Shiwiar language

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Native toPeru, Ecuador
EthnicityAchuar people, Shiwiar
Native speakers
(undated figure of 3,000–3,500 in Peru)[1]
4,000 in Ecuador (2007)[2]
  • Achuar
Language codes
ISO 639-3acu

Shiwiar, also known as Achuar, Jivaro, Maina, is a Jivaroan language spoken along the Pastaza and Bobonaza rivers in Ecuador.


Consonant phonemes[4]
Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p t k ʔ
Affricate ts
Fricative s ʃ x
Approximant j w
Tap ɾ
Vowel phonemes[4]
Front Central Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid ɘ ɘ̃ ɘː[5]
Open a ã


  1. ^ Achuar at Ethnologue (10th ed., 1984). Note: Data may come from the 9th edition (1978).
  2. ^ Achuar-Shiwiar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Achuar-Shiwiar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 10.
  5. ^ Lev, Stark & Chang (2012), citing the same source, give these instead as [ɨ], [ɨ̃] and [ɨː].
  6. ^ a b c Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.


  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano
  • Lev, Michael; Stark, Tammy; Chang, Will (2012). "Phonological inventory of Achuar-Shiwiar". The South American Phonological Inventory Database (version 1.1.3 ed.). Berkeley: University of California: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages Digital Resource.

External links[edit]