Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park

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Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park (Wide Gate and Board).jpg
Entry gate of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park from Sundarijal
LocMap Shivapuri.png
Location map of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
Location Nepal
Nearest city Kathmandu
Coordinates 27°47′42″N 85°23′24″E / 27.795°N 85.39°E / 27.795; 85.39Coordinates: 27°47′42″N 85°23′24″E / 27.795°N 85.39°E / 27.795; 85.39
Area 159 km2 (61 sq mi)
Established 2002
Governing body Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation
A view of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park from Sundarijal

Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park is the ninth national park in Nepal and was established in 2002. It is located in the country's mid-hills on the northern fringe of the Kathmandu Valley and named after Shivapuri Peak of 2,732 m (8,963 ft) altitude. It covers an area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi) in the districts of Kathmandu, Nuwakot and Sindhupalchowk, adjoining 23 Village Development Committees.[1] In the west, the protected area extends to the Dhading District.[2]

History[edit]

The area has always been an important water catchment area, supplying the Kathmandu Valley with several hundred thousands cubic liter of water daily. In 1976, the area was established as a protected watershed and wildlife reserve. In 2002, it was gazetted as Shivapuri National Park, initially covering 144 km2 (56 sq mi).[1] It was extended by the Nagarjun Forest Reserve covering 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi) in 2009.[2]

The park includes some historical and religious sites, and a popular hiking route for local people and tourists.[3]

Shivpuri is described in the Skanda Purana's Nepalmahatmya as "auspicious place of Lord Shiva, filled with Shivalingams"

Climate[edit]

The park is located in a transition zone between subtropical and temperate climate. The annual precipitation of about 1,400 mm (55 in) falls mostly from May to September, with 80% during monsoon. Temperatures vary from 2–17 °C (36–63 °F) during the winter season, rising to 19–30 °C (66–86 °F) during the summer season.

Vegetation[edit]

Persian silk tree occurs in the park

The typical vegetation of the park is middle hill forest from 1,000 to 1,800 m (3,300 to 5,900 ft) of altitude, consisting of:

On higher elevation a variety of medicinal herbs prosper.[4] Botanists have recorded 129 species of mushrooms and 2,122 floral species, out of which 449 are vascular and 16 are endemic plants.[1][6]

Fauna[edit]

Birds in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park

Since 2002 several surveys have been carried out to determine the faunal diversity of the protected area. In a field study carried out from July 2003 to July 2004, Indian leopard, jungle cat, large Indian civet, golden jackal, Himalayan black bear, yellow-throated marten, small Asian mongoose, Himalayan goral, barking deer, wild boar, rhesus monkey, Hanuman langur, Chinese pangolin, Indian crested porcupine, Himalayan pika, black-naped hare, Indian hare, Himalayan squirrel, fawn-colored mouse, brown-toothed shrew and black rat were identified.[7] Clouded leopard, leopard cat, jungle cat, large Indian civet, masked palm civet, crab-eating mongoose, pangolin, rhesus macaque and yellow-throated marten, were camera trapped in 2010.[2] In 2008, intermediate horseshoe, greater horseshoe and big-eared horseshoe bats were mist netted at the entrance of Nagarjuna cave inside the park.[8]

In the western part of the park, herpetologists encountered Monocled cobra, Himalayan keelback, olive Oriental slender snake, yellow-bellied worm-eating snake, variegated mountain lizard, Oriental garden lizard, many-keeled grass skink, Sikkim skink, black-spined toad, long-legged cricket frog and horned frog in the summer of 2009.[9]

Ornithologists recorded 318 species of birds including Eurasian eagle-owl, slender-billed scimitar-babbler, white-gorgeted flycatcher, barred cuckoo-dove and golden-throated barbet.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bhuju, U. R., Shakya, P. R., Basnet, T. B., Shrestha, S. (2007). Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World Heritage Sites. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in cooperation with United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Kathmandu, ISBN 978-92-9115-033-5
  2. ^ a b c Pandey, B. P. (2010). A report on presence absence survey of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. Submitted to Government of Nepal.
  3. ^ Kunwar, K. J. (2008). "Payment for Environmental Services in Nepal (A Case Study of Shivapuri National Park, Kathmandu, Nepal)". The Initiation. 63: 63–72. 
  4. ^ a b Majupuria, T.C., Kumar, R. (1998). Wildlife, National Parks and Reserves of Nepal. S. Devi, Saharanpur and Tecpress Books, Bangkok. ISBN 974-89833-5-8. Pages 200–204.
  5. ^ Sigdel, S.R. (2009). Altitudinally coordinated pattern of plant community structure in the Shivapuri National Park, Nepal. Banko Janakari 18 (1): 11–17.
  6. ^ Maskey, N. (2008). Investing in Ecosystem Services: Opportunities and Challenges for Shivapuri National Park, Nepal. Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Sweden
  7. ^ Shrestha, B., Basnet K. (2005). Indirect methods of identifying mammals: a case study from Shivapuri National Park, Nepal. Ecoprint, Vol.12: 43–58.
  8. ^ Thapa, S. (2010). Detailed monitoring survey of bats and their conservation through radio awareness programme and outreach programme to school children in Kathmandu Valley. A First Phase report submitted to The Rufford Small Grants, UK. Small Mammals Conservation and Research Foundation, Kathmandu.
  9. ^ Aryal, P. C., Pokhrel, G. K., Shah, K. B., Rijal, B., Kharel, S. C., Paudel, E., Suwal, M. K., Dhamala, M. K., Bhurtel, B. P. (2010). Inventory of Herpetofaunal Diversity In Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. Companions for Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  10. ^ Bird Conservation Nepal (2006). Birds of Shivapuri. Checklist of 318 reported species. Published in cooperation with Shivapuri National Park, Kathmandu.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bird Conservation Nepal (2006). Birds of Shivapuri. Checklist of 318 reported species. Published in cooperation with Shivapuri National Park, Kathmandu.

External links[edit]