Shivrai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Shivrai was a copper coin minted during the rule of Marathas[1] and remained in circulation till the end of the 19th century, primarily in the Bombay Presidency region.[2]

Shivrai
Maratha Empire
Value 1/74th to 1/80th of Rupee
Composition Copper
Years of minting 1674 - 1830
Circulation 1674 - Late 1890s
Obverse
Design "Shri / Raja / Shiv" or "Shri / Raja" in Devanagari script, in three or two rows.
Reverse
Design Chhatra / Pati in Devanagari script, in two rows.

Before 1830s, Shivrai was valued at 1/74th to 1/80th of a Rupee.[3] There are 150 different types of Shivrai extant till date.[2] In 1885, the British government ordered all local revenue collectors (Mamlatdars) to collect all Shivrais and deposit them in treasury. The purpose of this was to bring the new pice, worth 1/64th of Rupee, in currency by eliminating this native rival.[2] In 1890, Rev. Abbott collected and studied around 25,000 Shivrais. He mentions that they were still in circulation.[2] The Shivrai remained in circulation till the end of the 19th century.[2]

Shivaji's Shivrai[edit]

Shivaji's Shivrai
Maratha Empire
Value 1/74th to 1/80th of Rupee
Diameter 23 mm
Thickness 4 mm
Composition Copper
Circulation 1674 - 1890s
Obverse
Shivrai 01.jpg
Design Shri / Raja / Shiv in Devanagari script, in three rows.
Design date 1674
Reverse
Shivrai 02.jpg
Design Chhatra / Pati in Devanagari script, in two rows.
Design date 1674

When the Maratha warrior Shivaji became Chhatrapati of the Maratha empire,[4] as a symbol of sovereignty, the Rajyaabhisheka Shaka (The Coronation Era) was started. On the occasion of coronation, special coins were minted, including a gold coin called Shivrai Hon.[5] These coins have Shri Raja ShivaChhatrapati, in Devanagari, inscribed on them.

Dudandi Shivrai[edit]

Dudandi Shivrais (Marathi: दुदांडी शिवराई) were minted during Peshwa period.[6] Dudandi literally means two-bars.[7]

Dudandi Shivrai
Maratha Empire
Value 1/74th to 1/80th of Rupee
Diameter 20 mm
Thickness 4 mm
Composition Copper
Years of minting Mid 18th Century - 1818
Circulation Mid 18th to late 19th century
Obverse
Dudandi Shivrai 02.jpg
Design Shri / Raja in Devanagari script, in two rows. "Shri" is underlined.
Reverse
Dudandi Shivrai 01.jpg
Design Chhatra / Pati in Devanagari script, in two rows.

The "Shri" at the top of the obverse is underlined. This horizontal line, combined with the horizontal heading line of the word "Raja", gives us an impression of "Double bars", hence the term "Dudandi".

EIC's Shivrai[edit]

The British East India Company minted Shivrais at Poona during the period of 1820-1830.[8] Unlike Earlier Shivrais, these contained year of minting on it.[9] The dotted collar of earlier Shivrais is also absent.[9] The year was given in Fasli era.[8]

EIC's Shivrai
Company Raj
Value 1/74th to 1/80th of Rupee
Diameter 19 mm
Composition Copper
Years of minting 1820 - 1830
Circulation 1820 - Late 1890s
Obverse
Design Numeric Fasli year, "Raja" in Devanagari
Reverse
Design Chhatra / Pati in Devanagari script, in two rows.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shivaji era copper coins found at construction site
  2. ^ a b c d e Prabhune, Padmakar (2007). महाराष्ट्रातील चलनाचा इतिहास (History of the coinage of Maharashtra). Pune: Diamond Publications. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-89724-92-4. 
  3. ^ "Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Thane, Pt I, Pg 306.". Google books. Government Central Press. 1882. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  4. ^ Rare coins will be on display
  5. ^ Coins from Shivaji era main attraction at rare items expo
  6. ^ "http://www.shivrajabhishek.org/event_news.php?ne_id=23". www.shivrajabhishek.org. Retrieved 2015-07-09.  External link in |title= (help)
  7. ^ tamildictionary.org, Tamil. "'Dudandi' Meaning in English - Meanings of Marathi Words in English, English to Marathi Dictionary, Marathi to English Dictionary". marathidictionary.org. Retrieved 2015-07-09. 
  8. ^ a b Stevens, Paul (11 Apr 2008). "The coins of the Bombay Presidency; The Transitional Mints of the Deccan". Oriental Numismatic Society, Newsletter # 181. 
  9. ^ a b "B.E.I.C., Shivarai or Chhatrapati Paisa, struck at Poona 1820 - 1830". ZENO.RU - Oriental Coins Database. 10 Jul 2015. Retrieved 10 Jul 2015.