|Singapore Mark III, K8565 ‘Q’.|
|Role||Military flying boat|
|First flight||17 August 1926 (Mk.I) 15 June 1934 (Mk.III)|
|Retired||Retired by RAF in 1941, last flight flown by RNZAF in 1942|
|Status||Phased out of service|
|Primary users||Royal Air Force|
Royal New Zealand Air Force
|Developed from||Short Cromarty|
The Short Singapore was a British multi-engined biplane flying boat built after the First World War. The design was developed into two four-engined versions: the prototype Singapore II and production Singapore III. The latter became the Royal Air Force's main long-range maritime patrol flying boat of the 1930s and saw service against the Japanese with the Royal New Zealand Air Force during the Second World War.
Design and development
The first prototype of the Short Singapore, also known as the Short S.5 (military designation Singapore I), was a metal hull version of the wooden-hulled Short Cromarty. The biplane design included a single fin and rudder, and was originally powered by two Rolls-Royce Condor IIIA 650 horsepower (480 kW) engines. Its maiden flight was made from Rochester on 17 August 1926, piloted by Short's Chief Test Pilot John Lankester Parker. The type did not enter production, but was used by Sir Alan Cobham for a survey flight around Africa. Registered G-EBUP, it left Rochester on 17 November 1927 and arrived at the Cape on 30 March 1928, returning to Rochester on 4 June 1928. It was displayed at the Olympia in July 1929.
The Singapore II (manufacturer's designation Short S.12) which followed was a development of the Singapore I with four engines, mounted in tractor/pusher pairs (better known as the push-pull configuration). The single example of this aircraft to be built was first flown on 27 March 1930, also by John Lankester Parker.
From the Singapore II came a design with four engines and triple fins. In 1933 the British Air Ministry ordered four flying boats based on the Singapore II for trials with squadrons under specification R.3/33. These would be followed by a further production order to specification R.14/34. These aircraft, the Singapore III (manufacturer's designation Short S.19), had all-metal hulls and fabric-covered metal flying surfaces. They were powered by four 675 hp (503 kW) Rolls-Royce Kestrel IX mounted between the wings in two tandem push-pull pairs, similar to the Singapore IIs. The crew of six was located in a central cabin and fore, aft, and midships open gun positions (Vickers machine gun or Lewis gun). A long-range fuel tank could be carried externally on the dorsal hull. The first Singapore III flew on 15 June 1934. Although obsolescent by the time the first aircraft entered service with 210 Squadron in January 1935, the type arrived just in time to benefit from the arms race of the late 1930s and 37 were built. Production terminated in June 1937.
230 Squadron was the first squadron equipped with Singapore IIIs. It was posted to Alexandria in 1935. During 1937 the Singapores of 209 Squadron and 210 Squadron moved from RAF Kalafrana in Malta to Algeria as part of an international effort to prevent gun running during the Spanish Civil War.
Replacement of the Singapore with the Short Sunderland was well underway by the outbreak of the Second World War. However, 19 survivors saw limited service in secondary theatres, mainly in a training role. The last RAF unit operating the type was No. 205 Squadron RAF in, appropriately enough, Singapore which relinquished its aircraft in October 1941. Four 205 squadron aircraft found their way to No. 5 Squadron RNZAF in Fiji, for use against German raiders. When Japan attacked in December, the New Zealand aircraft found themselves in the front line. They accounted for a Japanese submarine and conducted several air-sea rescues before being replaced by the Consolidated Catalinas from No. 6 Squadron RNZAF in April 1943.
None are known to have survived.
- Short S.5 / Singapore I
- First design aircraft powered by two Rolls-Royce Condor IIIA engines (665 hp), one aircraft built.
- Short S.12 / Singapore II
- A development of the Singapore I powered by four engines, single example built.
- Short S.19 / Singapore III
- A development of the Singapore II powered by four Rolls-Royce Kestrel IX engines and equipped with triple fins. 37 were built.
- Royal New Zealand Air Force
- Royal Air Force
Specifications (Singapore III to R.14/34)
Data from Singapore: Short's Last Biplane Boat
- Crew: six
- Length: 64 ft 2 in (19.56 m)
- Wingspan: 90 ft (27.43 m)
- Height: 23 ft 7 in (7.19 m)
- Wing area: 1,465 sq ft (136.1 m²)
- Empty weight: 20,364 lb (9,237)
- Loaded weight: 28,160 lb (12,773 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 32,390 lb (14,692 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Rolls-Royce Kestrel VIII/IX piston (pusher/tractor configuration), 675 hp (503 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 136 mph (118 knots, 219 km/h) (at 5,000 ft and normal weight)
- Cruise speed: 123 mph (107 knots, 198 km/h)
- Range: 1,000 mi (870 nmi, 1,610 km)
- Endurance: 6 hours 15 minutes
- Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,570 m)
- Rate of climb: 700 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
- Guns: Up to three 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns
- Bombs: Up to 1,100 pounds (500 kg) of bombs under wings.
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force
- List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft
- Barnes 1967, p. 198.
- London 2003, pp. 98–99.
- Darby 1978, p. 20.
- Prince, Ivan. "New Zealand Military Aircraft Serial Numbers: Short Singapore Mk III". www.adf-serials.com. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- Jefford 2001, p. 177.
- Green and Swanborough 1989, pp. 43–50.
- London 2003, pp. 262–263.
- Barnes, C.H. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam, 1967.
- Barnes, C.H. and Derek N. James. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
- Darby, Charles. RNZAF: The First Decade, 1937–46. Dandenong, Melbourne, Australia: Kookaburra Technical Publications Pty Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-85880-031-4.
- Green, William. Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume five: Flying Boats. London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1962 (Fifth impression 1972). ISBN 0-356-01449-5.
- Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "Singapore: Short's Last Biplane Boat". Air Enthusiast, Thirty-nine, May–August 1989. Bromley, Kent, UK:Tri-Service Press. pp. 43–50. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Jefford, W/Cdr. C.G., MBE, BA, RAF(Retd). RAF Squadrons: A Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of All RAF Squadrons and their Antecendents Since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1998 (2nd edition 2001). ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- London, Peter. British Flying Boats. Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7509-2695-3.
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