Plans to Initiate Sikh Archives Project". Sikh24.com. Sikh24 Punjab Bureau. 31 July 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ Glover, William J. "Shiny new buildings: rebuilding historic sikh gurdwaras in Indian Punjab." Future Anterior, vol. 9, no. 1, summer 2012, pp. 32+. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A313972601/AONE?u=anon~bc4b7e36&sid=googleScholar&xid=807b241c. Accessed 8 Jan. 2023.
  31. ^ Walia, Varinder (26 June 2004). "Covering 'beri' tree may disturb birds' habitat". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Punjab - www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  32. ^ "Efforts on to revive beris at Golden Temple | Sikh Sangat News". Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  33. ^ "Restoration of centuries-old berry trees at Golden Temple begins". TribuneIndia News Service. Tribune News Service. 11 April 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  34. ^ "Golden Temple's Dukh Bhanjan Ber freed of concrete | Sikh Sangat News". Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  35. ^ "Do not touch 'beris' in Golden Temple complex". OneIndia News. 29 May 2007.
  36. ^ "BREAKING: Seven Holy Scriptures of Sri Guru Granth Sahib burnt in Sri Mukatsar Sahib". Sikh24.com. Sikh24 Editors. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  37. ^ Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). "8 The Guru Granth Sahib". The Making of Sikh Scripture. Oxford Academic. pp. 121–136. ...all old manuscripts were sent to Goindval for "cremation" in the late 1980s
  38. ^ Sikh art from the Kapany Collection. P. M. Taylor, Sonia Dhami, Sikh Foundation, National Museum of Natural History. Asian Cultural History Program (First Indian ed.). New Delhi, India. 2021. pp. 296–302. ISBN 978-81-949691-2-9. OCLC 1258082801.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  39. ^ Dogra, Chander Suta (27 May 2013). "Endangered texts". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  40. ^ Dogra, Chander Suta (3 May 2016). "Have You the Eyes for It?". SikhNet (republished, originally published by Outlook Magazine). Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  41. ^ a b Singh, Amrik (6 September 2023). "SGPC decided to establish a press in America and print the holy images of Sri Guru Granth Sahib". Punjab News Express. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
  42. ^ "Conversions in Punjab: Lure, superstition, mind games or faith?". India Today. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  43. ^ "Why Punjabi Dalits are turning to Christianity en masse | Ground report". India Today. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  44. ^ Jaiswal, Priya (14 October 2021). "Opinion | Why Christian missionaries are trying to convert Sikh youths in Punjab?". www.indiatvnews.com. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  45. ^ Misra, Shubhangi (2 December 2021). "How Christianity is growing among Mazhabi Sikhs & Valmiki Hindus in Punjab's villages". ThePrint. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  46. ^ "Religious Conversion In Punjab: Not All Churchgoers Are Christian & That Makes Majority Sikhs Nervous — Article 14". www.article-14.com. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  47. ^ "SGPC launches drive to counter Christian missionaries in Punjab". Hindustan Times. 10 October 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  48. ^ "SGPC sends teams across Punjab to counter religious missionary conversions – HinduTimesCanada". Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  49. ^ "Punjab - SGPC launches drive to counter Christian missionaries". VSK Bharat. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  50. ^ Rana, Yudhvir (16 June 2022). "SGPC takes up issue of religious conversion of Sikhs with minority commission | Amritsar News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  51. ^ "Sikh body condemn ongoing Christian "forced conversions" in Punjab | SikhPA". Sikh Press Association. Sikh Press Association. 2 September 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  52. ^ Sethi, Chitleen K. (20 November 2018). "Rivalry between Sikhs & Nirankaris is almost a century old". ThePrint. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  53. ^ Dogra, Chander Suta (5 February 2022). "Shorn of Identity - SGPC says a Sikh is one with untrimmed hair. And so makes half the community apostate". Outlook India.
  54. ^ Aggarwal, Neil Krishan (1 June 2010). "Violations of Parole: Language, Religion, and Power Among the Modern Udasi Movement and the Sgpc". Sikh Formations. 6 (1): 77–93. doi:10.1080/17448727.2010.484140. ISSN 1744-8727. S2CID 143172947.
  55. ^ Walia, Varinder (10 December 2002). "Udasis are Sikhs, says SGPC chief". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Main News - www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  56. ^ "The Sikh Times - News and Analysis - Supreme Court: Udasi Dera Is Not a Gurdwara". www.sikhtimes.com. 9 December 2002. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  57. ^ Goyal, Divya (15 November 2019). "Explained: Why, despite no rule, women are not allowed kirtan sewa at Golden Temple". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  58. ^ Rana, Yudhvir (27 July 2017). "'Why women not allowed to perform kirtan in Golden Temple sanctum sanctorum' | Chandigarh News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  59. ^ Service, Tribune News (7 November 2019). "'Allow women ragis at Golden Temple'". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  60. ^ Vinayak, Ramesh (10 March 2003). "Participation of women in late-night rites at Golden Temple stokes gender bias debate". India Today. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  61. ^ "Punjab Assembly Passes Resolution To Allow Women Sing Kirtan In Golden Temple". NDTV.com. 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  62. ^ a b Walia, Varinder (4 October 2004). "Wish of Mardana's descendent may not be fulfilled". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Punjab - www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  63. ^ Rana, Yudhvir Rana (5 December 2019). "Muslims not allowed inside sanctum sanctorum of Kartarpur Sahib gurdwara | Amritsar News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  64. ^ Sharma, Amaninder (1 May 2015). "Rababi Ghulam Mohammad passes away in Lahore | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  65. ^ Aslam, Irfan (7 May 2015). "Bhai Ghulam Muhammad Chand: lost gem of Rababi kirtan singing". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  66. ^ "Noted rababi kirtan singer Bhai Chand passes away in Lahore at 80". Hindustan Times. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  67. ^ Brar, Kamaldeep Singh (23 May 2022). "Remove harmonium from Golden Temple? Sikh music scholars strike differing notes". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 January 2023. There were Muslim rababis, too, who used to play in gurdwaras. This system of supporting ragis and rababis collapsed after the British came.
  68. ^ "Puran Singh alleges corruption in Golden Temple | Chandigarh News - Times of India". The Times of India. 2 July 2002. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  69. ^ Chawla, K.S. (5 July 2004). "SGPC poll a 'dharam yudh', says Baba Bedi". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Punjab - www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  70. ^ "SGPC budget: Members allege 'large-scale corruption'". Hindustan Times. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  71. ^ Sandhu, Amandeep. "It Is Becoming Clear That The SGPC No Longer Speaks For The Sikh Community". The Caravan. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  72. ^ Bharti, Vishav (28 March 2022). "Disquiet in SGPC, members seek probe by retired HC judges into 'corruption'". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  73. ^ "SGPC den of corruption, allege Taksalis". Tribuneindia News Service. Tribune News Service. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)

Further reading[edit]

  • Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh, Shiromani Akali Dal (1920–2000), Sikh University Press, Belgium, 2000
  • Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Kiven Bani (Punjabi), Amritsar, S.G.P.C., 2001.
  • Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh, Sikh Twareekh 5 volumes (Punjabi), Sikh University Press, Belgium, 2007.
  • Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh, Sikh History, 10 volumes (English), Sikh University Press, Belgium, 2010–11. 10 volumes (English)

External links[edit]