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Shooting of Ahmaud Arbery

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Shooting of Ahmaud Arbery
Map of Georgia highlighting Glynn County.svg
Map of Georgia showing location of Glynn County
DateFebruary 23, 2020 (2020-02-23)
LocationSatilla Shores
Unincorporated Glynn County, Georgia, U.S.
Coordinates31°07′26″N 81°33′22″W / 31.123871°N 81.556236°W / 31.123871; -81.556236Coordinates: 31°07′26″N 81°33′22″W / 31.123871°N 81.556236°W / 31.123871; -81.556236
DeathsAhmaud Arbery
SuspectsTravis McMichael
Gregory McMichael
William "Roddie" Bryan
ChargesFelony murder (T. McMichael, G. McMichael, Bryan)
Aggravated assault (T. McMichael, G. McMichael)
Attempted false imprisonment (Bryan)

On February 23, 2020, Ahmaud Marquez Arbery, an unarmed 25-year-old African-American man, was fatally shot near Brunswick in Glynn County, Georgia, while jogging on Holmes Road just before entering its intersection with Satilla Drive in the Satilla Shores neighborhood.[1] Arbery had been pursued and confronted by two white residents, Travis McMichael and his father Gregory, who were armed and driving a pickup truck.[2] The event was recorded on video by a third Satilla Shores resident, William "Roddie" Bryan, who was following Arbery in a second vehicle.[3][4]

The Glynn County Police Department (GCPD) said the Brunswick District Attorney's Office advised them on February 23 to make no arrests,[5] while the Brunswick District Attorney's Office denied that such advice was given to the GCPD by either the Brunswick District Attorney or her Assistant District Attorneys.[6] On February 24, Waycross Judicial Circuit District Attorney George Barnhill, who had not yet been assigned to the case, advised the GCPD that no arrests should be made.[7][8] Barnhill officially took over the case on February 27.[8] Later on April 2, Barnhill again advised the GCPD to make no arrests, while announcing his intention to recuse from the case due to connections between Gregory McMichael and Barnhill's son.[8][9][10] Barnhill requested recusal on April 7.[8] Atlantic Judicial Circuit District Attorney Tom Durden was appointed to the case on April 13.[11]

At the behest of Gregory McMichael,[12] a local attorney provided a copy of the video of the shooting to WGIG, a local radio station, who put it on the station's website on May 5.[13] The video went viral,[14] having also been posted on YouTube and Twitter.[15][16] Within hours, Durden said a grand jury would decide whether charges would be brought, and accepted an offer from Governor Brian Kemp to have the Georgia Bureau of Investigation (GBI) investigate the case.[15][17] On May 7, the GBI arrested the McMichaels and charged them with felony murder and aggravated assault.[18] On May 21, Bryan was arrested and charged with felony murder and attempted false imprisonment.[19][20]

The fact that the McMichaels were not arrested until 74 days later, after the video went viral, sparked debates on racial profiling in America.[21][5] Numerous religious leaders, politicians, athletes, and other celebrities condemned the incident.[22] The GCPD and the Brunswick District Attorney's Office were nationally criticized for their handling of the case and the delayed arrests; Georgia Attorney General Christopher M. Carr formally requested the intervention of the FBI in the case on May 10, which the FBI granted the following day.[23][24][25]

Persons involved

An undated photo of Ahmaud Arbery
  • Ahmaud Marquez Arbery, aged 25,[26] graduated from Brunswick High School in 2012. He attended South Georgia Technical College during fall 2012 and spring 2013 to pursue a career as an electrician.[27][28] He frequently jogged for exercise in and around his neighborhood.[26]
  • Gregory McMichael, age 64, previously worked as a GCPD officer from 1982 to 1989, and as an investigator for the Brunswick Judicial Circuit District Attorney's Office from 1995 to his retirement in May 2019.[26][29]
  • Travis McMichael, age 34, is Gregory McMichael's son.[30]
  • William "Roddie" Bryan, age 50, was a neighbor of the McMichaels. He recorded the shooting via cellphone video.[20]

Video of the shooting

A video of the incident[31] was recorded by William "Roddie" Bryan, a neighbor of the McMichaels, using his cellphone from his vehicle as he followed Arbery jogging down a neighborhood road.[4][32][33] From the camera's perspective, Arbery is seen jogging on the left side of the road when he encounters a white pickup truck that has stopped in the right lane.[32][33] Gregory McMichael is standing in the truck bed, while Travis McMichael initially stands beside the driver's door with a shotgun.[33][34][35][36] The vehicle of the person who was recording comes to a stop behind Arbery and the pickup truck.[34][35]

As Arbery approaches the pickup truck, shouting can be heard.[34] Arbery then crosses from the left side of the road to the right side and runs around the passenger's side of the truck. After passing the truck's front, Arbery turns left.[33][35][37] Meanwhile, Travis McMichael, holding his shotgun, approaches Arbery at the truck's front.[36][38] The camera's view of the confrontation between Arbery and Travis is then momentarily blocked.[39]

Several media accounts of the video report that the audio of the first gunshot seems to be heard before Arbery and Travis struggle with each other.[32][37][40] Some media accounts first report a struggle, and then mention the gunshot(s).[35][41] Other media accounts describe that it was "not possible" to see from the video what was happening when the first gunshot was fired,[42] or report that the truck "blocks the view of how the men first engage each other" with regard to when the gunshot is heard.[43]

Travis and Arbery grapple over the shotgun in view of the camera.[37][44] While struggling, both men disappear off camera view on the left side of the camera frame, after which the audio of a second gunshot is heard.[33][35] When they come back into camera view, Arbery appears to throw punches and tries to grab the shotgun.[35][45] A third gunshot is heard being fired by Travis at point-blank range as Arbery appears to throw a right-handed punch at his head.[33][34][46] Arbery recoils back, stumbles, and collapses in the middle of the road face-down while Travis walks away.[32][35][36] Gregory McMichael, who has taken out a handgun but not fired, then runs towards the other two men.[34][35]

Investigation by Glynn County Police

Prior thefts and trespassing incidents reported

In December 2019 and January 2020, residents of Satilla Shores reported thefts, trespassing, and activities they deemed suspicious to police and posted on the Satilla Shores Facebook page and Nextdoor account.[47] Three break-ins or thefts were reported. On December 8, 2019, a Satilla Shores neighbor reported rifles stolen from their unlocked car. Police records next reported a theft on December 28, 2019. On January 1, 2020, Travis McMichael filed a report of a firearm stolen from his unlocked truck.[48][49]

On February 11, 2020, Travis called 9-1-1 to report a slender 6-foot-tall black man with short hair wearing red shorts and a white shirt who was trespassing on the site of a house under construction. Travis was breathing heavily on the call, and said, "I've never seen this guy before in the neighborhood." The dispatcher asked whether Travis was OK, and he said, "Yeah, it just startled me. When I turned around and saw him and backed up, he reached into his pocket and ran into the house. So I don't know if he's armed or not. But he looked like he was acting like he was." "We've been having a lot of burglaries and break-ins around here lately," Travis said on the call. He told the dispatcher that he was out in his truck and that as many as four neighbors were out looking for the man. His father Gregory was one of the people out searching that night, and Gregory and at least one other neighbor were armed.[50] Police responded and searched the house along with a neighbor, but found no one.[50][51] However, surveillance video from that evening showed a man who reportedly looked like Arbery, who briefly walked through the construction site.[50][52]

Security cameras and 9-1-1 calls before the shooting

On February 23, in the minutes before the shooting, a security camera installed on a residence across the street from a house under construction in the neighborhood, recorded a man identified by his family as Arbery coming down the road and walking into the house.[53] A second security camera installed within the house recorded a man identified as Arbery by his family looking at the interior of the house.[54] Approximately five minutes later, he left and resumed going down the street.[53][55][56] After the man left the house, the first camera on the residence across the street showed a white pickup heading in the man's direction, followed a few minutes later by two police cars.[53]

Two calls to 9-1-1 were also made just before the shooting. In the first call, a male caller said another man was in a house that was "under construction". The 9-1-1 dispatcher asked if the man was "breaking into it right now?" The caller replied: "No ... it's all open." After the caller said the man was now "running down the street", the dispatcher said police would respond. The dispatcher then asked at 1:08 p.m., "I just need to know what he was doing wrong. Was he just on the premises and not supposed to be?" The caller's reply, with some parts garbled, included: "And he's been caught on camera a bunch at night. It's kind of an ongoing thing." The caller identified the man as a "black guy, white T-shirt". In the second call, beginning at 1:14 p.m., a male caller said: "I'm out here at Satilla Shores ...There's a black male running down the street." The 9-1-1 dispatcher asked, "Where at Satilla Shores?" The caller replied: "I don't know what street we're on." The caller was then heard shouting, "Stop! ... Watch that. Stop, damn it! Stop!" The dispatcher tried to speak to the caller but did not receive a reply for several minutes. The caller later hung up.[57]

Responding officer's report

The GCPD responded to the scene immediately after the shooting. The responding officer's report relied almost entirely on an interview with Gregory McMichael,[58] who was described as a witness.[59][60]

Gregory said he was in the yard of his house when he saw an unidentified man running by.[60] He said he recognized the man from a prior recent incident "the other night", in which he said he saw the man reach into his pants as if for a weapon. He called to his son Travis and said "the guy is running down the street; let's go".[59] Gregory brought a .357 Magnum revolver, while Travis brought a shotgun in their pickup truck.[26][59][60] The McMichaels said they pursued the man because he resembled a suspect in a string of local burglaries.[citation needed]

Travis attempted to cut off the man with the truck. The man then turned and began "running back in the direction from which he came".[60] The report states a third person, who was identified as "Roddy [sic]", also tried to cut off the man, but failed.[4][14] Gregory said they saw the unidentified man and yelled: "Stop, stop, we want to talk to you", and that they pulled up to the man, with Travis exiting the truck with the shotgun. Gregory claimed the man "began to violently attack Travis" before two shots were fired.[26][60] The man died at the scene after "bleeding out", the report concluded. Authorities later identified the man as Arbery.[60]

Autopsy

The autopsy report released by the GBI ruled Arbery's death was a homicide and that it was caused by three gunshot wounds he sustained "during a struggle for the shotgun" that fired those shots.[61][62][63] One gunshot wounded the upper left chest, one gunshot wounded the lower middle chest, and one gunshot caused a "deep, gaping" graze wound to the right wrist. There were no signs of alcohol or drugs in Arbery's body.[64]

Legal proceedings

Brunswick Judicial Circuit District Attorney

The case started under the jurisdiction of Brunswick Judicial Circuit District Attorney Jackie Johnson,[6][65] but because Gregory McMichael had previously worked as an investigator in her office, she recused herself from further involvement in the case.[66] On February 27, 2020, the case was transferred by the Georgia Attorney General's Office to the Waycross Judicial Circuit District Attorney's office. The Waycross Judicial Circuit is the immediately adjacent circuit to the south of Brunswick Judicial Circuit.[67]

Dispute with the GCPD over whether to make arrests

On March 8, two Glynn County commissioners, citing discussions with Glynn County police, accused Johnson, or her office, of preventing the McMichaels' immediate arrest. Commissioner Allen Booker said: "The police at the scene went to her, saying they were ready to arrest both of them. These were the police at the scene who had done the investigation. She shut them down to protect her friend [Gregory] McMichael." Commissioner Peter Murphy said that officers who responded at the scene had concluded that there was probable cause to make an arrest, but when they contacted Johnson's office, they "were told not to make the arrest."[65] Johnson's office responded by saying Johnson did not "have any conversation with any GCPD officer about this case" on February 23, and that "no Assistant District Attorney in the office directed any Glynn County police officer not to make an arrest".[6] Johnson's office also blamed the GCPD for being "unable to make a probable cause determination on its own" and argued that it was the local police's responsibility, not the District Attorney's responsibility, to make arrests.[68] It is common for police to consult with the district attorney's office in the aftermath of homicides or other complex cases.[6]

On May 9, the GCPD said that on February 23, the Brunswick District Attorney's Office "became involved in the investigation ... The McMichaels were deemed not to be flight risks and officers were advised by the [Brunswick District Attorney's Office] that no arrests were necessary at the time."[6] The local police also said that on February 24, Waycross Judicial Circuit District Attorney George Barnhill told them that the killing of Arbery "was justifiable homicide."[6][69][70]

Waycross Judicial Circuit District Attorney

Waycross Judicial Circuit District Attorney George Barnhill gave Glynn County police "an initial opinion the day after the shooting" on February 24, according to a memorandum written by Barnhill to Glynn County police on April 2.[7][8] In the April 2 memorandum, Barnhill wrote: "The autopsy supports the initial opinion we gave you on February 24, at the briefing room in the Glynn County Police Department after reviewing the evidence you had at that time. We do not see grounds for an arrest of any of the three parties."[24] Barnhill had not yet been appointed to handle Arbery's case on February 24, and he also had not put in a request to handle the case, wrote the Office of the Georgia Attorney General on May 10.[8][71]

The Georgia Attorney General's Office on May 10 characterized the following events as happening on February 27: the Georgia Attorney General's Office received the request from Jackson's office to transfer Arbery's case to another prosecutor. On the same day, the Georgia Attorney General's Office appointed Barnhill as the presiding prosecutor. Neither Jackson nor Barnhill informed the Georgia Attorney General's Office that Barnhill had already actively participated in the case by reviewing evidence and giving his opinion on whether arrests should occur.[8][71]

On April 1, Arbery's autopsy report was given to Barnhill.[72] On April 2, Barnhill wrote a memorandum to Glynn County police, recommending that no arrests be made.[8][9] Barnhill wrote that the McMichaels were within their rights to chase "a burglary suspect, with solid firsthand probable cause";[26][72] that "Arbery initiated the fight"; that Travis McMichael "was allowed to use deadly force to protect himself" when "Arbery grabbed the shotgun".[72][73]

Barnhill pointed to Georgia's citizen arrest law as justifying the killing of Arbery (the Georgia law states that either a crime must be committed within the citizen's "immediate knowledge", or there must be "reasonable and probable grounds of suspicion" for a felony crime).[74] Barnhill alleged that videos of Arbery entering the home under construction on the day of the shooting showed Arbery "burglarizing a home immediately preceding the chase and confrontation."[58] The attorneys representing the Arbery family reacted: "This video is consistent with the evidence already known to us. Ahmaud Arbery was out for a jog. He stopped by a property under construction where he engaged in no illegal activity and remained for only a brief period. Ahmaud did not take anything from the construction site. He did not cause any damage to the property. He remained for a brief period of time and was not instructed by anyone to leave but rather left on his own accord to continue his jog. Ahmaud's actions at this empty home under construction were in no way a felony under Georgia law. This video confirms Mr. Arbery's murder was not justified, meaning the actions of the men who pursued him and ambushed him were unjustified."[55] The owner of the unfinished home, who was 90 miles away at the time of the shooting, later said, "I've never had a police report [on my property], or anything stolen from my property, or any kind of robbery."[6] Barnhill also wrote that "Arbery's mental health and prior convictions help explain his apparent aggressive nature and his possible thought pattern to attack an armed man."[26][75] Lastly, Barnhill informed the Glynn County police that he was going to recuse from the case due to connections between his son and Gregory McMichael.[10]

On April 7, Barnhill wrote to Georgia's Attorney General, Chris Carr, saying Arbery's "family are not strangers to the local criminal justice system", pointing to Arbery's brother and cousin's tangles with the law.[76] Barnhill also told Carr that there was "video of Arbery burglarizing a home immediately preceding the chase and confrontation".[26]

The Georgia Attorney General's Office on May 10 characterized the following events as happening on April 7: it received a request from Barnhill's office to transfer Arbery's case to another prosecutor,[8][71] and that along with the request, Barnhill revealed that he had learned "about 3-4 weeks ago" that Arbery had previously been prosecuted in an earlier case by his son, a prosecutor for the Brunswick Circuit District Attorney's Office, and that one of the defendants had served as an investigator on the same prosecution (this is a reference to Gregory McMichael, who was employed by the Brunswick D.A.'s Office).[8][71][76] The request did not explain why Barnhill had delayed in recusing his office from the case, did not mention that Barnhill had advised Glynn County police on April 2 to make no arrests, and omitted Barnhill's involvement on February 24, instead only recounting his involvement "upon taking the case".[8][71]

On April 13, after Barnhill's recusal, the Georgia Attorney General's Office appointed Atlantic Judicial Circuit District Attorney Tom Durden to take over the handling of the case.[11] The Atlantic Judicial Circuit is the immediately adjacent circuit to the north of Brunswick Judicial Circuit.[67]

Video of the shooting released

A video of the shooting was uploaded on May 5 on the website of a local radio station, WGIG, which received it from Gregory McMichael,[12] but it was removed within two hours for being too graphic.[13][77] The video was then uploaded to YouTube that day.[15] The Arbery family's attorney posted a 28-second segment of the video on Twitter.[16] The video of the shooting went viral.[14] Glynn County police requested the Georgia Bureau of Investigation look into how the video was publicized.[15] The Guardian published an edited version of the video on May 6.[78] TMZ published a longer version of the video on May 5.[31]

On May 7, Alan David Tucker, a local criminal defense attorney, came forward to say he was the one who had released the cell phone video,[79][80] which had been recorded by William "Roddie" Bryan.[4] WGIG confirmed that Tucker had provided the video to the radio station.[81] Tucker had informally consulted with the suspects in the case,[81] but said he had not been retained to represent anyone involved.[81][79] Tucker said that he released the video to provide "absolute transparency" due to "erroneous accusations and assumptions"[79] and that "my purpose was not to exonerate them or convict them."[81]

Within hours of the video of the shooting becoming public, Tom Durden, the district attorney for Georgia's Atlantic Judicial Circuit, said that he would present the case to "the next available grand jury in Glynn County" to decide if charges should be filed, once grand juries convene in the state (due to the state's COVID-19 pandemic, no grand juries in Georgia are convening through June 12).[30][78] Durden also accepted Georgia Governor Brian Kemp's offer to bring in the Georgia Bureau of Investigation (GBI) to investigate.[15][17]

Arrest of the McMichaels and Bryan

The GBI found probable cause to charge Gregory and Travis McMichael within 36 hours of taking the case, and, on May 7, arrested the pair on charges of felony murder and aggravated assault.[82][83][84] The McMichaels were booked into the Glynn County Jail.[82] At an appearance before a magistrate the following day, the McMichaels were both denied bond, though they may appeal the decision in a superior court.[85] Speaking on the decision to charge the McMichaels, GBI Director Vic Reynolds told reporters, "We based our decisions on two things, one are facts and the other is the law. Whatever the facts are we apply the law. I am very comfortable in telling you there is more than sufficient cause for felony murder."[86]

Durden requested that the case be reassigned to another prosecutor with a larger staff, given the "size and magnitude" of the investigation.[87] Pursuant to Durden's request, the Georgia Attorney General's office reassigned the case on May 11 to the Cobb County District Attorney's Office, led by Joyette M. Holmes,[64][87][88] the fourth D.A. to take on the case.[88] This move, which shifted responsibility for the case from a southeast Georgia district attorney to a district attorney in north Georgia's metro Atlanta area 300 miles (480 km) away,[87] was welcomed by Arbery's family.[64][87][88]

On May 21, William "Roddie" Bryan was charged on felony murder and attempt to commit false imprisonment.[20][89] According to the arrest warrant, Bryan tried "to confine and detain" Arbery without legal authority by "utilizing his vehicle on multiple occasions" before Arbery was shot.[90] The GBI said their investigators found "a number of pieces of video" that linked Bryan to the case.[91]

Aftermath

State and federal review of the case

On May 10, Georgia Attorney General Chris Carr said that his office would review how the investigation into Arbery's death "was handled from the outset".[6] At Carr's request, the GBI is investigating whether District Attorney Johnson or District Attorney Barnhill committed misconduct by "possibly misrepresenting or failing to disclose information during the process of appointing a conflict prosecutor to investigate" the death of Arbery.[64] Carr also called for a federal investigation into how local investigators and authorities handled the case, including "investigation of the communications and discussions by and between the Office of the District Attorney of the Brunswick Judicial Circuit and the Office of the District Attorney of the Waycross Judicial Circuit related to this case."[92]

The next day on May 11, the U.S. Department of Justice responded that the Justice Department's Civil Rights Division, the FBI, and the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Georgia "have been supporting and will continue fully to support and participate in the state investigation. We are assessing all of the evidence to determine whether federal hate crimes charges are appropriate."[93][94]

Prior allegations of misconduct by local authorities

The troubled history of the GCPD was revisited following Arbery's killing.[2][95] The New York Times noted that in preceding years, the department had "been accused of covering up allegations of misconduct, tampering with a crime scene, interfering in an investigation of a police shooting and retaliating against fellow officers who cooperated with outside investigators." Days after Arbery was fatally shot, the chief of police – who had been brought in to clean up a police force described by the county manager in 2019 as poorly trained and characterized by a "culture of cronyism" – was indicted on charges arising from an alleged cover-up of a sexual relationship between an officer and an informant.[2] In response to a grand jury report issued in November 2019, which had condemned the GCPD over "alleged officer misconduct and poor coordination with the local sheriff's office", State Senator William Ligon of Brunswick in early 2020 introduced legislation to abolish county police departments, but it failed to pass the General Assembly.[96] The involvement of the GCPD as the primary investigator in a case involving its former officer Gregory McMichael was controversial.[25]

Arbery's death also prompted re-examinations of the way prosecutions of shootings were handled by the Brunswick Judicial Circuit District Attorney's Office. In 2010, two police officers fatally shot an unarmed woman through her car windshield. Four former prosecutors who worked under Brunswick Judicial Circuit District Attorney Jackie Johnson alleged that Johnson shielded the officers from criminal prosecution. A 2015 investigation by WSB-TV revealed that Johnson had agreed to not show the grand jury a draft murder indictment and had "allowed the officers' department to present a factually inaccurate animation they created showing the car escaping through a gap and running over the officers."[95]

Reactions

Mural in Brunswick, painted in May 2020 by Marvin Meeks [97]

Involved parties and their families

Arbery's mother said her son was jogging when he was killed and called for arrests to be made.[98] The Arbery family retained Benjamin Crump, S. Lee Merritt, and Chris Stewart as attorneys.[55] Meritt described the McMichaels as "vigilantes" and "a posse" who "performed a modern lynching in the middle of the day."[99] Arbery's family attorney charged that videos of earlier police encounters show a pattern of unfair treatment of Arbery based on his skin color.[100]

On May 1, Gregory McMichael told The Daily Beast he "never would have gone after someone for their color". He also said he had no direct evidence Arbery had stolen anything in the neighborhood. However, McMichael argued Arbery was on property "without permission".[9]

A lawyer for William Bryan Jr., the man who recorded the shooting using cell phone video,[89] said his client had done nothing wrong, had fully cooperated in the investigation, and "is not now, and never has been, a 'vigilante'."[6] The attorney also described Bryan as "a mechanic with a high-school education"[101] who was merely a witness to the shooting.[102][4] By contrast, attorneys for Arbery's family called for Bryan's arrest, saying that because Bryan had participated in chasing Arbery and had "corralled" him, Bryan was a participant in the killing.[103]

Current and former elected officials

After the video went public, Georgia Attorney General Chris Carr said, "I expect justice to be carried out as swiftly as possible." Governor Brian Kemp said on May 7 that "Georgians deserve answers" about the incident.[78][104] Two Glynn County Commissioners, Peter Murphy and Allen Booker, called for a federal probe.[6] After viewing the video, Georgia U.S. Representative Doug Collins and U.S. Senator Kelly Loeffler said it was "disturbing" and called for a full investigation and answers.[105]

Speaking to reporters, President Donald Trump commented, "My heart goes out to the parents and to the loved ones of the young gentleman. It's a very sad thing."[106] Presumptive 2020 Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden, said that "the video is clear: Ahmaud Arbery was killed in cold blood." Biden offered condolences and called for "a swift, full, and transparent investigation into his murder."[104] Biden also described the shooting as a lynching.[107]

Civil rights groups, commentators, and the public

After the video was released, demonstrators gathered outside the Glynn County Courthouse to demand an arrest in the case, and called for the resignation of District Attorney Jackie Johnson. The local Brunswick NAACP chapter also called for the resignation of the Glynn County police chief.[108] The Southern Poverty Law Center called for a Federal investigation into the incident, citing their belief Arbery's death was racially motivated.[109][110] Attorney and journalist David A. French wrote that under Georgia's Stand-your-ground law, because the McMichaels initiated the confrontation, "It’s a crime under Georgia law to point a gun (loaded or unloaded) without legal justification. When Arbery was confronted by armed men who moved directly to block him from leaving, demanding to 'talk,' then Arbery was entitled to defend himself. Georgia’s 'stand your ground law' arguably benefits Arbery, not those who were attempting to falsely imprison him at gunpoint."[111]

On May 8, which would have been Arbery's 26th birthday, thousands of supporters of Arbery's family took part in a run of 2.23 miles (3.59 km) in honor of the date of his death and documented it to social media with the hashtag #IRunWithMaud.[112]

Many clergy and celebrities have voiced support for review of the case, and concern about the violence.[22] Russell D. Moore, head of the Southern Baptist Convention's Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, said, "under any Christian vision of justice, there is no situation in which the mob murder of a person can be morally right, nor grounds for a person to be chased down and shot by private citizens."[22] Athletes such as LeBron James, Brian Orakpo, Torrey Smith, Enes Kanter, and Marcus Stroman used Twitter to demand justice, and offer their thoughts and prayers.[113] Others posted tributes to Arbery, such as Lecrae, David A. French, Scott Sauls, Christine Caine, Jack Graham, J.D. Greear, Viola Davis, Wanda Sykes, Padma Lakshmi, Gabrielle Union, and Andy Lassner.[22][114]

On social media, far-right and neo-Nazi groups spread falsehoods about Arbery, and their white-nationalist supporters attacked President Trump for his sympathetic comments regarding Arbery. They falsely claimed that Arbery was wielding a hammer and wearing boots when he was shot dead; Arbery was actually wearing shoes. They also spread racist remarks about Arbery, and claimed that the McMichaels were victims. Far-right groups argued that the McMichaels' arrests reflected a bias against whites.[115]

References

  1. ^ Feindt, Casey (May 22, 2020). "GBI: William 'Roddie' Bryan Jr.'s crime 'helped cause the death of Ahmaud Arbery'". First Coastal News. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Rojas, Rick; Fausset, Richard; Kovaleski, Serge F. (May 8, 2020). "Georgia Killing Puts Spotlight on a Police Force's Troubled History". The New York Times.
  3. ^ Ellis, Nicquel Terry (May 8, 2020). "What we know about Satilla Shores, the community where Ahmaud Arbery was killed". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 9, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
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  5. ^ a b Ellis, Nicquel Terry (May 7, 2020). "Why it took more than 2 months for murder charges and arrests in the death of Ahmaud Arbery". USA Today. Retrieved May 13, 2020. The original decision not to arrest the McMichaels or Bryan, and the more than two months that passed before charges were filed, fueled outcry across the nation with attorneys for Arbery's family saying he was racially profiled.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wootson, Cleve Jr.; Itkowitz, Colby (May 10, 2020). "New video said to show moments leading up to Georgia jogger Ahmaud Arbery's death". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 10, 2020. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
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  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mayes, Aisha (May 11, 2020). "Attorney General Carr asks Department of Justice to investigate handling of Arbery case". WGXA. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c Glawe, Justin (May 6, 2020). "'It's Murder': This Shooting of an Unarmed Black Man Is Roiling Georgia". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  10. ^ a b Haney, Adrianne (May 8, 2020). "Recused District Attorney found 'insufficient probable cause' for immediate arrests in Ahmaud Arbery case". KHOU 11. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
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  13. ^ a b "Video of Arbery Shooting – Warning: Graphic, Disturbing Content". WGIG. May 5, 2020. Archived from the original on May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
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  15. ^ a b c d e Boone, Christian; Roughton, Bert (May 5, 2020). "GBI to launch state investigation into Brunswick shooting". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  16. ^ a b Balk, Tim (May 5, 2020). "Georgia prosecutor calls for grand jury review of fatal shooting of black 25-year-old". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
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External links