A short-range device (SRD), described by ECC Recommendation 70-03, is a radio-frequency transmitter device used in telecommunication for the transmission of information, which has low capability of causing harmful interference to other radio equipment.
Short-range devices are low-power transmitters typically limited to 25–100 mW effective radiated power (ERP) or less, depending on the frequency band, which limits their useful range to few hundred meters, and do not require a license from their users.
Short-range wireless technologies include Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, near-field communication (NFC), ultra-wideband (UWB) and IEEE 802.15.4. They are implemented by chips fabricated as RF CMOS integrated circuit (RF circuit). As of 2009[update], short-range wireless chips ship approximately 1.7 billion units annually, with Bluetooth accounting for over 55% of shipments and Wi-Fi around 35% of shipments.
Applications for short-range wireless devices include power meters and other remote instrumentation, RFID applications, radio-controlled models, fire, security and social alarms, vehicle radars, wireless microphones and earphones, traffic signs and signals (including control signals), remote garage door openers and car keys, barcode readers, motion detection, and many others.
The European Commission mandates through CEPT and ETSI the allocation of several device bands for these purposes, restricts the parameters of their use, and provides guidelines for avoiding radio interference.
According to ECC Rec. 70-03, there are several annexes which encapsulate specific usage patterns, maximum emission power and duty cycle requirements.
|Annex 1. Non-specific short range devices|
|26.957-27.283 MHz||ISM||Citizens' Band|
|433.050-434.790 MHz||ISM||LPD433 (70-centimeter band); also an Amateur Radio band|
|2400.0–2483.5 MHz||ISM||13-centimeter band Heavily used by Wi-Fi; also an Amateur Radio band (Up to 2450 MHz)|
|5725–5875 MHz||ISM||5-centimeter band; also an Amateur Radio band (Up to 5850 MHz)|
|24.00–24.25 GHz||ISM||1.2-centimeter band; also an Amateur Radio band|
|122–123 GHz||ISM||2.5-millimeter band; also an Amateur Radio band|
|244–246 GHz||ISM||1-millimeter band; also an Amateur Radio band|
|Annex 2. Tracking, tracing and data acquisition|
|456.9–457.1 kHz||Detection of avalanche victims|
|169.4–169.475 MHz||Remote meter reading|
|169.4–169.475 MHz||Asset tracking and tracing|
|Annex 3. Wideband data transmission systems|
|2400.0–2483.5 MHz||ISM||Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc.|
|57–66 GHz||V||WiGig, WirelessHD, etc.|
|Annex 4. Railway applications|
|2446–2454 MHz||Automatic vehicle identification systems for railways|
|27.090–27.100 MHz||Balise tele-powering and down-link (train to ground) systems|
|984–7484 kHz||Balise up-link (ground to train) systems|
|7.3–23.0 MHz||Loop up-link (ground to train) systems|
|Annex 5. Road transport and traffic telematics (RTTT)|
|63–64 GHz||V||Vehicle to vehicle and road to vehicle systems|
|76–77 GHz||W||Vehicle radar and infrastructure radar systems|
|21.65–26.65 GHz||K||Automotive short range radars (SRR) (marketed until July 2013)|
|77–81 GHz||W||Automotive short range radars (SRR)|
|Annex 6. Radiodetermination applications|
|4.5–7.0 GHz||Tank level probing radar (TLPR)|
|8.5–10.6 GHz||Tank level probing radar (TLPR)|
|24.05–27.00 GHz||Tank level probing radar (TLPR)|
|57–64 GHz||Tank level probing radar (TLPR)|
|75–85 GHz||Tank level probing radar (TLPR)|
|17.1–17.3 GHz||Ground-based synthetic aperture radar|
|Annex 7. Alarms|
|169.4750–169.4875 MHz||Social alarms (exclusive use)|
|169.5875–169.6000 MHz||Social alarms (exclusive use)|
|Annex 8. Model control|
|34.995–35.225 MHz||Only for flying models|
40.685, 40.695 MHz
|Annex 9. Inductive applications|
|Annex 10. Radio microphone applications including aids for the hearing impaired|
|29.7–47.0 MHz||except 30.3–30.5 MHz, 32.15–32.45 MHz and 41.015–47.00 MHz (harmonised military bands)|
|173.965–174.015||Aids for the hearing impaired|
|863–865 MHz||Individual licence required|
|470–786 MHz||Individual licence required|
|786–789 MHz||Individual licence required|
|Individual licence required|
|Individual licence required|
|169.4000–169.4750 MHz||Aids for the hearing impaired. Individual licence may be required|
|169.4875–169.5875 MHz||Aids for the hearing impaired. Individual licence may be required|
|Annex 11. Radio frequency identification applications|
|Annex 12. Active medical implants and their associated peripherals|
|Annex 13. Wireless audio applications|
In Europe, 863 to 870 MHz band has been allocated for license-free operation using FHSS, DSSS, or analog modulation with either a transmission duty cycle of 0.1%, 1% or 10% depending on the band, or Listen Before Talk (LBT) with Adaptive Frequency Agility (AFA). Although this band falls under the Short Range Device umbrella, it is being used in Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) wireless telecommunication networks, designed to allow long-range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects).
|Frequency||Duty cycle||Channel spacing||ERP|
|863.0 – 865.0 MHz||100% (wireless audio)||10 mW|
|863.0 – 865.6 MHz||0.1% or LBT+AFA||25 mW|
|863.0 – 868.0 MHz *||25 mW wideband up to 1 MHz (data only)|
|865.0 – 868.0 MHz||1% or LBT+AFA||25 mW|
|865.0 – 868.0 MHz *||0.1% or LBT+AFA||4 frequencies||2 W (RFID only)|
|865.0 – 868.0 MHz *||10% (access points), 2.5% (other devices)||4 frequencies||500 mW (data only, power control required)|
|868.0 – 868.6 MHz||1% or LBT+AFA||25 mW|
|868.6 – 868.7 MHz||1% (alarms)||25 kHz||10 mW|
|868.7 – 869.2 MHz||0.1% or LBT+AFA||25 mW|
|869.2 – 869.25 MHz||0.1% (social alarms)||25 kHz||10 mW|
|869.25 – 869.3 MHz||0.1% (alarms)||25 kHz||10 mW|
|869.3 – 869.4 MHz||1% (alarms)||25 kHz||10 mW|
|869.4 – 869.65 MHz||10% or LBT+AFA||25 kHz||500 mW|
|869.65 – 869.7 MHz||10% (alarms)||25 kHz||25 mW|
|869.7 – 870.0 MHz||100% (voice communication)||5 mW|
|1% or LBT+AFA||25 mW|
(* = as of 1 January 2018)
From January 2018, the four RFID frequencies are also available for data networks, with a power up to 500 mW and a bandwidth of 200 kHz. The center frequencies are: 865.7, 866.3, 866.9 and 867.5 MHz. Specific restrictions on usage apply, such as a low duty cycle, LBT (listen before transmit) and APC (adaptive power control).
- Happich, Julien (24 February 2010). "Global shipments of short range wireless ICs to exceed 2 billion units in 2010". EE Times. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Veendrick, Harry J. M. (2017). Nanometer CMOS ICs: From Basics to ASICs. Springer. p. 243. ISBN 9783319475974.
- CEPT/ERC REC 70-03 (22 August 2011)
- ETSI EN 300 220-1 v2.3.1 (2010-02). Table 5.
- IDA Singapore: Technical specifications for short-range devices
- 2011/829/EU: Commission Implementing Decision of 8 December 2011 amending Decision 2006/771/EC on harmonisation of the radio spectrum for use by short-range devices
- Explanatory document on Commission Decision 2011/829/EU Archived 14 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- OFCOM IR 2030 - Licence Exempt Short Range Devices Archived 13 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2017/1483 of 8 August 2017 amending Decision 2006/771/EC on harmonisation of the radio spectrum for use by short-range devices and repealing Decision 2006/804/EC". Eur-Lex.Europa.eu.