Page semi-protected

Shivaji

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Shivaji Maharaj)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Shivaji
Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
Shivaji Rijksmuseum.jpg
Shivaji's portrait (1680s) in the Rijksmuseum
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg 1st Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
Reign 1674–1680 CE
Coronation 6 June 1674
Successor Sambhaji
Born c. April 1627 or 19 February 1630
Shivneri Fort, Shivneri, Ahmadnagar Sultanate (present-day Maharashtra, India)
Died 3 April 1680 (aged 50–53)
Raigad Fort, Raigad, Maratha Empire (present-day Maharashtra, India)
Spouse Saibai Nimbalkar
Soyarabai Mohite
Putalabai Palkar
Sakvarbai Gaikwad
Kashibai Jadhav[1]
Issue Sakhubai Nimbalkar[2]
Ranubai Jadhav
Ambikabai Mahadik
Sambhaji
Rajaram
Rajkumaribai Shirke
Marathi शिवाजी भोसले
Sanskrit शिवाजी भोसले
House Bhonsle
Father Shahaji Bhonsle
Mother Jijabai
Religion Hinduism

Shivaji Bhonsle (Marathi [ʃiʋaˑɟiˑ bʱoˑs(ə)leˑ]; c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680) was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati (monarch) of his realm at Raigad.

Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, and Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as the English, Portuguese, and French colonial powers.[citation needed] Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence, capturing and building forts, and forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration.

Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.[3] Particularly in Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes even violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy.

Early life

Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth. The government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth (Shivaji Jayanti).[a][6][7] Shivaji was named after a local deity, the goddess Shivai.[8] Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates.[9] His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav royal family of Devagiri.[10][11]

At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golkonda. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him.[9]

A statue of young Shivaji with Jijabai installed at the fort of Shivneri in 1960s
Shivrayancha Palna or Cradle at Shivneri Fort

Upbringing

Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. His studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, also influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.[12] Shivaji was deeply interested in religious teachings, and regularly sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints.[13] Shahaji, meanwhile had married a second wife, Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur. He moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo. Dadoji has been credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji.[14][15][16]

Many of Shivaji's comrades, and later a number of his soldiers, came from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare.[17] Shivaji traveled the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range with his Maval friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career.[12] Shivaji's independent spirit and his association with the Maval youths did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained to Shahaji to no avail.[18]

In 1639, Shahaji was stationed at Bangalore, which was conquered from the Vijayanagara nayaks, and asked to hold and settle the area.[19][20] Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji and his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained. He married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640.[21] Around 1645, the teenage Shivaji first expressed his concept for Hindavi Swarajya (Indian self-rule), in a letter.[22][23][b]

Conflict with Bijapur

In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded Inayat Khan, the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, to hand over possession of the fort to him.[27][28][29] The Maratha Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort, professed his loyalty to Shivaji, and the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor.[30] On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji.[31]

According to Sarkar, Shahaji was released in 1649 after the capture of Jinji secured Adil-Shahi position in Karnataka.[32] During these developments, from 1649–1655 Shivaji paused in his conquests and quietly consolidated his gains.[33] After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, and died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident. Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, and in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, and seized from him the valley of Javali.[34][35]

Combat with Afzal Khan

An early-20th-century Painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan

Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces, which his vassal Shahaji disavowed. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, and the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus.[36][37][38]

Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji retreated to Pratapgad fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender.[39] The two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.[40][41]

The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him,[42][43] or secretly planning to attack himself,[44] wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand.[45]

Accounts vary on whether Shivaji or Afzal Khan struck the first blow:[43] Maratha chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery, while Persian-language records attribute the treachery to Shivaji.[46][47] In the fight, Afzal Khan's dagger was stopped by Shivaji's armour, and Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general; Shivaji then fired a cannon to signal his hidden troops to attack the Bijapuri army.[48] In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate's forces.[49] More than 3,000 soldiers of the Bijapur army were killed and one sardar of high rank, two sons of Afzal Khan and two Maratha chiefs were taken prisoner.[50]

After the victory, a grand review was held by Shivaji below Pratapgarh. The captured enemy, both officers and men, were set free and sent back to their homes with money, food and other gifts. Marathas were rewarded accordingly.[50]

Siege of Panhala

Having defeated the Bijapuri forces sent against him, Shivaji's army marched towards the Konkan and Kolhapur, seizing Panhala fort, and defeating Bijapuri forces sent against them under Rustam Zaman and Fazl Khan in 1659.[51] In 1660, Adilshah sent his general Siddi Jauhar to attack Shivaji's southern border, in alliance with the Mughals who planned to attack from the north. At that time, Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort with his forces. Siddi Jauhar's army besieged Panhala in mid-1660, cutting off supply routes to the fort. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddi Jahuar purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English. This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji, who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors, imprisoning them until mid-1663.[52]

Accounts vary as to the end of the siege, with some accounts stating that Shivaji escaped from the encircled fort and withdrew to Ragna, following which Adilshah personally came to take charge of the siege, capturing the fort after four months.[53] Other accounts state that after months of siege, Shivaji negotiated with Siddi Jahuar and handed over the fort on 22 September 1660, withdrawing to Vishalgad;[54][55]:99 Shivaji would later re-take Panhala in 1673.[53]

Battle of Pavan Khind

There is some dispute over the circumstances of Shivaji's withdrawal (treaty or escape) and his destination (Ragna or Vishalgad), but the popular story details his night movement to Vishalgad and a sacrificial rear-guard action to allow him to escape.[56] Per these accounts, Shivaji withdrew from Panhala by cover of night, and as he was pursued by the enemy cavalry, his Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande of Bandal Deshmukh, along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind ("horse ravine") to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of the Vishalgad fort.[57]

In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind, the smaller Maratha force held back the larger enemy to buy time for Shivaji to escape. Baji Prabhu Deshpande was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad,[58] signalling Shivaji had safely reached the fort, on the evening of 13 July 1660.[59] Ghod Khind (khind meaning "a narrow mountain pass") was later renamed Paavan Khind ("sacred pass") in honour of Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Shibosingh Jadhav, Fuloji, and all other soldiers who fought in there.[59]

Conflict with the Mughals

Until 1657, Shivaji maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire. Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzeb, the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan and son of the Mughal emperor, in conquering Bijapur in return for formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession. Dissatisfied with the Mughal response, and receiving a better offer from Bijapur, he launched a raid into the Mughal Deccan.[60] Shivaji's confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji's officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar.[61] This was followed by raids in Junnar, with Shivaji carrying off 300,000 hun in cash and 200 horses.[62] Aurangzeb responded to the raids by sending Nasiri Khan, who defeated the forces of Shivaji at Ahmednagar. However, Aurangzeb's countermeasures against Shivaji were interrupted by the rainy season and his battle of succession with his brothers for the Mughal throne following the illness of the emperor Shah Jahan.[63]

Attacks on Shaista Khan and Surat

Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb, now the Mughal emperor, sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with an army numbering over 150,000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to attack Shivaji in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan, with his better–equipped and –provisioned army of 80,000 seized Pune. He also took the nearby fort of Chakan, besieging it for a month and a half before breaching the walls.[64] Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of having a larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha territory, seizing the city of Pune and establishing his residence at Shivaji's palace of Lal Mahal.[65]

In April 1663, Shivaji launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan in Pune; accounts of the story differ in the popular imagination, but there is some agreement that Shivaji and band of some 200 followers infiltrated Pune, using a wedding procession as cover. They overcame the palace guards, breached the wall, and entered Shaista Khan's quarters, killing those they found there. Shaista Khan escaped, losing his thumb in the melee, but one of his sons and several of his wives[66] were killed. The Khan took refuge with the Mughal forces outside of Pune, and Aurangzeb punished him for this embarrassment with a transfer to Bengal.[67]:543

In retaliation for Shaista Khan's attacks, and to replenish his now-depleted treasury, in 1664 Shivaji sacked the port city of Surat, a wealthy Mughal trading centre.[67][68]:491

Treaty of Purandar

Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar

The attacks on Shaista Khan and Surat enraged Aurangzeb. In response he sent the Rajput Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering around 15,000 to defeat Shivaji.[69] Throughout 1665, Jai Singh's forces pressed Shivaji, with their cavalry razing the countryside, and their siege forces investing Shivaji's forts. The Mughal commander succeeded in luring away several of Shivaji's key commanders, and many of his cavalrymen, into Mughal service. By mid-1665, with the fortress at Purandar besieged and near capture, Shivaji was forced to come to terms with Jai Singh.[69]

In the Treaty of Purandar, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts, keeping 12 for himself, and pay compensation of 400,000 gold hun to the Mughals.[70] Shivaji agreed to become a vassal of the Mughal empire, and to send his son Sambhaji, along with 5,000 horsemen, to fight for the Mughals in the Deccan as a mansabdar.[71][48][48][72]

Arrest in Agra and escape

A depiction by A.D. Macromick of Shivaji in Aurangzeb's court in Agra in 1666

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to Agra (though some sources instead state Delhi), along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Kandahar, now in Afghanistan, to consolidate the Mughal empire's northwestern frontier. However, in the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offence and stormed out of court,[73] and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

Shivaji's position under house arrest was perilous, as Aurangzeb's court debated whether to kill him or continue to employ him, and Shivaji used his dwindling funds to bribe courtiers to support his case. Orders came from the emperor to station Shivaji in Kabul, which Shivaji refused. Instead he asked for his forts to be returned and to serve the Mughals as a mansabdar; Aurangzeb rebutted that he must surrender his remaining forts before returning to Mughal service. Shivaji managed to escape from Agra, likely by bribing the guards, though the emperor was never able to ascertain how he escaped despite an investigation.[74] Popular legend says that Shivaji smuggled himself and his son out of the house in large baskets, claimed to be sweets to be gifted to religious figures in the city.[75]

Peace with the Mughals

After Shivaji's escape, hostilities with the Mughals ebbed, with Mughal sardar Jaswant Singh acting as intermediary between Shivaji and Aurangzeb for new peace proposals.[76] During the period between 1666 and 1668, Aurangzeb conferred the title of raja on Shivaji. Sambhaji was also restored as a Mughal mansabdar with 5,000 horses.[77] Shivaji at that time sent Sambhaji with general Prataprao Gujar to serve with the Mughal viceroy in Aurangabad, Prince Mu'azzam. Sambhaji was also granted territory in Berar for revenue collection.[78] Aurangzeb also permitted Shivaji to attack the decaying Adil Shahi; the weakened Sultan Ali Adil Shah II sued for peace and granted the rights of sardeshmukhi and chauthai to Shivaji.[79]

Reconquest

Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai

The peace between Shivaji and the Mughals lasted until 1670. At that time Aurangzeb became suspicious of the close ties between Shivaji and Mu'azzam, who he thought might usurp his throne, and may even have been receiving bribes from Shivaji.[80][81] Also at that time, Aurangzeb, occupied in fighting the Afghans, greatly reduced his army in the Deccan; many of the disbanded soldiers quickly joined Maratha service.[82] The Mughals also took away the jagir of Berar from Shivaji to recover the money lent to him a few years earlier.[83] In response, Shivaji launched an offensive against the Mughals and recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to them in a span of four months.[84]

Shivaji sacked Surat for second time in 1670; the British and Dutch factories were able to repel his attack, but he managed to sack the city itself, including plundering the goods of a Muslim prince from Mawara-un-Nahr who was returning from Mecca.[77] Angered by the renewed attacks, the Mughals resumed hostilities with the Marathas, sending a force under Daud Khan to intercept Shivaji on his return home from Surat, but were defeated in the Battle of Vani-Dindori near present-day Nashik.[85]

In October 1670, Shivaji sent his forces to harass the English at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war materiel, his forces blocked Bombay's woodcutting parties. In September 1671, Shivaji sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking materiel, this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri. The English had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji would gain from this conquest, but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur. The English sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji, but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years, with some agreement as to the arms issues in 1674, but Shivaji was never to pay the Rajapur indemnity before his death, and the factory there dissolved at the end of 1682.[86]

Battles of Umrani and Nesari

In 1674, Prataprao Gujar, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to push back the invading force led by the Bijapuri general, Bahlol Khan. Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle, after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategic lake, which prompted Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so, Prataprao released Bahlol Khan, who started preparing for a fresh invasion.[87]

Shivaji sent a displeased letter to Prataprao, refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. Upset by his commander's rebuke, Prataprao found Bahlol Khan and charged his position with only six other horsemen, leaving his main force behind. Prataprao was killed in combat; Shivaji was deeply grieved on hearing of Prataprao's death, and arranged for the marriage of his second son, Rajaram, to Prataprao's daughter. Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite, the new sarnaubat (commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces). Raigad Fort was newly built by Hiroji Indulkar as a capital of nascent Maratha kingdom.[88]

Coronation

An early-20th-century depiction of the coronation of Shivaji by the Chitrashala press,Pune

Shivaji had acquired extensive lands and wealth through his campaigns, but lacking a formal title he was still technically a Mughal zamindar or the son of an Bijapuri jagirdar, with no legal basis to rule his de facto domain. A kingly title could address this and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha leaders, to whom he was technically equal.[c] it would also provide the Hindu Marathas with a fellow Hindu sovereign in a region otherwise ruled by Muslims.[89]

Controversy erupted amongst the Brahmins of Shivaji's court: they refused to crown Shivaji as a king because that status was reserved for those of the kshatriya (warrior) varna in Hindu society.[90] Shivaji was descended from a line of headmen of farming villages, and the Brahmins accordingly categorised him as being of the shudra (cultivator) varna.[91][92] They noted that Shivaji had never had a sacred thread ceremony, and did not wear the thread, which a kshatriya would.[91] Shivaji summoned Gaga Bhatt, a pandit of Varanasi, who stated that he had found a genealogy proving that Shivaji was descended from the Sisodia Rajputs, and thus indeed a kshatriya, albeit one in need of the ceremonies befitting his rank.[93]:7– To enforce this status, Shivaji was given a sacred thread ceremony, and remarried his spouses under the Vedic rites expected of a kshatriya.[94][95] However, following historical evidence, Shivaji's claim to Rajput, and specifically Sisodia ancestry may be interpreted as being anything from tenuous at best, to inventive in a more extreme reading.[96]

Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.[88][97] In the Hindu calendar it was on the 13th day (trayodashi) of the first fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha in the year 1596.[98] Gaga Bhatt officiated, holding a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the rivers Yamuna, Indus, Ganges, Godavari, Narmada, Krishna and Kaveri over Shivaji's head, and chanted the Vedic coronation mantras. After the ablution, Shivaji bowed before Jijabai and touched her feet. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies.[78][99] Shivaji was entitled Shakakarta ("founder of an era")[57]:222 and Chhatrapati ("paramount sovereign"). He also took the title of Haindava Dharmodhhaarak (protector of the Hindu faith).[100]

Shivaji's mother Jijabai died on 18 June 1674. The Marathas summoned Bengali Tantrik goswami Nischal Puri, who declared that the original coronation had been held under inauspicious stars, and a second coronation was needed. This second coronation on 24 September 1674 had a dual use, mollifying those who still believed that Shivaji was not qualified for the Vedic rites of his first coronation, by performing a less-contestable additional ceremony.[101][102][103]

Conquest in Southern India

Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar (mid-year), and Kolhapur (July).[104] In November the Maratha navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira, but failed to dislodge them.[105] Having recovered from an illness, and taking advantage of a conflict between the Afghans and Bijapur, Shivaji raided Athani in April 1676.[106]

In the run-up to his expedition Shivaji appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism, that Southern India was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders.[107][108] His appeal was somewhat successful, and in 1677 Shivaji visited Hyderabad for a month and entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golkonda sultanate, agreeing to reject his alliance with Bijapur and jointly oppose the Mughals. In 1677 Shivaji invaded Karnataka with 30,000 cavalry and 40,000 infantry, backed by Golkonda artillery and funding.[109] Proceeding south, Shivaji seized the forts of Vellore and Gingee;[110] the latter would later serve as a capital of the Marathas during the reign of his son Rajaram I.[111]

Shivaji intended to reconcile with his half-brother Venkoji (Ekoji I), Shahaji's son by his second wife, Tukabai (née Mohite), who ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. The initially promising negotiations were unsuccessful, so whilst returning to Raigad Shivaji defeated his half-brother's army on 26 November 1677 and seized most of his possessions in the Mysore plateau. Venkoji's wife Dipa Bai, whom Shivaji deeply respected, took up new negotiations with Shivaji, and also convinced her husband to distance himself from Muslim advisors. In the end Shivaji consented to turn over to her and her female descendants many of the properties he had seized, with Venkoji consenting to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and maintenance of Shivaji's future memorial (samadhi).[112][57]:251[113]

Death and succession

Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him

The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son, Sambhaji, who was irresponsible. Unable to curb this, Shivaji confined his son to Panhala in 1678, only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji then returned home, unrepentant, and was again confined to Panhala.[68]:551

In late March 1680, Shivaji fell ill with fever and dysentery,[114] dying around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52,[115] on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti. Putalabai, the childless eldest of the surviving wives of Shivaji committed sati by jumping into his funeral pyre. Another surviving spouse, Sakwarbai, was not allowed to follow suit because she had a young daughter.[68]:47 Rumours followed Shivaji's death, with some Muslims opining he had died of a curse from Jan Muhammad of Jalna, as punishment for Shivaji's troops attacking merchants who had taken refuge in his hermitage.[116] There were also allegations, though doubted by later scholars, that his second wife Soyarabai had poisoned him in order to put her 10-year-old son Rajaram on the throne.[117]:53[118]

After Shivaji's death, Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her stepson Sambhaji. On 21 April 1680, ten-year-old Rajaram was installed on the throne. However, Sambhaji took possession of Raigad Fort after killing the commander, and on 18 June acquired control of Raigad, and formally ascended the throne on 20 July.[68]:48 Rajaram, his wife Janki Bai, and mother Soyrabai were imprisoned, and Soyrabai executed on charges of conspiracy that October.[119]

The Marathas after Shivaji

Shivaji left behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Soon after his death, in 1681, Aurangzeb launched an offensive in the South to capture territories held by the Marathas: Bijapur and Golkonda. He was successful in obliterating the Sultanates but could not subdue the Marathas after spending 27 years in the Deccan. The period saw the capture, torture, and execution of Sambhaji in 1689, and the Marathas offering strong resistance under the leadership of Sambhaji's successor, Rajaram and then Rajaram's widow Tarabai. Territories changed hands repeatedly between the Mughals and the Marathas; the conflict ended in defeat for the Mughals in 1707.

Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji and son of Sambhaji, was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during a 27-year period. After the latter's death, his successor released Shahu. After a brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire from 1707 to 1749. Early in his reign, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath and later his descendants, as Peshwas (prime ministers) of the Maratha Empire. The empire expanded greatly under the leadership of Balaji's son, Peshwa Bajirao I and grandson, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao. At its peak,the Maratha empire stretched from Tamil Nadu[68]:204[120] in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in the north, and Bengal. In 1761, the Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat to Ahmed Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire, which halted their imperial expansion in northwestern India. Ten years after Panipat, young Madhavrao Peshwa reinstated Maratha authority over North India.

In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Shahu and the Peshwas gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, creating the Maratha Confederacy.[55]:110 They became known as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Bhonsales of Nagpur. In 1775, the British East India Company intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. The Marathas remained the preeminent power in India until their defeat by the British East India Company in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha wars (1805–1818), which left the Company in control of most of India.[121][122]

Governance

Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit

In his court, Shivaji replaced Persian, the common courtly language in the region, with Marathi, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions.[123] The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) according to Sanskrit nomenclature, with terms such as nyaayaadheesha, and senaapati, and commissioned the political treatise Raajya Vyavahaara Kosha. His Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.[124]He directed projects that sought to replace Indo-Persian political norms with Sanskrit based ones. For instance, in 1677 he sponsored a Sanskrit text known as Rajavyavaharakosha (Lexicon of Royal Institutes), which provided Sanskrit synonyms for 1500 Indo-Persian administrative terms.[125]

Religious policy

Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, now a place of pilgrimage

Shivaji was known for his liberal and tolerant religious policy; while Hindus were relieved to practice their religion freely under a Hindu ruler, Shivaji not only allowed Muslims to practice without harassment, but supported their ministries with endowments,[126] and had many prominent Muslims in his military service.[127] While some accounts of Shivaji state that he was greatly influenced by the Brahmin guru Samarth Ramdas, others have rebutted that Ramdas' role has been over-emphasised by later Brahmin commentators to enhance their position.[128][129]:158–

Though many of Shivaji's enemy states were Muslim, he treated Muslims under his rule with tolerance for their religion. Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:

Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of God. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for God alone.[127]

Noting however that Shivaji had stemmed the spread of the neighbouring Muslim states, his contemporary, the poet Kavi Bhushan stated: Had not there been Shivaji, Kashi would have lost its culture, Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised".[130]

There is less evidence of Shivaji's attitude towards the Christians. To one side, in 1667 three Portuguese Catholic priests and a few Christians were killed during Shivaji's raid on Bardes.[131] However, during the sack of Surat in 1664, Shivaji was approached by Ambrose, a Capuchin monk who asked him to spare the city's Christians. Shivaji left the mission untouched, saying "the Frankish Padrys are good men."[132]

Military

Sivaji and Army

Shivaji demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation, which lasted until the demise of the Maratha empire. His strategy rested on leveraging his ground forces, naval forces, and series of forts across his territory. The Maval infantry served as the core of his ground forces (reinforced with Telangi musketeers from Karnataka), supported by Maratha cavalry. His artillery was relatively underdeveloped and reliant on European suppliers, further inclining him to a very mobile form of warfare.[133]:9[134]

Forts

Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad

Forts played a key role in Shivaji's strategy. He captured important forts at Murambdev (Rajgad), Torna, Kondhana (Sinhagad) and Purandar. He also rebuilt or repaired many forts in advantageous locations.[135] In addition, Shivaji built a number of forts; the number "111" is reported in some accounts, but it is likely the actual number "did not exceed 18".[136] The historian Jadunath Sarkar assessed that Shivaji owned some 240–280 forts at the time of his death.[137] Each was placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed or tempted to deliver it to the enemy. The officers acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance.[138]

Navy

Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy

Aware of the need for naval power to maintain control along the Konkan coast, Shivaji began to build his navy in 1657 or 1659, with the purchase of twenty galivats from the Portuguese shipyards of Bassein.[139] Marathi chronicles state that at its height his fleet counted some 400 military ships, though British chronicles counter that the number never exceeded 160 ships.[140]

With the Marathas being accustomed to a land-based military, Shivaji widened his search for qualified crews for his ships, taking on lower-caste Hindus of the coast who were long familiar with naval operations (the famed "Malabar pirates") as well as Muslim mercenaries.[140] Noting the power of the Portuguese navy, Shivaji hired a number of Portuguese sailors and Goan Christian converts, and made Rui Leitao Viegas commander of his fleet. Viegas was later to defect back to the Portuguese, taking 300 sailors with him.[141]

Shivaji fortified his coastline by seizing coastal forts and refurbishing them, and built his first marine fort at Sindhudurg, which was to become the headquarters of the Maratha navy.[142] The navy itself was a coastal navy, focused on travel and combat in the littoral areas, and not intended to go far out to sea.[143]

Legacy

An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji Maharaj and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind

Shivaji was well known for his strong religious and warrior code of ethics and exemplary character.[citation needed] He was recognized as a great national hero during Indian Independence Movement.[citation needed]

Early depictions

Shivaji was admired for his heroic exploits and clever stratagems in the contemporary accounts of English, French, Dutch, Portuguese and Italian writers.[144] Contemporary Englishmen compared him with Alexander, Hannibal and Julius Caesar. President Aungier of Bombay gives expression to his views about Shivaji in two dispatches to the Directors in London - "He being no less dexterous than Alexander the Great was for, by the agility of his winged men, he took in less than eight months what he had delivered to Jaysingh" and "it is too well known that Shivaji is as second Quintus Sertorius, comes not short of Hannibal for Stratagems."[145][146]

Mughal depictions of Shivaji were largely negative, referring to him simply as "Shiva" without the honorific "-ji". One Mughal writer in the early 1700s described Shivaji's death as kafir bi jahannum raft ("the infidel went to Hell").[117] Muslim writers of the day generally described him as a plunderer and marauder.[147]

Reimagining

In the mid-19th century, Maharashtrian social reformer Jyotirao Phule wrote his own interpretation of the Shivaji legend, portraying Shivaji as a hero of the shudras and Dalits.[148] Phule sought to use the Shivaji mythos to undermine the Brahmins he accused of hijacking the narrative, and uplift the lower classes; his 1869 ballad-form story of Shivaji was met with great hostility by the Brahim-dominated media.[148] At the end of the 19th century, Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay, who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the kshatriya varna.[149] While some Brahmins rebutted this identity, defining them as of the lower shudra varna, other Brahmins recognised the Maratha's utility to the Indian independence movement, and endorsed this kshatriya legacy and the significance of Shivaji.[149]

In 1895, Indian nationalist leader, Lokmanya Tilak organised an annual festival to mark the birthday celebrations of Shivaji.[150] Tilak portrayed Shivaji as the opponent of the oppressor, opening loaded implications for the British Raj.[151] Tilak denied any suggestion that his festival was anti-Muslim or disloyal to the government, but simply a celebration of a hero.[93]:106– These celebrations prompted a British commentator in 1906 to note: "Cannot the annals of the Hindu race point to a single hero whom even the tongue of slander will not dare call a chief of dacoits ...?"[152]

One of the early commentators who challenged the negative British view was M. G. Ranade, whose Rise of the Maratha Power (1900) declared Shivaji's achievements as the beginning of modern nation-building. Ranade criticised earlier British portrayals of Shivaji's state as "a freebooting Power, which thrived by plunder and adventure, and succeeded only because it was the most cunning and adventurous ... This is a very common feeling with the readers, who derive their knowledge of these events solely from the works of English historians."[153]:121

In 1919, Sarkar published the seminal Shivaji and His Times, hailed as the most authoritative biography of the king since James Grant Duff's 1826 A History of the Mahrattas. A respected scholar, Sarkar was able to read primary sources in Persian, Marathi, and Arabic, but was challenged for his criticism of the "chauvinism" of Marathi historians' views of Shivaji.[154] Likewise, though supporters cheered his depiction of the killing of Afzal Khan as justified, they decried Sarkar's terming as "murder" the killing of the Hindu raja Chandrao More and his clan.[155]

Inspiration

Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort

As political tensions rose in India in the early 20th century, some Indian leaders came to re-work their earlier stances on Shivaji's role. Jawaharlal Nehru had in 1934 noted "Some of the Shivaji's deeds, like the treacherous killing of the Bijapur general, lower him greatly in our estimation." Following public outcry from Pune intellectuals, Congress leader T. R. Deogirikar noted that Nehru had admitted he was wrong regarding Shivaji, and now endorsed Shivaji as great nationalist.[156]

In 1966, the Shiv Sena (Army of Shivaji) party formed to promote the interests of Maharashtrians in the face of migration to the region from other parts of India, and the accompanying loss of power for locals. His image adorns literature, propaganda and icons of the Maratha-centric party.[157]

In modern times, Shivaji is considered as a national hero in India,[153]:137 especially in the state of Maharashtra, where he remains arguably the greatest figure in the state's history. Stories of his life form an integral part of the upbringing and identity of the Marathi people. Further, he is also recognised as a warrior legend, who sowed the seeds of Indian independence.[153]:137 Shivaji is upheld as an example by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, and also of the Maratha caste dominated Congress parties in Maharashtra, such as the Indira Congress and the Nationalist Congress Party.[158] Past Congress party leaders in the state such as Yashwantrao Chavan were considered political descendants of Shivaji.[159]

In the late 20th century, Babasaheb Purandare became one of the most significant artists in portraying Shivaji in his writings, leading him to be declared in 1964 as the Shiv-Shahir ("Bard of Shivaji").[160][161] However, Purandare, a Brahmin, was also accused of over-emphasizing the influence of Brahmin gurus on Shivaji,[129]:164 and his Maharashtra Bhushan award ceremony in 2015 was protested by those claiming he had defamed Shivaji.[162] Purandare has, on the other end, been accused of a communalist and anti-Muslim portrayal of Shivaji at odds with the king's own actions.[163]

Controversy

In 1993, the Illustrated Weekly published an article suggesting that Shivaji was not opposed to Muslims per se, and was influenced by their form of governance. Congress Party members called for legal actions against the publisher and writer, Maharathi newspapers accused them of "imperial prejudice" and Shiv Sena called for the writer's public flogging. Maharashtra brought legal action against the publisher under regulations prohibiting enmity between religious and cultural groups, but a High Court found the Illustrated Weekly had operated within the bounds of freedom of expression.[164][165]

In 2003, American academic James W. Laine published his book Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India, which was followed by heavy criticism including threats of arrest.[166] As a result of this publication, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune where Laine had researched was attacked by a group of Maratha activists calling itself the Sambhaji Brigade.[167] The book was banned in Maharashtra in January 2004, but the ban was lifted by the Bombay High Court in 2007, and in July 2010 the Supreme Court of India upheld the lifting of ban.[168][169] This lifting was followed by public demonstrations against the author and the decision of the Supreme Court.[170][171]

Commemorations

Commemorations of Shivaji are found throughout India, most notably in Maharashtra. Shivaji's statues and monuments are found almost in every town and city in Maharashtra as well as in different places across India.[172][173][174] Other commemorations include the Indian Navy's ship the INS Shivaji,[175] numerous postage stamps,[176] and the main airport and railway headquarters in Mumbai.[177][178] In Maharashtra, there has been a long tradition of children building a replica fort with toy soldiers and other figures during the festival of Diwali in memory of Shivaji.[179]

Notes

  1. ^ The Government of Maharashtra accepts 19 February 1630 as his birthdate; other suggested dates include 6 April 1627 or other dates near this day.[4][5]
  2. ^ Some scholars interpret Hindavi Swarajya as meaning self-rule of Hindu people,[24] while others state that Shivaji's struggle was for gaining "religious freedom" for Hindus.[25] However the term hindavi was in use by both Hindus and Muslims in the time period concerned.[26]
  3. ^ Most of the great Maratha Jahagirdar families in the service of Adilshahi strongly opposed Shivaji in his early years. These included families such as the Ghadge, More, Mohite, Ghorpade, Shirke, and Nimbalkar[55]:68

References

  1. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 260.
  2. ^ James Laine (1996). Anne Feldhaus, ed. Images of women in Maharashtrian literature and religion. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 183. ISBN 9780791428375.
  3. ^ Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale 1962, p. 81.
  4. ^ Siba Pada Sen (1973). Historians and historiography in modern India. Institute of Historical Studies. p. 106. ISBN 9788120809000.
  5. ^ N. Jayapalan (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distri. p. 211. ISBN 978-81-7156-928-1.
  6. ^ Sailendra Sen (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 196–199. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  7. ^ "Public Holidays" (PDF). maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  8. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 19.
  9. ^ a b Richard M. Eaton (17 November 2005). A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives. 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 128–221. ISBN 978-0-521-25484-7.
  10. ^ Arun Metha (2004). History of medieval India. ABD Publishers. p. 278.
  11. ^ Kalyani Devaki Menon (6 July 2011). Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 0-8122-0279-1.
  12. ^ a b Edwardes & Garrett, Mughal Rule in India 1995, p. 128.
  13. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 26.
  14. ^ Duff, Esq. Captain in the first, or grenadier, regiment of Bombay Native Infantry, and late political resident at Satara. In three volumes, James Grant (1826). A History of the Mahrattas, Volume 1 (1921 ed.). London: Oxford University Press. pp. 126–128. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  15. ^ Haig, Wolseley (27 June 1930). "The Maratha Nation". Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 78 (4049): 873. doi:10.2307/41358538. (Subscription required (help)).
  16. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, pp. 20–25.
  17. ^ Shivaram Shankar Apte (1965). Samarth Ramdas, Life & Mission. Vora. p. 105.
  18. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, pp. 22–24.
  19. ^ Gordon, The Marathas 1993, p. 55.
  20. ^ Prof. A. R. Kulkarni (2008). The Marathas. Diamond Publications. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-81-8483-073-6.
  21. ^ Gordon, The Marathas 1993, p. 60.
  22. ^ Pagadi, Shivaji 1983, p. 98: "It was a bid for Hindawi Swarajya (Indian rule), a term in use in Marathi sources of history."
  23. ^ Smith, Wilfred C. (1981), On Understanding Islam: Selected Studies, Walter de Gruyter, p. 195, ISBN 978-3-11-082580-0: "The earliest relevant usage that I myself have found is Hindavi swarajya from 1645, in a letter of Shivaji. This might mean, Indian independence from foreign rule, rather than Hindu raj in the modern sense.
  24. ^ William Joseph Jackson (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-7546-3950-9.: "Probably the earliest use of a word like 'Hindu' was in 1645 in a phrase in a letter of Shivaji, Hindavi swarajya, meaning independence from foreign rule, 'self-rule of Hindu people'."
  25. ^ Brown, C. Mackenzie (1984). "Svarāj, the Indian Ideal of Freedom: A Political or Religious Concept?". Religious Studies. 20 (3): 429–441.
  26. ^ Husain, Ali Akbar (2011), "The Courtly Gardens of 'Abdul's Ibrahim Nama", in Navina Najat Haiser; Marika Sardar, Sultans of the South: Arts of India's Deccan Courts, 1323-1687, Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 82–83, ISBN 978-1-58839-438-5: "That an obscure "Hindavi-speaking" poet should be elevated to the Persian-influenced court of one of the Deccan's principal sultanates speaks both for Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II's patronage of the local idiom and for his encouragement of 'Abdul and other promising poets..."
  27. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 32.
  28. ^ Gordon, The Marathas 1993, p. 61.
  29. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 268.
  30. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 34.
  31. ^ W. Loch (1989) [first published 1877]. Dakhan History Musalman And Maratha, A.D. 1300 To 1818. Asian Educational Services. p. 592. ISBN 9788120604674.
  32. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 41.
  33. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 42.
  34. ^ Farooqui, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India 2011, p. 317.
  35. ^ Dipesh Chakrabarty (15 July 2015). The Calling of History: Sir Jadunath Sarkar and His Empire of Truth. University of Chicago Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-226-24024-4.
  36. ^ John F. Richards (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 208–. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2.
  37. ^ Eaton, The Sufis of Bijapur 2015, pp. 183–184.
  38. ^ Roy, Kaushik (2012). Hinduism and the Ethics of Warfare in South Asia: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9781139576840.
  39. ^ Abraham Eraly (2000). Last Spring: The Lives and Times of Great Mughals. Penguin Books Limited. p. 550. ISBN 978-93-5118-128-6.
  40. ^ Kaushik Roy (15 October 2012). Hinduism and the Ethics of Warfare in South Asia: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. pp. 202–. ISBN 978-1-139-57684-0.
  41. ^ Gier, The Origins of Religious Violence 2014, p. 17.
  42. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 70.
  43. ^ a b J. Nazareth (2008). Creative Thinking in Warfare (illustrated ed.). Lancer. pp. 174–176. ISBN 978-81-7062-035-8.
  44. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 294.
  45. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 22.
  46. ^ Pagadi, Shivaji 1983, p. 29.
  47. ^ Vidya Dhar Mahajan (1967). India since 1526. S. Chand. p. 174.
  48. ^ a b c Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960.
  49. ^ Betham, Marathas and Dekhani Musalmans 1908, p. 135.
  50. ^ a b Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 75.
  51. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 78.
  52. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 266.
  53. ^ a b Bombay (India : State) (1886). Gazetteer. Government Central Press. pp. 314–.
  54. ^ Shanti Sadiq Ali (1 January 1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  55. ^ a b c Ranade, M.G. (1900). Rise of the Maratha power. Punalekar & Company. ISBN 9781230453606.
  56. ^ C.A. Kincaid. Tale of the Tulsi Plant and Other Studies. Asian Educational Services. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-81-206-0344-8.
  57. ^ a b c Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1957). New History of the Marathas: Shivaji and his line (1600–1707). Phoenix Publications.
  58. ^ V. B. Kulkarni (1963). Shivaji: The Portrait of a Patriot. Orient Longmans. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  59. ^ a b Shripad Dattatraya Kulkarni (1992). The Struggle for Hindu supremacy. Shri Bhagavan Vedavyasa Itihasa Samshodhana Mandira (Bhishma). p. 90. ISBN 978-81-900113-5-8.
  60. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, pp. 55–56.
  61. ^ S.R. Sharma (1999). Mughal empire in India: a systematic study including source material, Volume 2. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 59. ISBN 9788171568185.
  62. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 57.
  63. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 60.
  64. ^ Indian Historical Records Commission: Proceedings of Meetings. Superintendent Government Printing, India. 1929. p. 44.
  65. ^ Aanand Aadeesh (2011). Shivaji the Great Liberator. Prabhat Prakashan. p. 69.
  66. ^ Truschke, Audrey (2017). AURANGZEB THE MAN AND THE MYTH. Gurgaon Haryana India: Penguin Viking. ISBN 9780670089819.
  67. ^ a b Jaswant Lal Mehta. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-207-1015-3.
  68. ^ a b c d e J. L. Mehta (1 January 2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6.
  69. ^ a b David Mumford (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818, Part 2, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. pp. 71–75.
  70. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 258.
  71. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, p. 77.
  72. ^ Gordon, The Marathas 1993.
  73. ^ Gordon, The Marathas 1993, p. 78.
  74. ^ Gordon, The Marathas 1993, pp. 78–79.
  75. ^ Betham, Marathas and Dekhani Musalmans 1908, pp. 138–139.
  76. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, p. 98.
  77. ^ a b Edwardes & Garrett, Mughal Rule in India 1995, p. 139.
  78. ^ a b Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920.
  79. ^ Kincaid, Charles Augustus; Parasnis, Rao Bahadur Dattatraya Balavant (1918). History of the Maratha People Volume 1 (2010 ed.). London: Oxford University press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1176681996. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  80. ^ Murlidhar Balkrishna Deopujari (1973). Shivaji and the Maratha Art of War. Vidarbha Samshodhan Mandal. p. 138.
  81. ^ Eraly, Emperors of the Peacock Throne 2000, p. 460.
  82. ^ Eraly, Emperors of the Peacock Throne 2000, p. 461.
  83. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, pp. 173–174.
  84. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, p. 175.
  85. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, p. 189.
  86. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 393.
  87. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, pp. 230–233.
  88. ^ a b Malavika Vartak (May 1999). "Shivaji Maharaj: Growth of a Symbol". Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (19): 1126–1134. JSTOR 4407933.
  89. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, pp. 239–240.
  90. ^ Rajmohan Gandhi (1999). Revenge and Reconciliation. Penguin Books India. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-0-14-029045-5. On the ground that Shivaji was merely a Maratha and not a kshatriya by caste, Maharashtra's Brahmins had refused to conduct a sacred coronation.
  91. ^ a b Gordon, The Marathas 1993, p. 88.
  92. ^ B. S. Baviskar; D. W. Attwood (30 October 2013). Inside-Outside: Two Views of Social Change in Rural India. SAGE Publications. pp. 395–. ISBN 978-81-321-1865-7.
  93. ^ a b Richard I. Cashman (1975). The Myth of the Lokamanya: Tilak and Mass Politics in Maharashtra. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02407-6.
  94. ^ Farooqui, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India 2011, p. 321.
  95. ^ Oliver Godsmark (29 January 2018). Citizenship, Community and Democracy in India: From Bombay to Maharashtra, c. 1930 - 1960. Taylor & Francis. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-351-18821-0.
  96. ^ Varma, Supriya; Saberwal, Satish (2005). Traditions in Motion: Religion and Society in History. Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN 9780195669152.
  97. ^ Pradeep Barua (1 May 2005). The state at war in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8032-1344-9. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  98. ^ Mallavarapu Venkata Siva Prasada Rau (Andhra Pradesh Archives) (1980). Archival organization and records management in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Published under the authority of the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh by the Director of State Archives (Andhra Pradesh State Archives). p. 393.
  99. ^ Yuva Bharati (Volume 1 ed.). Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee. p. 13. Retrieved 10 January 2015. About 50,000 people witnessed the coronation ceremony and arrangements were made for their boarding and lodging.
  100. ^ Satish Chandra (1982). Medieval India: Society, the Jagirdari Crisis, and the Village. Macmillan. p. 140.
  101. ^ Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1964). The History of India, 1000 A.D.-1707 A.D. Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 701. Shivaji was obliged to undergo a second coronation ceremony on 4th October, 1674, on the suggestion of a well-known Tantrik priest, named Nishchal Puri Goswami, who said that Gaga Bhatta had performed the ceremony at an inauspicious hour and neglected to propitiate the spirits adored in the Tantra. That was why, he said, the queen mother Jija Bai had died within twelve days of the ceremony and similar other mishaps had occurred.
  102. ^ Indian Institute of Public Administration. Maharashtra Regional Branch (1975). Shivaji and swarajya. Orient Longman. p. 61. one to establish that Shivaji belonged to the Kshatriya clan and that he could be crowned a Chhatrapati and the other to show that he was not entitled to the Vedic form of recitations at the time of the coronation
  103. ^ Shripad Rama Sharma (1951). The Making of Modern India: From A. D. 1526 to the Present Day. Orient Longmans. p. 223. The coronation was performed at first according to the Vedic rites, then according to the Tantric. Shivaji was anxious to satisfy all sections of his subjects. There was some doubt about his Kshatriya origin (see note at the end of this chapter). This was of more than academic interest to his contemporaries, especially Brahmans [Brahmins]. Traditionally considered the highest caste in the Hindu social heirarchy. the Brahmans would submit to Shivaji, and officiate at his coronation, only if his
  104. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 17.
  105. ^ Maharashtra (India) (1967). Maharashtra State Gazeteers: Maratha period. Directorate of Government Printing, Stationary and Publications, Maharashtra State. p. 23.
  106. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 258.
  107. ^ Gijs Kruijtzer (2009). Xenophobia in Seventeenth-Century India. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 153–190. ISBN 978-90-8728-068-0.
  108. ^ Kulkarni, A. R. (1990). "Maratha Policy Towards the Adil Shahi Kingdom". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 49: 221–226. JSTOR 42930290.
  109. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 276.
  110. ^ Everett Jenkins, Jr. (12 November 2010). The Muslim Diaspora (Volume 2, 1500–1799): A Comprehensive Chronology of the Spread of Islam in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. McFarland. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-1-4766-0889-1.
  111. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 290.
  112. ^ Kr̥shṇājī Ananta Sabhāsada (1920). Śiva Chhatrapati. University of Calcutta. pp. 235–. Therefore you will not have to serve the Bijapur Government personally, but in lieu of personal service you will have to send an army whenever ... These I have conferred on Ghimujlv Saubhagyavatl Dipa Bai for cholibangdl (pin money).
  113. ^ Maya Jayapal (1997). Bangalore: the story of a city. Eastwest Books (Madras). p. 20. ISBN 978-81-86852-09-5. Shivaji's and Ekoji's armies met in battle on 26 November 1677, and Ekoji was defeated. By the treaty he signed, Bangalore and the adjoining areas were given to Shivaji, who then made them over to Ekoji's wife Deepabai to be held by her, with the proviso that Ekoji had to ensure that Shahaji's Memorial was well tended.
  114. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 382.
  115. ^ Haig & Burn, The Mughal Period 1960, p. 278.
  116. ^ Gier, The Origins of Religious Violence 2014, p. 18.
  117. ^ a b Audrey Truschke (16 May 2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Stanford University Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-1-5036-0259-5.
  118. ^ Shyam Singh Shashi (2004). Encyclopaedia Indica: The Maratha. Anmol Publications. p. 78. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7.
  119. ^ Sunita Sharma, K̲h̲udā Bak̲h̲sh Oriyanṭal Pablik Lāʼibrerī (2004). Veil, sceptre, and quill: profiles of eminent women, 16th- 18th centuries. Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library. p. 139. By June 1680 three months after Shivaji's death Rajaram was made a prisoner in the fort of Raigad, along with his mother Soyra Bai and his wife Janki Bai. Soyra Bai was put to death on charge of conspiracy.
  120. ^ William Cooke Taylor (1851). Ancient and Modern India. James Madden. pp. 98–.
  121. ^ Jeremy Black (2006). A Military History of Britain: from 1775 to the Present. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-99039-8.
  122. ^ Percival Spear (1990) [First published 1965]. A History of India. Volume 2. Penguin Books. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-14-013836-8.
  123. ^ Eraly, Emperors of the Peacock Throne 2000.
  124. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1974). The Mughul Empire. B.V. Bhavan. pp. 609, 634.
  125. ^ Truschke, Audrey (2017). AURANGZEB THE MAN AND THE MYTH. Gurgaon Haryana India: Penguin Viking. ISBN 9780670089819.
  126. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 421.
  127. ^ a b Rafiq Zakaria (2002). Communal Rage In Secular India. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-070-2. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  128. ^ Mariam Dossal; Ruby Maloni (1999). State Intervention and Popular Response: Western India in the Nineteenth Century. Popular Prakashan. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-81-7154-855-2.
  129. ^ a b Mathew N. Schmalz; Peter Gottschalk (2 January 2012). Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-3325-7.
  130. ^ American Oriental Society (1963). Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. p. 476. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  131. ^ Prof. A. R. Kulkarni (1 July 2008). Medieval Maratha Country. Diamond Publications. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-81-8483-072-9.
  132. ^ Panduronga S. S. Pissurlencar (1975). The Portuguese and the Marathas: Translation of Articles of the Late Dr. Pandurang S. Pissurlenkar's Portugueses E Maratas in Portuguese Language. State Board for Literature and Culture, Government of Maharashtra. p. 152.
  133. ^ M. R. Kantak (1993). The First Anglo-Maratha War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-696-1.
  134. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Sátára. Government Central Press. 1885. pp. 239–.
  135. ^ Pagadi, Shivaji 1983, p. 21.
  136. ^ M. S. Naravane (1 January 1995). Forts of Maharashtra. APH Publishing Corporation. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7024-696-1.
  137. ^ Sarkar, Shivaji and His Times 1920, p. 408.
  138. ^ Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, p. 414.
  139. ^ Kaushik Roy (30 March 2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Taylor & Francis. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.
  140. ^ a b Sarkar, History of Aurangzib 1920, p. 59.
  141. ^ Bhagamandala Seetharama Shastry (1981). Studies in Indo-Portuguese History. IBH Prakashana.
  142. ^ Kaushik Roy; Peter Lorge (17 December 2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-317-58710-1.
  143. ^ Raj Narain Misra (1986). Indian Ocean and India's Security. Mittal Publications. pp. 13–. GGKEY:CCJCT3CW16S.
  144. ^ Sen, Surendra (1928). Foreign Biographies of Shivaji. II. London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co. ltd. pp. xiii.
  145. ^ Bal Krishna. Shivaji The Great. BRAOU, Digital Library Of India. The Arya Book Depot Kolhapur. p. 11.
  146. ^ English Factory Records on Shivaji - 1659 to 1682. Pune: Shivcharitra Karyalaya, Pune. 1931. p. 46.
  147. ^ Edwardes & Garrett, Mughal Rule in India 1995, p. 141.
  148. ^ a b Uma Chakravarti (27 October 2014). Rewriting History: The Life and Times of Pandita Ramabai. Zubaan. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-93-83074-63-1.
  149. ^ a b Donald V. Kurtz (1993). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. BRILL. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-90-04-09828-2.
  150. ^ Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale 1962, pp. 79–81.
  151. ^ Biswamoy Pati (2011). Bal Gangadhar Tilak: Popular Readings. Primus Books. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-93-80607-18-4.
  152. ^ Indo-British Review. Indo-British Historical Society. p. 75.
  153. ^ a b c Karline McLain (2009). India's Immortal Comic Books: Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-22052-3.
  154. ^ Prachi Deshpande (2007). Creative Pasts: Historical Memory and Identity in Western India, 1700–1960. Columbia University Press. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-231-12486-7. Shivaji and His Times, was widely regarded as the authoritative follow-up to Grant Duff. An erudite, painstaking Rankean scholar, Sarkar was also able to access a wide variety of sources through his mastery of Persian, Marathi, and Arabic, but as explained in the last chapter, he earned considerable hostility from the Poona [Pune] school for his sharp criticism of the “chauvinism” he saw in Marathi historians' appraisals of the Marathas
  155. ^ C. A. Bayly (10 November 2011). Recovering Liberties: Indian Thought in the Age of Liberalism and Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-1-139-50518-5.
  156. ^ Girja Kumar (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. Har-Anand Publications. pp. 431–. ISBN 978-81-241-0525-2.
  157. ^ V.S. Naipaul (6 April 2011). India: A Wounded Civilization. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-307-78934-1. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  158. ^ Matthew N. Schmalz (2011). Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. SUNY Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4384-3325-7. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  159. ^ R. D. Pradhan and Madhav Godbole (1999). Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962–65. Orient Blackswan. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-250-1477-5.
  160. ^ Lok Sabha Debates. Lok Sabha Secretariat. 1952. p. 121. Will the Minister of EDUCATION, SOCIAL WELFARE AND CULTURE be pleased to state: (a) whether Shri Shivshahir Bawa Saheb Purandare of Maharashtra has sought the permission of Central Government ...
  161. ^ The Indian P.E.N. P.E.N. All-India Centre. 1964. p. 32. Sumitra Raje Bhonsale of Satara honoured Shri Purandare with the title of "Shiva-shahir" and donated Rs. 301 for the proposed publication.
  162. ^ Krishna Kumar (20 August 2015). "Writer Babasaheb Purandare receives 'Maharashtra Bhushan' despite protests" – via The Economic Times.
  163. ^ Ram Puniyani (2010). Communal Threat to Secular Democracy. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 302–. ISBN 978-81-7835-861-1.
  164. ^ Thomas Blom Hansen (18 November 2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 0-691-08840-3.
  165. ^ Raminder Kaur; William Mazzarella (2009). Censorship in South Asia: Cultural Regulation from Sedition to Seduction. Indiana University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 0-253-35335-1.
  166. ^ India seeks to arrest US scholar. BBC News (23 March 2004). Retrieved on 25 September 2013.
  167. ^ "'Maratha' activists vandalise Bhandarkar Institute". Times of India. 6 January 2004.
  168. ^ "Supreme Court lifts ban on James Laine's book on Shivaji". Times of India. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  169. ^ Rakesh Bhatnagar, Rahul Chandawarkar (9 July 2010). "Supreme Court upholds lifting of ban on Shivaji book". DNA India. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  170. ^ "Protests over James Laine's book across Mumbai". webindia123.com. 10 July 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  171. ^ Rahul Chandawarkar (10 July 2010). "Hard-liners slam state, Supreme Court decision on Laine's Shivaji book". DNA India. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  172. ^ "comments : Modi unveils Shivaji statue at Limbayat". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  173. ^ "New Shivaji statue faces protests". Pune Mirror. 16 May 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  174. ^ "Kalam unveils Shivaji statue". The Hindu. 29 April 2003. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  175. ^ "INS Shivaji (Engineering Training Establishment) : Training". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  176. ^ "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj". Indianpost.com. 21 April 1980. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  177. ^ "Politics over Shivaji statue delays Mumbai airport expansion". Business Standard. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  178. ^ Times, Maharashtra (2017). "Mumbai Railway station renamed to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus" (30 June). Times of India. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  179. ^ "Shivaji killas express pure reverence". The Times of India. 29 October 2010.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links

Shivaji
Born: c. 1627/1630 Died: 3 April 1680
Regnal titles
New title
new state formed
Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
1674–1680
Succeeded by
Sambhaji