Shoes on the Danube Bank

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The plaque.

The Shoes on the Danube Bank is a memorial in Budapest, Hungary. Conceived by film director Can Togay, he created it on the east bank of the Danube River with sculptor Gyula Pauer to honor the Jews who were killed by fascist Arrow Cross militiamen in Budapest during World War II. They were ordered to take off their shoes, and were shot at the edge of the water so that their bodies fell into the river and were carried away. It represents their shoes left behind on the bank.

The Memorial[edit]

The memorial.

The monument is located on the Pest side of the Danube Promenade in line with where Zoltan Street would meet the Danube if it continued that far, about 300 metres (980 ft) south of the Hungarian Parliament and near the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  • "A Cipők a Duna-parton elnevezésű kompozíció a nyilasterror idején Dunába lőtt embereknek állít emléket. a szobrászművész hatvan pár korhű lábbelit formált meg vasból. A parti szegély terméskövére erősített cipők mögött negyven méter hosszúságú, hetven centiméter magas kőpad húzódik. Az emlékhely három pontján öntöttvas táblákon magyarul, angolul és héberül olvasható a felirat: "A nyilaskeresztes fegyveresek által Dunába lőtt áldozatok emlékére állíttatott 2005. április 16-án". forrás: MTI 2005. április 16., szombat

Translation: "The composition entitled 'Shoes on the Danube Bank' gives remembrance to the people shot into the Danube during the time of the Arrow Cross terror. The sculptor created sixty pairs of period-appropriate shoes out of iron. The shoes are attached to the stone embankment, and behind them lies a 40 meter long, 70 cm high stone bench. At three points are cast iron signs, with the following text in Hungarian, English, and Hebrew: "To the memory of the victims shot into the Danube by Arrow Cross militiamen in 1944–45. Erected 16 April 2005." (Source: MTI, Saturday, April 16, 2005.)

  • Népszabadság Online, 2005. április 15. 14:25 "Holokauszt-emlékművet avatnak szombaton, a holokauszt áldozatainak emléknapján Budapesten. A hatvan pár, öntöttvasból mintázott korhű cipő a nyilasterror idején Dunába lőtt embereknek állít emléket a Roosevelt tér és a Kossuth tér közötti szakaszon."

Translation: "A Holocaust memorial will be dedicated on Saturday, the holocaust victim memorial day, in Budapest. Sixty pairs of cast iron shoes, cast in the styles of the 40's, stand in remembrance of the people shot into the Danube during the Arrow Cross terror. The memorial lies on the riverbank between Roosevelt square and Kossuth square." (source: Népszabadság Online, April 15, 2005.)

January 1945[edit]

During World War II, Valdemar Langlet, head of Svedan Red Cross in Budapest, with his wife Nina, and later the diplomat Raoul Wallenberg and 250 coworkers were working around the clock to save the Jewish population from being sent to Nazi concentration camps; this figure later rose to approximately 400. Lars and Edith Ernster, Jacob Steiner, and many others were housed at the Swedish Embassy in Budapest on Üllői Street 2-4 and 32 other buildings throughout the city which Wallenberg had rented and declared as extraterritorially Swedish to try to safeguard the residents.

On the night of 8 January 1945, an Arrow Cross execution brigade forced all the inhabitants of the building on Vadasz Street to the banks of the Danube. At midnight, Karoly Szabo and 20 policemen with drawn bayonets broke into the Arrow Cross house and rescued everyone (see also front page of 1947 newspaper below).[1] Among those saved were Lars Ernster, who fled to Sweden and became a member of the board of the Nobel Foundation from 1977 to 1988, and Jacob Steiner, who fled to Israel and became a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Steiner's father had been shot dead by Arrow Cross militiamen 25 December 1944, and fell into the Danube. His father had been an officer in World War I and spent four years as a prisoner of war in Russia.[1]

Dr. Erwin K. Koranyi, a psychiatrist in Ottawa, wrote about the night of 8 January 1945 in his Dreams and Tears: Chronicle of a Life (2006), "in our group, I saw Lajos Stoeckler" and "The police holding their guns at the Arrowcross cutthroats. One of the high-ranking police officers was Pal Szalai, with whom Raoul Wallenberg used to deal. Another police officer in his leather coat was Karoly Szabo."[2]

Pal Szalai was honored as Righteous among the Nations 7 April 2009 for helping save these Hungarian Jews.[3][4]

Karoly Szabo was honored as Righteous among the Nations 12 November 2012.[5]




  • Photographs on Gyula Pauers website [5]
  • Film — Memorial to the victims [6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Letter from Jacob Steiner 12 February 2007 to Tamas Szabo
  2. ^ Koranyi, Erwin K. (2006). Dreams and Tears: Chronicle of a Life. General Store Publishing House. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-897113-47-9. Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  3. ^ "Israel honors Hungarians who saved Jews". NBC News. Associated Press. 7 April 2009. Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  4. ^ MTI Magyar Távirati Iroda[dead link]
  5. ^
  6. ^ Szabo, Tamas. Who was the man in the leather coat?. 


  • Gábor, Forgács, Recollections and Facts; My Days with Raoul Wallenberg (Emlék és Valóság), Budapest 2006
  • Koranyi, Erwin K., Dreams and Tears: Chronicle of a Life, General Store Publishing House, 2006, ISBN 978-1-897113-47-9 (pages 89 – 90)
  • Szekeres, József, Saving the Ghettos of Budapest in January 1945, ISBN 978-963-7323-14-0, Budapest 1997, Publisher: Budapest Archives

External links[edit]

  • Rescue Story on the Danube Bank in Yad Vashem Database of Righteous [7] "On the evening of January 8, 1945 .... led to the banks of the Danube to be shot into the river" "Shortly after liberation, on 26 February 1945, Stöckler wrote a letter thanking Károly Szabó for rushing with Szalai Pal to save the group that was condemned to death."
  • Gyula Pauer site
  • Jewish Budapest site
  • Shoes on the Danube Promenade at rumboanada
  • Edith Ernster remembers [8]" In the darkest days of 1944, the Swedish protective passport even provided some humor in the midst of despair. Edith Ernester, who lived through that time, recalls: "It seemed so strange - this country of super-aryans, the Swedes, taking us under their wings. Often, when an Orthodox Jew went by, in his hat, beard and sidelocks, we'd say, 'Look, there goes another Swede.' A special department was created in the Swedish embassy in Budapest with Wallenberg as its head. It was staffed primarily with Jewish volunteers. Initially, there were 250 workers; later, he had about 400 people working around the clock. Wallenberg seemed to sleep no more than an hour or two a night, and then it was wherever he happened to be working. He was everywhere."
  • Document about January 8. 1945. in Budapest Archives (Hungarian) [9]
  • Other documents about January 8. 1945. (English) [10]
  • Photographs of the shoes
  • - The shoes on the river

Coordinates: 47°30′14.05″N 19°02′41.22″E / 47.5039028°N 19.0447833°E / 47.5039028; 19.0447833