Shooting of Akai Gurley
|Date||November 20, 2014|
|Time||c. 11:15 p.m. EST|
|Location||Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.|
|Participants||Killed: Akai Gurley|
Officers: Peter Liang and Shaun Landau
|Charges||Second-degree manslaughter, criminally negligent homicide, second-degree assault, reckless endangerment, two counts of official misconduct|
|Convictions||Manslaughter, official misconduct|
|Sentence||Five years of probation|
|Litigation||$52 million lawsuit filed by Gurley's family against City of New York|
Akai Gurley, a 28-year-old man, was fatally shot on November 20, 2014, in Brooklyn, New York City, United States, by a New York City Police Department officer. Two police officers, patrolling stairwells in the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA)'s Louis H. Pink Houses in East New York, Brooklyn, entered a pitch-dark, unlit stairwell, one of them, Officer Peter Liang, 27, with his firearm drawn. Gurley and his girlfriend entered the seventh-floor stairwell, fourteen steps below them. Liang fired his weapon; his shot ricocheted off a wall and fatally struck Gurley in the chest. A jury convicted Liang of manslaughter, which a court later reduced to criminally negligent homicide.
On February 10, 2015, Liang was indicted by a grand jury (seven men and five women) for manslaughter, assault, and other criminal charges (five counts total) after grand jury members were shown footage of the unlit Pink house, and passed around the 9mm Glock used in the shooting, testing the possibility of equipment failure - concluding that the 11.5-pound (51-newton) trigger could not have been fired unintentionally. Liang turned himself in to authorities the next day to be arraigned on the charges. Liang was convicted of manslaughter and official misconduct on February 11, 2016, and faced up to 15 year of prison time. He was expected to appeal while he remained free without bail.
Due to the fact that Liang, an Asian cop, became the first NYPD officer to be convicted of an on-duty shooting in over a decade, the conviction galvanized the Chinese community in New York City and across the United States. Many felt that Liang was being used as a scapegoat, and Chinese Americans used WeChat on a massive scale along with Facebook, Twitter, and email to organize rallies in major cities. Peter Liang appealed the court's decision.
On March 28, 2016, the prosecuting Brooklyn District Attorney Kenneth P. Thompson recommended to Judge Danny Chun that Liang serve only house arrest and community service for his sentence. On April 19, 2016, Brooklyn Supreme Court Justice Danny Chun sentenced Peter Liang to five years of probation and 800 hours community service, after downgrading his manslaughter conviction to criminally negligent homicide.
Akai Kareem Gurley (c. 1986 – November 20, 2014) was born in Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, the Caribbean, and moved to New York when he was a child. He was a resident of the Louis H. Pink Houses, where he lived with his girlfriend and two-year-old daughter.
Officer Peter Liang
Peter Liang (born c. 1987), a Hong Kong American, had less than 18 months of experience with the New York City Police Department (NYPD) at the time of the shooting. Liang was born in Hong Kong, immigrated to the United States as a child and lived in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, with his parents and grandmother; he also has a younger brother in college. Liang had aspired to become a police officer since he was a child.
The Louis H. Pink Houses are considered to be among the worst housing developments in New York. Patrick Lynch, head of the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association of the City of New York, characterizes them as "among the most dangerous projects in the city" with dimly lit stairwells presenting a particular danger. Police Commissioner Bill Bratton reported that there had been a recent "spike in violence" in the neighborhood over the preceding months with two homicides, two robberies, and four assaults.
Two rookie police officers were assigned to the Louis H. Pink Houses where they were conducting routine vertical patrols, in which officers patrol a public housing complex from the roof to the ground floor, stopping on each floor to see if there is any crime in progress. The New York Daily News initiated rumors that their commander had instructed officers in the area not to carry out vertical patrols and instead to conduct exterior policing in the East New York housing project, and that the officers were texting their union representative as Gurley lay dying. The rumors were later debunked by the District Attorney's office, but the Daily News did not issue a retraction or apology. The NYPD's policy on whether an officer should keep a weapon holstered on such patrols is purposely vague and the decision as to when to take out a firearm is left to the discretion of the officers, according to Police Commissioner Bill Bratton. The department also insists that officers place their fingers on the trigger only upon encountering "extreme and particularized danger." During trial testimony, officers testified that they were taught during academy training to have their guns out at times for fear of possible "ambush" or when they felt "unsafe", and that they were specifically trained to take out their firearm as they approached a roof landing because it was "dangerous". One officer testified that cops are taught to beware of a possible "ambush" on vertical patrols specifically. She also testified that you were taught that when you approach a roof landing, you should have your firearm out, finger alongside the trigger. At the time the gun was discharged, the light in the stairwell on the 8th floor was broken and it was pitch black.
Akai Gurley, 28 years old, was visiting his girlfriend and getting his hair braided before Thanksgiving. He entered the stairwell on the 7th floor, below Officers Shaun Landau and Peter Liang, who were patrolling the pitch-dark stairwell with no lights. According to the prosecutors, seconds earlier, Officer Liang, who is left-handed, pulled out his flashlight with his right hand and unholstered his 9mm Glock with his left. He then shoved open the stairwell door with his right shoulder with his gun drawn pointed down the way police officers are trained. It appeared neither side knew the other was there and no words were exchanged, according to authorities. Liang's gun accidentally discharged as he opened the door and the bullet ricocheted off the wall and struck Gurley once in the chest. He died within a few minutes. Upon entering, Liang said he heard "a quick sound" to his left which startled him. He turned left and "it just went off when my whole body tensed up", Liang testified. It was reported that Gurley actually ran after hearing the gunshot, and didn't realize he was bleeding until collapsing on the fifth floor.
Similarity to the shooting of Timothy Stansbury Jr.
The fatal shooting of Akai Gurley is notably similar to the shooting death of Timothy Stansbury Jr. that occurred in January 2004, when Officer Richard S. Neri killed Timothy Stansbury Jr., 19, on a roof at the Louis Armstrong Houses in Brooklyn at about 1 a.m. when Officer Neri, with his gun drawn, approached a rooftop door to check the stairway inside. A grand jury declined to indict Officer Neri on charges of criminally negligent homicide, declaring the event an accident, after he gave testimony that he had unintentionally fired; he was startled, he said, when Mr. Stansbury pushed open a rooftop door in a place where drug dealing was rampant.
New York City Police Commissioner Bill Bratton declared the shooting to be an accident and that Gurley was a "total innocent". Kings County District Attorney Kenneth P. Thompson said that he planned to impanel a grand jury to look into the death of Akai Gurley. Media reports initially surfaced that indicated both officers text-messaged their union representatives before calling for help, which were later refuted as false by both the police union and the District Attorney office.
When asked by reporters, the mayor Bill De Blasio did not take any sides in this issue after Liang's conviction, but only commented that it was a "tragedy" to Gurley's family and requesting respect to the court's verdict. On the stand of NYPD patrolling, he neutrally noted that as essential to public safety; he also characterized, to Asian Americans, the prevailing argument in Asian society of Peter Liang being a scapegoat as non-existent,  and to African Americans, who had ongoing suspicions about police brutality cases somehow being linked together, De Blasio characterized white supremacy conspiracy theories as non-existent as well.
Akai Gurley's funeral was conducted December 6 at the Brown Memorial Baptist Church in Fort Greene. Initially Al Sharpton offered to speak at the service, but stepped down after a dispute within the family. Instead activist Kevin Powell spoke at the service. Gurley is interred at Rosedale Memorial Park in Linden, New Jersey.
The continued conduct of vertical patrols has also been scrutinized in the wake of Gurley's shooting. Police Commissioner William Bratton has said that the patrols are needed to reduce crime, and vertical patrols continue to be conducted in the Louis H. Pink Houses. On February 5, 2016, while Liang's trial was ongoing, two NYPD officers were shot while conducting vertical patrols at a housing development in the Bronx, although both were expected to survive.
More than 3,000 Chinese-Americans showed up at New York City Hall in March 2015 to support Liang. Thousands walked across the Brooklyn Bridge to Manhattan's Chinatown in April, feeling that Liang was being used as a scapegoat, and demanded the charges to be dropped, as other, white police officers were previously not charged.
Following his conviction, Asian-Americans denounced the verdict at various gatherings across the country, many expressing dismay and frustration. There were differing opinions among Liang's supporters, with some still feeling that he should not have been prosecuted at all, and some feeling that he should have been prosecuted but that a manslaughter verdict was too harsh as it carries a maximum sentence of 15 years in jail, but all agreeing that the overall system needs a change. State Assemblyman Ron Kim stated, "I do not believe true justice prevailed. Our system failed Gurley and it failed Liang. It pitted the unjust death of an innocent young black man against the unjust scapegoating of a young Asian police officer who was frightened, poorly trained, and who committed a terrible accident."
Nearly 15,000 people protested on behalf of Liang in New York on February 20, 2016, and protests were also held in other cities across the United States on the same day. Liang's supporters held signs with condolences for Gurley, as well as MLK signs and signs asking for justice for Liang and Kizzy Adonis (black police officer who was prosecuted for the death of Eric Garner while the white police officer, Daniel Pantaleo, was not charged). Many of Liang's supporters demanded that ALL killers should be prosecuted and that there should be no such thing as selective prosecution, scapegoating, or racism. Joseph Lin, a real estate agent and activist, had helped to organize the protests due to feeling that Asian-Americans had been too "passive" or "indifferent" with no political voice, saying that "If he's a black officer, I guarantee you Al Sharpton will come out. If he's Hispanic, all the congressmen will come out. But no, he's a Chinese, so no one is coming out."
Congresswoman Grace Meng also sent out her voice; however, she did not say anything meaningful that defined her standing. Senator Mark Treyger and William Colton had always spoke on the behalf of Chinese.
Black Lives Matter movement
Gurley's death was one of several police killings of African Americans protested by the Black Lives Matter movement. On December 27, 2014, 200 people marched in Brooklyn to protest the fatal shooting of Akai Gurley on the same day as the funeral for slain NYPD Officer Rafael Ramos, who was killed in the 2014 killings of NYPD officers, despite calls from the mayor to postpone demonstrations.
On February 10, 2015, Officer Peter Liang was indicted by a grand jury for the shooting death of Akai Gurley. He was charged with second-degree manslaughter, criminally negligent homicide, second-degree assault, reckless endangerment, and two counts of official misconduct. Liang had a court date on February 11, and turned himself in that day. He pleaded not guilty to the charges and was released without having to post bond, and suspended from his job without pay. His trial started on January 25, 2016. Liang was convicted of manslaughter and official misconduct on February 11, 2016. Liang now faced anywhere from no jail to a maximum of 15 years of prison when sentenced in April. His lawyers planned to submit an appeal to Judge Danny Chun while Liang remained free without bail. Delores Jones-Brown, a professor at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, speculated to The Atlantic that Liang would have avoided conviction had he rendered aid to Gurley, while jurors later reported that the effort required for them to pull the trigger on a police-issued pistol led them to disbelieve that Liang's testimony was completely true.
Shaun Landau, the other officer involved, was not criminally implicated in Gurley's death. However, he was fired from the NYPD one day after his partner was convicted. Officer Landau, like Liang, was also within his two-year probationary period, and his firing after the trial was within his contract. Landau testified at the trial of his former partner under immunity from prosecution. Landau described his partner as "in shock" and that "[Liang] couldn't believe he just shot someone." He said that neither of them tried to revive Mr. Gurley, with both of them saying that they did not feel qualified to perform CPR. According to Landau's words, that the instructor of the police academy that he and Liang graduated from, gave them the free pass to the course by helping them to cheat on the exams. Both radioed for an ambulance, as Gurley's girlfriend unsuccessfully performed CPR.
On April 19, 2016, Brooklyn Supreme Court Justice Danny Chun sentenced Peter Liang to five years of probation and 800 hours community service. Chun believes incarceration is "unnecessary", but "he will be much more productive if he spends more time in community service."
Arguments used in court
The Assistant District Attorney, Joseph Alexis, accused the killing as intentional—Liang "chose" to place the finger on the trigger. However, one of Liang's defense attorneys, Rae Koshetz, argued that what had happened was a tragedy, not a crime, because Liang did not choose to point his gun at the victim, though the bullet bounced off the wall and coincidentally hit Akai Gurley, causing his death.
Liang's attorneys, Robert Brown and Rae Koshetz, argued that Liang was in a "state of shock" after his gun went off, and did not realize that he hit anyone.
The defendants also argued that Liang pulling out his gun was still falling in the line of protocol, because "lack of lighting is commonly perceived as a sign of criminal activity." Furthermore, the light, as an answer to Kenneth P. Thompson, the Brooklyn district attorney's, request, and had been out of service for number of days without repair. After Liang's bullet ricocheted off the wall and struck Akai Gurley in the chest, officer Liang and his partner Landau did not try to save the dying person who lay in the pool of his own blood. CPR was not performed while time passed.
In August, 2016, New York City reached a settlement with Akai Gurley's family with a fine about 4 million dollars, which was initially sued by Kimberley Ballinger, Akaila's mother, in November 2014. The New York Housing Authority paid 400,000 dollars, and former officer Liang paid 25,000 dollars. All this money will be placed on Akaila, Gurley's two-year-old daughter, but she does not have access to it until she turns 18, or having approval's from Court.
After the settlement of Liang's trial, about 260,000 dollar funds were returned to the donors. About 325,000 dollars were given to Liang's family. About 80,000 dollars would be used for Chinese Communities.
The incident received national and international coverage, in part due to the time of its occurrence shortly after the August 2014 police shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri; the July 2014 death of Eric Garner in Staten Island, which also involved police officers; and the Ferguson unrest after Brown's fatal shooting, which had attracted public attention.
The New York City Police Department's practice of vertical patrols was also criticized. The Village Voice described the incident as part of a year of public relations disasters for the NYPD. Other coverage has focused on the maintenance and public safety issues that led to the death.
On the following Friday, February 12, 2016, Gurley's family, in a joint statement Friday, demanded 'The NYPD permanently end all vertical patrols and stop using the NYPD as your security.' They also requested for Landau to be fired from the department, and for the city to reinvest the fund in programs like "affordable housing", "community centers and after-school programs," instead of using it to keep growing the base of NYPD officers.
- "Former NYPD Cop Peter Liang's Guilty Verdict Leaves a Community Divided". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
- Phippen, J. Weston. "A Guilty Verdict in the Akai Gurly Case". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
- Saul, Emily; Fears, Danika (2016-01-26). "Liang had 'thousand-yard stare' after staircase shooting, fellow cop testifies". New York Post. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
- Kang, Jay Caspian (2016-02-23). "How Should Asian-Americans Feel About the Peter Liang Protests?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-06-14.
- Makinen, Julie (2016-02-24). "Chinese social media platform plays a role in U.S. rallies for NYPD officer". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
- "Former NYPD Cop Peter Liang's Guilty Verdict Leaves a Community Divided". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
- Phippen, J. Weston (2016-03-03). "Why Was Officer Peter Liang Convicted?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-06-14.
- Kapp, Trevor. "Peter Liang To Be Sentenced Tuesday for Manslaughter Conviction". DNAinfo.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Saul, Emily (April 19, 2016). "NYPD cop Peter Liang gets community service for killing Akai Gurley". New York Post. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Akai Kareem Gurley's funeral service program, Dec. 6, 2014, Brown Memorial Baptist Church, Brooklyn
- "Bratton: Fatal Police-Involved Shooting of Unarmed Man at Brooklyn Housing Complex 'Unfortunate Tragedy'". CBS New York. November 21, 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Saul, Josh (November 21, 2014). "Man killed by NYPD rookie planned to surprise mom in Florida". New York Post. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Residents of Brooklyn Housing Project Stay Wary After Officer Is Indicted". The New York Times. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- "他真的很好 鄰居為梁彼得叫屈". World Journal 世界日报. 12 February 2015. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- Mark Jacobson (September 9, 2012). "The Land That Time and Money Forgot". New York. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Ben Feuerherd; Lorena Mongelli; Sophia Rosenbaum (November 22, 2014). "Living in fear at the dark & deadly hellhole houses". New York Post. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Christopher Mathias (December 10, 2014). "Akai Gurley's Death Shines Harsh Light On Vertical Patrols In Public Housing". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Fuchs, Chris (8 February 2016). "In Tears On Stand, NYPD Cop Recalls Fatal Shooting of Akai Gurley". NBC News. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Nir, Sarah (8 February 2016). "Officer Peter Liang, on Stand, Breaks Down as He Recalls Brooklyn Killing". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Akai Gurley, Unarmed Man, Shot By NYPD". Huffington Post. 22 November 2014.
- "Here's What It'd Take To Convict The NYPD Cop Who Killed Akai Gurley". Huffington Post. 12 February 2015.
- "Rookie cops often assigned to dangerous 'vertical patrols'". New York Post. 22 November 2014.
- "Tragic justice served in manslaughter conviction of NYPD Officer Peter Liang for Akai Gurley's killing". NY Daily News. 12 February 2016.
- "Stairwell shooting cop trained to have gun drawn: fellow officers". New York Post. 12 February 2015.
- "NYPD Officer Pleads Not Guilty in Shooting Death of Unarmed Man". The Wall Street Journal. 11 February 2015.
- Italiano, Laura (14 February 2016). "Liang's appeal to focus on jurors handling his gun". New York Post. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Izadi, Elahe; Holley, Peter (21 November 2014). "Officer's Errant Shot Kills Unarmed Brooklyn Man". New York Times Post. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Panicked rookie NYPD officer fatally shoots unarmed 28-year-old man in Brooklyn's Pink Houses project". NEW YORK DAILY NEWS. 21 November 2014.
- "NYPD officer breaks down during testimony about Akai Gurley shooting". the Guardian. 8 February 2016.
- "Lupica: Shooting of Akai Gurley doesn't make East New York into Ferguson, or officer into a criminal". New York Daily News. 23 November 2014.
- Pizarro, Max (21 February 2016). "In Princeton, Chinese Protesters Charge NYPD with Scapegoating Officer Liang". PolitickerNJ. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Officer's Errant Shot Kills Unarmed Brooklyn Man". New York Times. 21 November 2014.
- Levitt, Leonard (18 January 2016). "Liang case underlines issue of race in NYC". AM New York. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Koo, George. "Peter Liang is unlucky to be an Asian New York cop". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Officer's Errant Shot Kills Unarmed Brooklyn Man". NY Times. 22 November 2014.
- Clifford, Stephanie (9 December 2014). "A Police Killing Puts Heavy Expectations on a Prosecutor". NY Times.
- "Grand Jury To Hear Case Of Unarmed Man Shot By New York Cop In Stairwell". BuzzFeed News. 5 December 2014.
- "De Blasio doubts Liang conviction will have chilling effect on police". Politico PRO. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- "Relatives Mourn Akai Gurley, An Innocent Man Killed By The NYPD". Gothamist. 7 December 2014. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
- "Memorial for Akai Gurley, Unarmed Man Shot by NYPD, Set for Today". The Village Voice. 5 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014.
- Rivlin-Nadler, Max (4 February 2016). "Residents See Little Change Since Cop Killed Innocent Man In Darkened Stairwell". Gothamist. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- Georgantopoulos, Mary Ann (5 February 2016). "Dangerous NYPD Assignment In The Spotlight At Officer's Trial After Bronx Shooting". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- Baker, Al (5 February 2016). "Shootings in Public Housing Project Highlight Risks of Stairwell Patrols". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- Qian, Siyu. "Is Police Officer Peter Liang a Scapegoat?". NY City Lens. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "Thousands protest prosecution of NYPD officer". News 12. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "Thousands Rally in Boston Common Calling for Equal Justice for Officer Peter Liang". 20 February 2016.
- Fuchs, Chris (30 March 2015). "National Rallies Planned for Indicted NYPD Officer Peter Liang". NBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Nir, Sarah (12 February 2016). "Many Asians Express Dismay and Frustration After Liang Verdict". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Fuchs, Chris (13 February 2016). "Former NYPD Cop Peter Liang's Guilty Verdict Leaves a Community Divided". NBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Bain, Eileen AJ; Connelly, Jennifer (February 20, 2016). "10,000 protesters rallying in support of ex-cop Peter Liang". New York Post. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Place, Nathan (2016-02-20). "Supporters rally behind convicted cop Peter Liang". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-05-30.
- "Protests planned after NYPD officer Liang found guilty". Archived from the original on 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2016-02-22.
- "Protests planned after NYPD officer Liang found guilty". 19 February 2016.
- Chris Fuchs. "Race 'Doesn't Matter': Reactions to Officer Liang's Indictment". NBC News.
- "【最愤怒的沉默】梁彼得被定罪后 梁妈妈说的一句话感动全场". Archived from the original on 2019-07-13.
- Prupis, Nadia. "NYPD Officer Indicted in Shooting of Akai Gurley: Reports". Common Dreams NewsCenter. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Watch Brooklyn Protesters Demand Justice for Akai Gurley". Https. Archived from the original on January 4, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- "NY police shooting that has divided Chinese Americans will be tried by jury".
- "NY police shooting case divides Asian American".
- "NYPD Officer Peter Liang Indicted In Fatal Shooting Of Akai Gurley". Newyork.cbslocal.com. 10 February 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- "Officer Indicted in Shooting Death of Akai Gurley". NY1. 10 February 2015.
- Carrega-Woodby, Christina; Marzulli, John; Brown Stephen Rex (February 11, 2016). "NYPD Officer Peter Liang found guilty of second-degree manslaughter in fatal shooting of Akai Gurley in Brooklyn housing development". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Phippen, J. Weston (3 March 2016). "Why Was Officer Peter Liang Convicted?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Phippen, J. Weston. "A Guilty Verdict in the Akai Gurly Case". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- "NYPD OFFICER TESTIFIES AT MANSLAUGHTER TRIAL OF HIS FORMER PARTNER, PETER LIANG". 4 February 2016.
- Southall, Ashley (12 February 2016). "Police department fires partner of ex-officer Peter Liang". The New York Times.
- "Officer Guilty of Negligence in '03 Killing". NYTimes. 22 October 2005.
- "Prosecutor rips Peter Liang's defense in Akai Gurley killing". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "Former NYPD Cop Peter Liang's Guilty Verdict Leaves a Community Divided". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "Why was Peter Liang one of so few cops convicted for killing an unarmed man?". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- Phippen, J. Weston. "Why Was Officer Peter Liang Convicted?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "New York City, Peter Liang to Pay Over $4 Million Settlement to Family of Akai Gurley". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
- "As civil suit dismissed, Peter Liang expected to not appeal conviction". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
- "– Where Do Funds Raised for Peter Liang Go?". voicesofny.org. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
- "A Look at Recent Police Killings Cited in Protests". ABC News. 22 December 2014.
- Nessen, Stephen (5 December 2014). "Like Michael Brown And Eric Garner, Akai Gurley's Death Inspires Anger". NPR.
- "Lessons From a Stairwell Shooting". NY Times. 2 December 2014.
- Mathias, Christopher (10 December 2014). "Akai Gurley's Death Shines Harsh Light On Vertical Patrols In Public Housing". Huffington Post.
- Toth, Kathie (19 December 2014). "The Year in NYPD Public Relations Disasters". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014.
- Floyd, Gregory (19 December 2014). "Let's take the longer view on NYCHA's safety". New York Amsterdam News.
- Shalev, Asaf (18 December 2014). "After Akai Gurley: The Connection Between Maintenance and Safety in Public Housing". The Brooklyn Ink. Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 2014-12-20.
- "I-Team: Darkened Stairwell Not the Only Problem at Police Shooting Building". NBC New York. 16 December 2014.