Short program (figure skating)

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Yuzuru Hanyu during his short program at the 2010 Rostelecom Cup

The short program of figure skating is the first of two segments of competitions, skated before the free skating program. It lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pair skaters, 2 minutes and 40 seconds. In synchronized skating, for both juniors and seniors, the short program lasts 2 minutes and 50 seconds. Vocal music with lyrics is allowed for all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. The short program for single skaters and for pair skaters consists of seven required elements, and there are six required elements for synchronized skaters.

Overview[edit]

Rika Kihira performing her short program at the 2017 Junior Grand Prix Final

The short program, along with the free skating program, is a segment of single skating, pair skating, and synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, and ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters (including the finals).[1][2][3]:p. 9[4]:p. 7 It has been previously called the "original" or "technical" program.[5][6]:p. 12 The short program was added to single skating in 1973, which created a three-part competition until compulsory figures were eliminated in 1990. The short program for pair skating was introduced at the 1963 European Championships, the 1964 World Championships, and the Olympics in 1968; previously, pair skaters only had to perform the free skating program in competitions. Synchronized skating has always had two competition segments, the short program and free skating.[7]

The short program must be skated before the free skate.[8][2] It lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pairs, 2 minutes and 40 seconds.[9] In synchronized skating, for both juniors and seniors, the short program lasts 2 minutes and 50 seconds, "but may be less".[10] Vocal music with lyrics is allowed in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. The first time vocal music was allowed at the Olympics was in 2018.[11][12][note 1]

Pair skating, which has never included a compulsory phase like the other figure skating disciplines, did not require a short program until the early 1960s, when the ISU "instituted a short program of required moves" as the first part of pair competitions.[14] The short program for pair skating first appeared at the European Championships in 1963, the World Championships in 1964, and the Olympics in 1968.[15] The arrangement of the specific moves, also unlike compulsory figures for single skaters and the compulsory dance for ice dancers, were up to each pair team. According to writer Ellyn Kestnbaum, the short programs introduced in single men and women competitions in 1973 were modeled after the pair skating short program, and the structure of competitions in both single and pair competitions have been identical since the elimination of compulsory figures in 1990.[14]

Yuzuru Hanyu from Japan holds the two highest single men's short program scores: 110.53 points, which he earned at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup, and 106.69, earned at the 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki.[16] Japanese skater Rika Kihira holds the two highest single women's short program scores: 83.97, which she earned at the 2019 World Team Trophy in Fukuoka, Japan and 82.51, which she earned at the 2018–19 Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final in Vancouver, British Columbia.[17] Russian pairs team Evgenia Tarasova and Vladimir Morozov hold the highest pair skating short program score of 81.21, which they earned at the 2019 World Figure Skating Championships in Saitama, Japan.[18][note 2]

Requirements[edit]

Singles[edit]

Mao Asada performs a Biellmann spin during her short program at the 2008-2009 Grand Prix Final

The short program for senior single skaters consists of seven required elements. The sequence of the elements is optional. Skaters can choose their own music, but their programs must be skated in harmony with it. Men single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple Axel; one triple or quadruple jump; a jump combination consisting of either a double jump and a triple jump, two triple jumps, a quadruple jump and a double jump, or a triple jump; one flying spin; a camel spin or sit spin with just one change of foot; a spin combination with just one change of foot; and a step sequence using the entire ice surface.[11]

Women single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple axel; one triple jump; a jump combination consisting of either a double jump and a triple jump, or two triple jumps; one flying spin; either a layback/sideways leaning spin or a sit or camel spin without a change of foot; a spin combination with just one change of foot; and a step sequence using the entire ice surface.[20][21]

Junior single skaters also have seven required elements, in any sequence, but with variations in the 2018-2019, 2019-2020, and 2020-2021 seasons. For example, men have to skate the following elements in 2018-2019: one double or triple Axel; a double or triple flip jump; one jump combination consisting of either one triple jump or two triple jumps, or one double and one triple jump; one flying camel spin; a spin combination with just one change of foot; and a step sequence using the entire ice surface. In 2019-2020, however, instead of having to skate a double or triple flip jump, they have to skate a double or triple loop jump; and instead of having to skate a flying camel spin, they have to skate a flying sit spin. Instead having to skate a spin combination with just one change of foot, they have to skate a layback/sideways leaning spin or sit spin, and they have to skate a camel spin with just one change of foot.[22][note 3]

Pair skating[edit]

Both junior and senior pair skaters have seven required elements. The sequence of the elements is optional. Like single skaters, their short programs must be skated in harmony with the music, which they choose. There were three groups of required elements, for the 2018-2019, 2019-2020, and 2020-2021 seasons. For example, seniors during the 2018-2019 season had to perform the following: any hand-to-hand lift take-off; a double or triple twist lift; a double or triple throw jump; a double or triple solo jump; one solo spin combination with just one change of foot; a backward outside death spiral; and a step sequence using the entire ice surface. In 2019-2020, pairs had to perform any lasso lift take-off instead of a hand-to-hand lift take-off, and a backward inside death spiral instead of a backward outside one. In 2020-2021, they must return to the backward outside death spiral, and perform any hip lift take-off.[23]

Junior pair skaters also had three groups of required elements. During the 2018-2019 season, they had to perform the following elements: any hand-to-hand lift take-off; a double or triple twist lift; a double or triple Salchow throw jump; a double flip or double axel solo jump; a solo spin combination with just one change of foot; a backward outside death spiral; and a step sequence using the entire ice surface. During the 2019-2020 season, they had to perform any Lasso lift take-off instead of any hand-to-hand lift take-off, and a backward inside death spiral instead of a backward outside death spiral. In 2019-2020, they had to perform the backward inside death spiral, and perform a double lutz or double axel solo jump.[24]

Only the prescribed overhead lift take-off and death spiral are allowed. Both junior and senior pair skaters can only perform either a lutz or flip take-off by the woman, and women can only perform two or three free rotations in the air. Seniors can perform any double or triple jump and throw jump, but juniors can only perform what has been prescribed.[25] For spin combinations, pair skaters " must include only one change of foot with not less than five (5) revolutions on each foot by both partners".[25] The change of foot has to be done in the form of either a jump or a step-over, and the change of foot and change of positions must be made either at the same time or separately.[25] For step sequences, they have to be performed together or close together, and can include any unlisted jumps. Pair skaters may also perform short stops, if done "in accordance with the music".[26]

Synchronized skating[edit]

Team Golden Blades perform a circle rotating element during their short program at the qualifiers for the 2010 Finnish Synchronized Skating Championships

In synchronized skating, both juniors and seniors must perform a maximum of six required elements. The sequence of the elements is optional.[27] The ISU, out of the following 14 elements, chooses and publicizes the required elements for the junior and senior short program yearly. They include: one artistic element; one creative element; an intersection element; a group lift element (but only for senior teams, when required); a block or line linear element; a move element; one no-hold element; a pair element; a block or line pivoting element; a circle or wheel rotating element; a synchronized spin element; a circle or wheel traveling element; and a twizzle element.[28]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The ISU has allowed vocals in the music used in ice dance since the 1997-1998 season.[13]
  2. ^ After the 2018-2019 season, due to the change in grade of execution scores from -3 to +3 to -5 to +5, all statistics started from zero and all previous scores were listed as "historical".[19]
  3. ^ See ISU's "2018 S&P/ID Regulations" for further variations.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S&P/ID 2018, p. 9
  2. ^ a b SS Rules 2018, p. 7
  3. ^ "Special Regulations & Technical Rules Single & Pair Skating and Ice Dance 2018". International Skating Union. June 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Special Regulations & Technical Rules Synchronized Skating 2018". International Skating Union. June 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  5. ^ Kestnbaum, p. 12
  6. ^ Kestnbaum, Ellyn (2003). Culture on Ice: Figure Skating and Cultural Meaning. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0819566411.
  7. ^ Hines, pp. 91, 205
  8. ^ S&P/ID 2018, p. 10
  9. ^ S&P/ID 2018, p. 78
  10. ^ SS Rules 2018, p. 66
  11. ^ a b S&P/ID 2018, p. 103
  12. ^ Root, Tik (8 February 2018). "How to watch figure skating at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  13. ^ Hersh, Philip (23 October 2014). "Figure skating taking Cole Porter approach: Anything goes". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  14. ^ a b Kestnbaum, p. 325
  15. ^ Hines, p. 205
  16. ^ "Progression of Highest Score: Men Short Program Score". International Skating Union. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  17. ^ "Progression of Highest Score: Ladies Short Program Score". International Skating Union. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Progression of Highest Score: Pairs Short Program Score". International Skating Union. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  19. ^ Walker, Elvin (19 September 2018). "New Season New Rules". International Figure Skating. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  20. ^ S&P/ID 2018, p. 104
  21. ^ "Figure Skating 101: Get to Know the Rules and Scoring". NBC Washington.com. NBC Universal Media. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  22. ^ a b S&P/ID 2018, pp. 104–105
  23. ^ S&P/ID 2018, pp. 113–114
  24. ^ S&P/ID 2018, pp. 114–115
  25. ^ a b c S&P/ID 2018, p. 115
  26. ^ S&P/ID 2018, pp. 116
  27. ^ SS Rules 2018, p. 105
  28. ^ SS Rules 2018, p. 107

Works cited[edit]

  • Hines, James R. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Figure Skating. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6859-5.