Jump to content


Coordinates: 51°31′54″N 0°47′52″E / 51.5316°N 0.7978°E / 51.5316; 0.7978
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shoeburyness from the air
Shoeburyness is located in Essex
Location within Essex
Population22,275 (2018 mid census)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ941851
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Postcode districtSS3
Dialling code01702
AmbulanceEast of England
UK Parliament
List of places
51°31′54″N 0°47′52″E / 51.5316°N 0.7978°E / 51.5316; 0.7978

Shoeburyness (/ˌʃbriˈnɛs/ SHOO-bree-NESS), or simply Shoebury, is a coastal town in the City of Southend-on-Sea, in the ceremonial county of Essex, England; it lies 3 miles (5 km) east of the city centre. It was formerly a separate town until it was absorbed into Southend in 1933.

In Saxon times, the area was called Shoebury. Sometime between 1086 and the thirteenth century, it was divided into two parishes called North Shoebury and South Shoebury. The two villages remained small rural settlements until the 1850s, when a barracks was established in the parish of South Shoebury, later becoming MoD Shoeburyness. A garrison town, known as Shoeburyness, grew around the barracks, taking its name from the ness on the coast at the southern end of the parish. Shoeburyness railway station opened in 1884, as the eastern terminus of the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway.

The parish of South Shoebury was made an urban district in 1894, which was renamed Shoeburyness in 1895. The urban district of Shoeburyness and parish of North Shoebury were both abolished in 1933, being absorbed into the county borough of Southend-on-Sea. Development during the twentieth century saw the formerly separate settlements of Shoeburyness and North Shoebury absorbed into the built-up area of Southend.


The first record of occupation in Shoebury has been found from the Mesolithic period, with Neolithic and Bronze Age stone tools and Beaker pottery having also been discovered.[2] An Iron Age settlement has been found, that had ramparts that were believed to be originally 40ft wide and 12ft tall, with evidence of round houses, ditches and Postholes that is now a Scheduled Monument.[2] The Romans built a fortified settlement called Essobira at the Ness, that was attacked by the British in AD50 under Caratacus and later by Boudica's rebels.[2] Evidence of Essobira has not been found, however a Roman Kiln was found in 1892, 300 yards from Suttons, a historical house. A further Roman kiln was found in the grounds of the garrison in 1895.[3]

The Saxons re-established a settlement in the 6th century, which at this point that the name Shoebury, or in Anglo-Saxon Scobrih, or in Danish, Scabivig was first documented.[4] A Camp was built by the Dane Hastein in circa 894, but little remains as the Artillery Barracks were built over part of the site.[3] Shoebury (North and South were recorded as one) was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086, having a population of 33 and sitting within the control of the Rochford Hundred. The land was owned by three different people, Walter; Bishop Odo of Bayeux and the Swein of Essex, son of Robert FitzWimarc.[5][6]

St Andrew. South elevation

The parish church of South Shoebury, St. Andrew was originally constructed in the 12th century under the control of Prittlewell Priory, with the West Tower being added in the 15th century and the South porch in the 16th century. The church was restored during the 19th century by renown architect Sir Charles Nicholson.[3][7] The manor house, known as South Shoebury Hall, is a medieval timber-framed house with an 18th-century brick frontage and other alterations.[2] Other historical properties include Suttons, a Grade II listed manor house that was built in 1681, which is now on the most endangered list of Historic England.[3][8] South Shoebury has also been called under is parish name of Shoebury Magna (in Latin Magna Shoberi)[9] or Greater Shoebury.[10]

Shoebury High Street

South Shoebury was prone to flooding and Marsh fever, and in 1530 the parish had to sell St Andrew's bells to pay for repairs to the sea defences.[11] Shoebury Common first appeared as The Great Marsh on a map in 1687,[12] and in 1899 the land owner, Colonel Burges handed the Common to the Shoeburyness Urban District Council for the recreation and benefit of the inhabitants of South Shoebury and others.[13]

By 1851, the population of South Shoebury stood at 151, but just ten years later the census had shown the population had grown to 1,502. The growth in population was caused by the opening of nearby brickfields by the Frapping family,[14] and the construction of the Artillery Barracks that was the start of Shoebury Garrison.[15] Prior to the Garrison's arrival the land had been home to several warrens, after the Normans had introduced rabbits to the area.[11] In comparison, North Shoebury's population in 1894 was just 184.[16] The village of South Shoebury had been built up around the High Street and Rampart Street, but it was not until the 1920s and 1930s that the town grew, with the area known as Cambridge Town being established. The area was named after a local public house called the Duke of Cambridge.[17] The town was described by the military historian Patrick Barry as

a dreary place... the broadest and most sterile foreshore perhaps in England


It was home to the last recorded case of indigenous malaria in the British Isles during the 1930s.[11]

The brickfields use to run two narrow railways, that crossed the High Street without a level crossing, to transfer their goods to Thames Barges at East Beach, which took the bricks to London, which up to World War II brought refuse back that was used to power the brick kilns, pumping out nasty fumes.[17][11] In 1866, the Gas Light & Coke Company built a gas works to supply the Garrison, which a private company was then formed to manage the supply to Shoeburyness, which subsequently was taken over by Shoeburyness Urban District Council.[19] The council was created in 1894, separating the civil and ecclesiastical side of the parish, until it was absorbed into Southend Borough in 1933 which also absorbed the former North Shoebury parish.[20]

In between the two World Wars, Shoeburyness became a popular holiday resort, with a blacksmiths sitting next to the beach until the 1930s being a regular source of entertainment.[17] In 1928, the Southend Recorder reported that tents stretched from the Common to Thorpe Hall Avenue, while in the same year local landmark Uncle Toms Cabin was built on the Common.[12]

At the beginning of the Second World War, the depositing of a magnetic ground mine in the mud at the mouth of the Thames by the Luftwaffe was observed at Shoeburyness. Various sinkings of ships near the English coast in the preceding months were thought by many to be due to U-boat torpedoes, though the Admiralty suspected magnetic mines were being used.[21] The heroic recovery of an intact mine on 23 November 1939, by Lieutenant Commanders Ouvry and Lewis from HMS Vernon made it possible for the Navy to study it and devise countermeasures to neutralise it; among these were the degaussing cables installed in merchant ships in Allied and British fleets, and, of course, wooden minesweepers.[22] East Beach is the site of a defence boom, built in 1944, to prevent enemy shipping and submarines from accessing the River Thames.[23] This replaced an earlier, similar boom built 100 yards (91 m) east.

After the war, artillery and other regiments continued to be garrisoned at Shoebury until 1976 when the garrison headquarters closed.[2]

Up and to the early 1980s, the Shoebury's were still two distinctive villages, separated by farm land.[24] During the 1970s, a study by Southend Borough Council identified a lack of retail availability in the east of the borough. North Shoebury was identified as the site, with a supermarket of 50,000 square feet planned at its centre.[25] Before any development took place, Essex County Council Archaeology Section of the Planning Department and Southend Museum started the North Shoebury Project in 1980 under the guidance of John Wymer, whose digs established that the area had continuous human habitation from the Mesolithic period.[26][24] The planned store became the ASDA supermarket, which opened in 1981, while one of the former farm barns became the Parsons Barn public house.[27] This was joined by the Bishopsteignton housing development, that was completed between 1981 and 1988. The site was the former farm of listed building, the White House, which had been sold in 1919 to Southend Estates Company.[28] Following the closure of the Old Ranges in 1998 the old garrison land and buildings were sold, and in 2000 redevelopment of the site to housing started.[29][2] In 2022, a heritage centre was opened on the former garrison after 35 years of campaigning.[30]


Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) personnel at the Royal Artillery Experimental Unit, at Shoeburyness, using the Window Position Finder to sight shell bursts in the air or water, 1943.

Shoeburyness sits on the Thames Estuary and is at the far east of the district of Southend-on-Sea, bordered to the west by Thorpe Bay at Maplin Way and to the North by Great Wakering which is part of Rochford District.[1]

The MoD Shoeburyness site at Pig's Bay is situated nearby and the facility is run by the company QinetiQ.[31] The Garrison site is now part of a conservation area set up by Southend City Council.[2]

Shoeburyness has two beaches: East Beach and Shoebury Common Beach, both Blue Flag beaches.[32]

East Beach at Shoeburyness

East Beach is a sandy/pebbly beach around a quarter of a mile long and is sandwiched between the Pig's Bay MoD site and the former Shoeburyness Artillery barracks. Access to the large gravel/grass pay-and-display car park is via Rampart Terrace. The beach is closed when there is live fire at the MOD site.[33]

Shoebury Common & Beach

Shoebury Common Beach is bounded to the east by the land formerly occupied by the Shoeburyness Artillery barracks and by Thorpe Bay to the west. Shoebury Common Beach is the site of many beach huts located on both the promenade and the beach.[34] A Coast Guard watch tower at the eastern end of the beach keeps watch over the sands and mudflats while listening out for distress calls over the radio.[35] A cycle path skirts around the sea-front linking the East Beach to Shoebury Common Beach, and thence into Southend and onto Chalkwell, in Westcliff-on-Sea.[36]

Asda, Shoeburyness

Shoeburyness does not have an actual town centre. There are parades of shops in West Road,[37] Ness Road and[38] The Renown.[39] The town is served by two supermarkets, Asda[40] and Lidl.[41]

Shoeburyness has several industrial estates, with Towerfield Road, Vanguard Way and Campfield Road serving the area.[42]

The town is served by five doctors surgeries and three dentists,[1] with its nearest hospital located at Southend University Hospital.


There is only one tier of local government covering Shoeburyness, being the unitary authority of Southend-on-Sea City Council. Shoeburyness is split into West Shoebury and Shoeburyness wards, which are both represented by three councillors.[43]

Shoebury was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086, having a population of 33 and lying in the Rochford Hundred.[6] Some time after 1086, the separate parishes of North Shoebury and South Shoebury were created. In Wakering Road, north of Constable Way stands a marker where the historical boundary between the two civil parishes existed.[44] When parish and district councils were established in December 1894, the parish of North Shoebury was included within the Rochford Rural District whilst the parish of South Shoebury was made an urban district.[45] One of the first actions of the new urban district council was to request a change in the council's name from South Shoebury to Shoeburyness. The change of name took effect in January 1895.[46] The name of the civil parish containing the urban district continued to be called "South Shoebury".[47] In 1931 the parish had a population of 6720.[48] In 1933 both Shoeburyness Urban District Council (which managed the South Shoebury civil parish) and North Shoebury civil parishes were abolished and absorbed into the County Borough of Southend on Sea, except for a more rural eastern part of the old North Shoebury parish which was transferred to the parish of Great Wakering.[49][50][11][51]

Shoeburyness is part of the Rochford and Southend East Parliamentary constituency, and the current serving Member of Parliament is James Duddridge.


Climate data for Shoeburyness, Essex 1991-2020
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 7.8
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 2.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.0
Average rainy days 9.5 8.3 7.8 7.5 7.5 7.8 7.3 7.1 7.5 10.2 10.6 10.7 101.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.5 88.9 136.8 200.4 241.2 243.3 257.0 212.2 162.4 130.0 84.7 56.9 1,884.3
Source: Met Office[52]


A c2c Class 357 at the Shoeburyness depot

The eastern terminus of the London, Tilbury and Southend line (c2c line) is at Shoeburyness railway station, where services run to London Fenchurch Street in the City of London. Shoeburyness Depot is the easternmost depot on the c2c line. The eastern end of the A13 is at Shoeburyness and is the only A Road in the town. Shoeburyness is served by Arriva and Stephensons of Essex bus companies.


Shoeburyness High School is the only secondary school within the town and incorporates a sixth form, while primary education is delivered by St George's Catholic Primary School, Friars Primary School, Hinguar Community Primary School, Richmond Avenue Primary and Nursery School and Thorpedene Primary School & Nursery.[53]


Shoeburyness Leisure Centre in Delaware Road provides a swimming pool, gym and indoor courts.[54] Shoeburyness formerly had an operating cinema, The Palace in Ness Road which opened in 1913 and closed in 1955.[55]

Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges is a 25-hectare nature reserve managed by the Essex Wildlife Trust (EWT).[56] Other parks include Shoeburyness Park, Friars Park, Bishopsteignton Park, Shoebury Common and St. Mary's Nature Reserve. A skate park is located in Anson Chase.


Shoebury Garrison is one of Southend's 14 listed conservation areas, being first designated in 1981 before a further extension in 2004.[57][58] Historic England have listed a total of 44 properties between Grade II and Grade II*, with both parish churches amongst this list. The majority of the listings are on the former garrison site, including the Cart and Wagon Shed heritage and community centre.[59]

Pig's Bay[edit]

Ex Gatwick Express British Railways Mark 2 coaches in a siding at Pig's Bay. Just visible at the extreme left is some former Northern line 1972 Stock.

Pig's Bay is a coastal area in the east of Shoeburyness.[60] The main entrance to the site is at Blackgate Road, Shoeburyness. This is also the gateway to the island of Foulness, the third largest island off the coast of England.

The bay is the site of MoD Shoeburyness, a military installation established in 1849 and which is still used as a firing range.[31][61] The Bay is home to Shoeburyness Boom, a World War II and Cold War defensive boom that is a Scheduled Monument.[62]

One of the other uses of the site is the storage and scrapping of old railway vehicles.[63] It has its own private railway network, stretching for around six miles, linked to one of the sidings at Network Rail's Shoeburyness c2c electrical multiple unit depot by means of two unmanned level crossings across Shoeburyness High Street and Blackgate Road, respectively.[64]

The front locomotive of the passenger train involved in the 1997 Southall rail crash – when an InterCity 125 train collided with a freight train, killing seven people – was scrapped here, being cut up by Serco three years after the incident once the inquiry had been completed.[65]

In popular culture[edit]

Shoeburyness Fisherman Hailing a Whitstable Hoy by J. M. W. Turner, 1809

The English painter J. M. W. Turner depicted the fishermen of Shoeburyness in his oil painting Shoeburyness Fishermen Hailing a Whitstable Hoy. The painting was exhibited in 1809, and was part of a series Turner made of the Thames estuary between 1808 and 1810. The painting has been in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada since 1939.[66][67]

In the fifth Temeraire novel Victory of Eagles (2008) by Naomi Novik, Shoeburyness is the setting of a fictitious climactic battle in which Wellesley and Nelson drive Napoleon out of England in early 1808.[68]

Shoeburyness is home to "the commuter", protagonist in the eponymous song and music video by Ceephax Acid Crew.[69]

Shoeburyness is mentioned in the Porridge episode "The Harder They Fall" (S2 E6), at approximately 6 min 10 seconds.[70]

Shoeburyness is one of the better-known entrants in Douglas Adams' and John Lloyd's 1990 spoof dictionary The Deeper Meaning of Liff. It is defined as "the vague feeling of uncomfortableness caused by sitting on a bus seat still warm from someone else's bottom".

Shoeburyness is referenced in the Billy Bragg song "A13 Trunk Road to the Sea"[71] and in the Ian Dury song "Billericay Dickie".[72]

Shoeburyness was featured in the Viral Marketing[73] for the Universal Pictures 2022 American science fiction action film sequel Jurassic World Dominion,[74] with a number of the featured videos on the DinoTracker website filmed in the area[75] doubling for locations around the world.

Notable people[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Troy Planning & Design (November 2020). "AREA PROFILE: SHOEBURYNESS" (PDF). SETTLEMENT ROLE AND HIERARCHY STUDY.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Southend Borough Council (5 March 2022). "Southend-on-Sea: Shoebury Garrison Conservation Area Appraisal" (PDF). p. 29.
  3. ^ a b c d An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 4, South east. His Majesty's Stationery Office. 1923. pp. 143–145.
  4. ^ White's Directory of Essex. 1848.
  5. ^ "History - Domesday Days". Rochford Town History. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Shoebury". Open Domesday. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  7. ^ "CHURCH OF ST ANDREW". Historic England. 23 November 1951.
  8. ^ "Shoebury Manor dating back to 1600s 'at risk'". Evening Echo. 30 December 2021.
  9. ^ Archbishop of Canterbury (1956). Registrum Roberti Winchelsey Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi A. D. 1294-1313 Volume 52. p. 1147.
  10. ^ Philip Benton (1888). The History of Rochford Hundred, (together with the Parishes Comprised Within the Union,). Vol. 2–3. Unicorn Press. p. 907. ISBN 978-0-9516587-1-0.
  11. ^ a b c d e Judith Williams (1 December 2006). Shoeburyness. A History. Phillimore. ISBN 978-1-86077-435-5.
  12. ^ a b "Is the Peace, Tranquillity and Beauty of Shoebury Common under Threat from the Council's Proposals?". Daphne Johnson.
  13. ^ Ruth Stockley (2013). In the Matter of an Application to Register Land Known as Shoebury Common Road, Shoebury, Southend-On-Sea, Essex as a Town or Village Green (PDF) (Report). p. 24. Application Number: VG 01/2013.
  14. ^ "The almost forgotten Manor – Suttons". For the Love of History. 19 April 2021.
  15. ^ "GB Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, History of South Shoebury, in Southend on Sea and Essex. Map and description". A Vision of Britain through Time.
  16. ^ "North Shoebury". The Comprehensive Gazetteer of England & Wales. 1894–1895.
  17. ^ a b c The Federation of Essex Women's Institute (19 October 1988). The Essex Village Book. Published jointly by Countryside Books and the FEWI. ISBN 978-1-85306-013-7.
  18. ^ Patrick Barry (1865). Shoeburyness and the guns: a philosophical discourse. ISBN 978-1-275-49149-6.
  19. ^ Malcolm E. Falkus (1 January 1988). Always under Pressure: A History of North Thames Gas since 1949. Springer. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-333-46819-7.
  20. ^ "Shoeburyness Urban District Council". The National Archives. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  21. ^ Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War, vol. 1, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. 505.
  22. ^ Simpson, James (23 November 2014). "How Britain Beat Germany's Magnetic Sea Mines". War Is Boring. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  23. ^ Gordon, Dee (3 February 2014). The Secret History of Southend-on-Sea. History Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7509-5545-4.
  24. ^ a b "Archaeological Digs in Essex". Essex Journal. 16–19. 1982.
  25. ^ Ross Davies (2012). Retail and Commercial Planning (RLE Retailing and Distribution). Routledge. pp. 179–181. ISBN 978-1-136-24621-0.
  26. ^ Wymer, J.; Brown, N. R; Andrews, D.D (1995). Excavations at North Shoebury Settlement and Economy in South-east Essex, 1500BC-AD1500. Essex County Council Archaeology Section, Planning Department in conjunction with the Scole Archaeological Committee. ISBN 978-1-85281-130-3.
  27. ^ "Parsons Barn". Wetherspoons. Retrieved 9 April 2023.
  28. ^ Ian Yearsley (15 April 2016). Southend in 50 Buildings. ISBN 978-1-4456-5189-7.
  29. ^ "MOD Shoeburyness". Qinetiq. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  30. ^ "After 35 years heritage centre finally set to open in Shoebury Garrison". Yellow Advertiser. 5 August 2022.
  31. ^ a b "MOD Shoeburyness". Qinetiq. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  32. ^ "Blue flags awarded to a dozen sunny Anglia beaches". ITV News. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  33. ^ "Shoebury East Beach". The Beach Guide. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  34. ^ "Shoebury Common Beach". Visit Southend. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  35. ^ "HM Coastguard Southend respond to Shoebury submerged car". Evening Echo. 30 December 2022.
  36. ^ "WHERE TO RIDE IN SOUTHEND". Love to Ride Essex. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  37. ^ "Shoeburyness: West Road Christmas lights switch on". Evening Echo. 10 November 2021.
  38. ^ "Commercial Opportunity - Ness Road, Shoeburyness". Rightmove. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  39. ^ "THE RENOWN, SHOEBURYNESS". Hair & Son. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  40. ^ "Asda Shoeburyness". Asda. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  41. ^ "Lidl reveals opening date for new store on Campfield Road, Shoebury". Evening Echo. 4 February 2021.
  42. ^ "Southend Local Plan. 3.8 Shoeburyness". Southend City Council. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  43. ^ "Ward Maps". Southend City Council. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  44. ^ Ian Yearsley (15 September 2022). Secret City of Southend. ISBN 978-1-3981-1155-4.
  45. ^ Annual Report of the Local Government Board. London. 1895. p. 249. Retrieved 6 September 2023.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  46. ^ "Shoeburyness Urban District Council: Change of name". Essex County Chronicle. Chelmsford. 18 January 1895. p. 1. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  47. ^ "Relationships and changes South Shoebury CP/AP through time". A Vision of Britain through Time. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  48. ^ "Population statistics South Shoebury CP/AP through time". A Vision of Britain through Time. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  49. ^ Yearsley. I (2016). Southend in 50 Buildings. ISBN 978-1-4456-5189-7.
  50. ^ Shoeburyness UD Essex through time: Administrative history of Local Government District Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, visionofbritain.org.uk; accessed 18 November 2017.
  51. ^ "Appendix M – Urban Powers Conferred". Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Local Government Board. 1897.
  52. ^ "Shoeburyness Climatic Averages 1991–2020". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  53. ^ "The Best Primary Schools in Shoeburyness". Locrating. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  54. ^ "Shoeburyness Leisure Centre". Visit Southend. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  55. ^ "Palace Cinema". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  56. ^ "Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  57. ^ "Shoebury Garrison Conservation Area – Southend-on-Sea Borough Council". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  58. ^ "Listed Buildings in Shoeburyness Ward, Southend-on-Sea – British Listing Buildings.co.uk". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  59. ^ "Shoeburyness". Historic England. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  60. ^ "Pig's Bay, Southend on Sea". Ordance Survey. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  61. ^ "Explosions, Shoeburyness And Foulness (Damage)". Hansard Volume 564. 12 February 1957.
  62. ^ "Cold War defence boom, Pig's Bay, Shoeburyness". Historic England. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  63. ^ "Passenger Carriages Pressed Steel Co. Class 117 DMU Trailer Composite with Lavatory (TCL)". Helston Railway. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  64. ^ "The Shoeburyness Military Tramways Byelaws" (PDF). Statutory Instruments. No. 388. Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the War Department. 1960. 119/Essex /297.
  65. ^ "QXA DB 977144 - MTA Brake Force Runner". Departmentals.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  66. ^ Shoeburyness Fishermen Hailing a Whitstable Hoy, before 1809, National Gallery of Canada website; retrieved 18 June 2013.
  67. ^ Shoeburyness Fisherman Hailing a Whitstable Hoy, tate.org.uk; retrieved 18 June 2013.
  68. ^ "The Temeraire Reread: Victory of Eagles". Tor.com. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  69. ^ "The Commuter" by Ceephax Acid Crew (2010) on YouTube; accessed 18 November 2017.
  70. ^ "Springfield! Springfield!". Archived from the original on 9 September 2014.
  71. ^ "Billy Bragg – A13 Trunk Road to the Sea".
  72. ^ "Ian Dury – Billericay Dickie".
  73. ^ "Jurassic World Dominion Dinotracker". www.dinotracker.com. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  74. ^ @Dinotracker (19 May 2022). "The residents of Shoeburyness, U.K. ignored DPW warnings of growing prehistoric predator activity in their area. Unfortunately, their pets paid the price" (Tweet). Retrieved 15 June 2022 – via Twitter.
  75. ^ England, Sophie (25 June 2022). "Jurassic World marketing campaigns filmed in Southend". Echo News. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  76. ^ Ace, Juliet (3 December 2007). "Tony Holland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  77. ^ "Personnel". 58th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery. Retrieved 17 March 2024.
  78. ^ "Long-awaited centre opens near Southend". Key Military. 20 October 2023.

External links[edit]