The short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus), like its congener the long-billed dowitcher, is a medium-sized, stocky, long-billed shorebird in the family Scolopacidae. The genus name Limnodromus is Ancient Greek from limne, "marsh" and dromos, "racer". The specific griseus is Medieval Latin for "grey". The English name is from Iroquois and was first recorded in 1841.
It is an inhabitant of North America, Central America, and northern South America. It is strongly migratory; it completely vacates in breeding areas during the snow-bound months. This species favors a variety of habitats including tundra in the north to ponds and mudflats in the south. It feeds on invertebrates often by rapidly probing its bill into mud in a sewing machine fashion. It and the very similar long-billed dowitcher were considered one species until 1950. Field identification of the two American Limnodromus remains difficult today. Distinguishing wintering or juvenile short-billed dowitchers from the long-billed species is very difficult and, even given examination their subtlety different body shapes, cannot always be isolated to a particular species. They differ most substantially in vocalizations. The names of American dowitchers are misleading, as there is much overlap in their bill lengths. Only a small percentage can be identified by this character alone.
The body of adults is dark brown on top and reddish underneath. The tail has a black and white barred pattern. The legs are a yellowish color.
There are three subspecies with slight variations in appearance:
- L. g. griseus has a white belly and barred flanks.
- L. g. hendersoni has a reddish belly and spotted flanks.
- L. g. caurinus has a white belly with heavily barred flanks and densely spotted breast.
None of these combines the reddish belly and barred flanks of the breeding plumage long-billed dowitcher. The winter plumage is largely grey. This bird can range from 23 to 32 cm (9.1 to 12.6 in) in length, 46 to 56 cm (18 to 22 in) in wingspan and 73–155 g (2.6–5.5 oz) in body mass.
The call of this bird is more mellow than that of the long-billed dowitcher, and is useful in identification, particularly of the difficult adult plumages.
Breeding and habitat
Their breeding habitat includes bogs, tidal marshes, mudflats or forest clearings south of the tree line in northern North America. L. g. griseus breeds in northern Quebec; L. g. hendersoni breeds in north central Canada; L. g. caurinus breeds in southern Alaska and southern Yukon.
These birds nest on the ground, usually near water. Their nests are shallow depressions in clumps of grass or moss, which are lined with fine grasses, twigs and leaves. They lay four, sometimes three, olive-buff to brown eggs. Incubation lasts for 21 days and is done by both sexes.
The downy juvenile birds leave the nest soon after hatching. Parental roles are not well known, but it is believed the female departs and leaves the male to tend the chicks, which find all their own food.
They migrate to the southern United States and as far south as Brazil. This bird is more likely to be seen near ocean coasts during migration than the long-billed dowitcher. This species occurs in western Europe only as an extremely rare vagrant.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Limnodromus griseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 179, 227. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
- "Dowitcher". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- American Ornithologist' Union. Check-list of North American Birds. American Ornithologists' Union. 1998.
- Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Knopf. p. 483. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.
- Paulson, Dennis R. (1993). Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295977065.
- Kaufman, Kenn (1990). Kaufman Field Guide to Advanced Birding. Kaufman Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0547248325.
- CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Limnodromus griseus.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Limnodromus griseus|
- Short-billed Dowitcher - Limnodromus griseus - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter
- Short-billed dowitcher species account - Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- "Short-billed dowitcher media". Internet Bird Collection.
- Short-billed dowitcher, Cape Jourimain Nature Centre
- Short-billed dowitcher photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
- Interactive range map of Limnodromus griseus at IUCN Red List maps
- Audio recordings of Short-billed dowitcher on Xeno-canto.