Shixing language

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Shixing
Native to China
Native speakers
1,800 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sxg
Glottolog shix1238[2]

Shixing, or Xumi, is a poorly-attested Qiangic language of Sichuan and the Tibet Autonomous Region. Two thirds of its speakers are monolingual.

Shixing is also known as Xùmǐ 旭米; it is spoken by about 1800 people living by the Shuiluo River 水洛 in Shuiluo Township 水洛乡, Mili Tibetan Autonomous County.[3]

Katia Chirkova reports two varieties.[4]

  • Upper Xumi (autonym: ʂuhĩ)
  • Lower Xumi (autonym: ʃʉhẽ)

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Xumi features a very unusual phonemic contrast between voiceless /ʎ̥/ and voiced /ʎ/ alveolo-palatal lateral approximants.[5][6]

Consonant phonemes[7][8]
Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Nasal voiceless ɲ̊ ŋ̊
voiced m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive aspirated
plain p t k q
voiced b d g ɢ
Affricate aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ ʈʂʰ tɕʰ
plain ts ʈʂ
voiced dz ɖʐ
Fricative voiceless s ʃ ʂ ɕ x χ h
voiced z ʒ ʐ ʑ ɣ ʁ ɦ
Lateral voiceless ʎ̥
voiced l ʎ
Approximant ɹ j w

In the table above, gold phonemes only appear in the Upper Xumi dialect while blue phonemes only appear in the Lower Xumi dialect. All others appear in both Upper and Lower Xumi.

Vowels[edit]

Oral monophthongs of Lower Xumi, from Chirkova & Chen (2013:369)

Oral[edit]

  • Upper Xumi has the following oral vowels: /i, ʉ, u, e, o, ɛ, ɜ, ɔ, ɐ/.[9]
  • Lower Xumi has the following oral vowels: /i, ʉ, u, e, o, ɛ, ɐ, ɑ/.[10] /o, ɐ, ɑ/ generally correspond to Upper Xumi /u, ɜ, ɔ/, respectively.[11]
    • /ʉ/ is phonetically close-mid [ɵ].[12]

Nasal[edit]

  • Upper Xumi has the following nasal vowels: /ĩ, ũ, ɛ̃, ɔ̃, ɐ̃/, as well as the marginal /ɘ̃/, which occurs only in the word [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'on the roof / upstairs'.[9]
  • Lower Xumi has the following nasal vowels: /ĩ, õ, ɛ̃, ɐ̃, ɑ̃/, as well as the marginal /ə̃/, which occurs only in the word [LPmə̃dɐ Rʁo] 'on the roof / upstairs'.[10] /ẽ, õ, ɐ̃, ɑ̃/ generally correspond to Upper Xumi /ĩ, ũ, ɛ̃, ɔ̃/, respectively.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shixing at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Shixing". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 363.
  4. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 364.
  5. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  6. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
  7. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 382.
  8. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 365.
  9. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 388–389.
  10. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  11. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  12. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 369.

Bibliography[edit]