|Elevation||871 m (2,858 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Part of a series on|
Shravanabelagola (Śravaṇa Beḷagoḷa) is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore. The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas (pilgrimage destinations) in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have died here in 298 BCE after he became a Jain monk and assumed an ascetic life style.
Gommateshwara statue, Akkana Basadi, Chandragupta basadi, Chamundaraya Basadi, Parshvanath Basadi and inscriptions of Shravanabelagola group of monuments are listed as Adarsh Smarak Monument by Archaeological Survey of India.
Shravanabelagola is located at 11 km to the south-east of Channarayapatna in the Channarayapatna taluk of Hassan district of Karnataka. It is at a distance of 51 km south-east of Hassan, Karnataka, the district centre. It is situated at a distance of 12 km to the south from the Bangalore-Mangalore road (NH-75), 18 km from Hirisave, 78 km from Halebidu, 89 km from Belur, 83 km from Mysuru, 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka and 222 km from Mangalore.
Shravanabelagola "White Pond of the Shravana" is named with reference to the colossal image of Gommaṭa - the prefix Śravaṇa serves to distinguish it from other Belagolas with the prefixes Hale- and Kodi-, while Beḷagoḷa "white pond" is an allusion to the pond in the middle of the town. The Sanskrit equivalents Śvetasarovara, Dhavalasarovara and Dhavalasarasa used in the inscriptions that support this meaning. There are more than 560 inscriptions in Shravabelagola.
Some inscriptions mention the name of the place as Beḷgoḷa, which has given rise to another derivation from the plant Solanum ferox (hairy-fruited eggplant). This derivation is in allusion to a tradition which says that a pious old woman completely anointed the colossal image with the milk brought by her in a gullakayi or eggplant. The place is also designated as Devara Beḷgoḷa "White Pond of the God" and Gommaṭapuram "city of Gommaṭa" in some epigraphs.
Shravanabelagola has two hills, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, which was dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was originally built there by Ashoka in the third century BC. Chandragiri also has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri also has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya.
The 58-feet tall monolithic statue of Gommateshwara is located on Vindyagiri Hill. It is considered to be the world's largest monolithic statue. The base of the statue has an inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, Chavundaraya, who erected the statue for his mother. Every twelve years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the statue is anointed with Water, Turmeric, Rice flour, Sugar cane juice, Sandalwood paste, saffron, and gold and silver flowers. Recently Mahamastakabhisheka was held in 2018 during feb month. The next Mahamastakabhisheka will be held in 2030.
Shravanabelagola, nestled by the Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri Hills, protected by the monolith Bhagwan Bahubali, and home to over 2,300 years of Jain heritage, is a veritable picture postcard of our history and heritage spanning the centuries. In the town of Shravanabelagola, stands a colossal rock-cut statue of Lord Gommateshwara Shri Bahubali. About eight hundred odd inscriptions which the Karnataka Archeological Department has collected at the place are mostly Jaina and cover a very extended period from 600 to 1830 A.D. Some refer even to the remote time of Chandragupta Maurya and also relate the story of the first settlement of Jains at Shravanabelagola. That this village was an acknowledged seat of learning is proved from the fact that a priest from here named Akalanka was in 788 A.D. summoned to the court of Himasitala at Kanchi where having confuted the Buddhists in public disputation, he was instrumental in gaining their expulsion from the South of India to Ceylon.
More than 800 inscriptions have been found at Shravanabelagola, dating to various times from 600 AD to 1830 AD. A large number of these are found in the Chandragiri and the rest can be seen in the Vindhyagiri Hill and the town. Most of the inscriptions at the Chandragiri date back before the 10th century. These inscriptions include texts in the Kannada. The second volume of Epigraphia Carnatica, written by B. Lewis Rice, is dedicated to the inscriptions found here. It is said to be the oldest Konkani inscription. The inscriptions are written in Purvahalagannada (Ancient Kannada) and Halegannada (Old Kannada) characters. Some of these inscriptions mention the rise and growth in power of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysala Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar dynasty. These inscriptions have helped modern scholars to understand the nature and development of the Kannada language and its literature.
Tyagada Brahmadeva Pillar is a decorated free standing pillar (lit, Stambha), 2.3 m tall, commissioned by Chamundaraya. The pillar dates to around 983 C.E. and exists on the Vindyagiri hill (called Dodda Betta in local Kannada language. On the base of the pillar, on the north side, is an inscription in old Kannada language of the same period.
- Vindhyagiri hill
- Odegal basadi: is the largest basadi on Vindhyagiri hill. The temple derives the name from 'Odega', i.e., soapstone used for strengthening the walls of the temple. The temple houses image of Rishabhanatha, Neminatha and Shantinatha.
- Bhandari basadi: enshrines idols of 24 tirthankar in arranged in a single row.
- Chandragiri hill
- Akkana Basadi: This was built in 1181 A.D. Akkana Basadi has 23rd Tirthankara Parshwanath as main deity of the temple.
- Chandragupta basadi: This was established in the 9th century. The middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture.
- Chamundaraya Basadi: is one of the largest temples on the hill. It is also known as Chavundaraya Basadi. It is dedicated to Neminatha, the 22nd Tirthankara. The sukhanasi consists of good figures of Sarvahna and Kushmandini, the yaksha and yakshi of Neminatha. It is dated back to 982 A.D.
- Parshvanath Basadi: is one of the two tallest temple tallest structure in Shravanabelagola. the temple houses a 18 feet (5.5 m) monolithic colossal of Parshvanatha. the temple dates back to 12th century. The front of the temple has a 65.6 feet (20.0 m) tall manastambha.
- Kattale Basadi: is the largest temple on the hill. The temple features a garbhagriha, pradakshinapatha, sukanasa and a navranga joined by 16 pillars. the temple's front is joined with Chandragupta basadi. The temple houses an idol of Rishabhanatha flanked by chauri bearers.
The Sasana Basadi, Savitagandharva Basadi, Terina Basadi and Santiswara Basadi are other important temples on the Chandragiri hill.
The Mahamastakabhisheka (Grand Consecration/The Great Indian Festival), refers to the abhiṣheka (anointment) of the Jain images when held on a large scale. The most famous of such consecrations is the anointment of the Bahubali Gommateshwara Statue located at Shravanabelagola. It is an important Jain festival held once in every 12 years. It is an integral part of the ancient and composite Jain tradition. The festival is held in veneration of a 17.3736 metres (57.000 ft) high monolithic statue of the Siddha Bahubali. The anointing last took place in February 2018, and the next ceremony is going to take place in 2030. During this festival, the statue is then bathed and anointed with libations such as milk, sugarcane juice, and saffron paste, and sprinkled with powders of sandalwood, turmeric, and vermilion.
Jain Temples near Shravanbelagola
- Jinanathapura Ancient Jain Temples - 3 Kilometers from Shravanbelagola
- Kambadahalli Ancient Jain Temples - 18 Kilometers from Shravanbelagola
- Aratipura Jain Heritage Center & Temples - 100 Kilometers from Shravanbelagola
- Mayasandra Ancient Digambar Jain Mandir - 55 Kilometers from Shravanbelagola
- Markuli Ancient Jain Temple - 45 Kilometers from Shravanbelagola
Other notable things
Shravanabelagola is the seat of the ancient Bhattaraka Matha, belonging to the Desiya Gana lineage of Mula Sangh, from the Digambara monastic tradition. Bahubali College of Engineering is an educational institute at Shravaṇabeḷagoḷa.
The government of Karnataka showcased the statue of Lord Gometashwara at the Republic Day Parade of 2005 where it received the first prize from the then President of India Honourable Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.
On August 5, 2007, the statue at Shravanabelagola was voted by the readers of Times of India as the first of the Seven Wonders of India with 49% votes in favor of the statue.
- Bhattaraka Charukeerthi Swamiji, pontiff of the Shravanabelagola Jain Mutt
- Belur, Karnataka
- Jainism in Karnataka
- List of Jain temples
- Jain temples, Halebidu
- Vir Sanghvi, "Rude Travel: Down The Sages", Hindustan Times, archived from the original on 18 May 2015
- "Adarsh Smarak Monument". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- Krishna 2017, p. 99.
- Dundas 2002, p. 223.
- Sangave 1981, p. 9.
- Jain Pooja-Kavya: Ek Chintan. ISBN 9788126308187.
- Sangave 2001, p. 204.
- S. Settar, Inviting Death: Historical experiments on sepulchral hill, Karnatak University, Dharwar, 1986
- Subbanna 2014, p. 166.
- Biswas 2014, p. 275. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBiswas2014 (help)
- Thurston 2011, p. 153.
- "Delegates enjoy a slice of history at Śravaṇa Beḷgoḷa", The Hindu, Chennai, Staff Correspondent, 1 January 2006, archived from the original on 4 November 2012
- Krishna 2017, p. 182.
- Raman 1994, p. 57.
- "Mahamastakabhisheka works will be completed on time: A. Manju". 17 August 2017 – via www.thehindu.com.
- Singh 2010, p. 43.
- B. L. Rice 2001, p. 366. sfn error: no target: CITEREFB._L._Rice2001 (help)
- Lewis Rice 1985, p. 12. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLewis_Rice1985 (help)
- Introduction in Epigraphia Carnatica Vol.2 Institute of Kannada Studies, Mysore, 1972.
- Kamath (1980), p. 45
- Kamath (1980), p. 52
- Rice 1889, p. 33. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFRice1889 (help)
- Sangave 1981, p. 14.
- Knapp 2008, p. 496.
- Hardy 1995, p. 343.
- ASI & Akkana Basati. sfn error: no target: CITEREFASIAkkana_Basati (help)
- ASI & Chamundaraya Basati.
- Chugh 2016, pp. 289–290.
- Chugh 2016, p. 290.
- Chugh 2016, p. 289.
- Wiley 2009, p. 49.
- Prasad 2018, p. 22.
- Correspondent, TNN (8 February 2006). "Mahamastakabhisheka of Bahubali begins today". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Davey 2016, p. 327.
- "Bahubali Mahamastakabhisheka Mahotsav: Here is the history of the Jain festival PM Modi attended today", The Indian Express, 19 February 2018
- Chugh 2016, p. 292.
- "Aratipura Archives - Jain Heritage Centres". Jain Heritage Centres. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Mayasandra - Jain Heritage Centres". Jain Heritage Centres. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- Dundas 2002, p. 125.
- Flügel 2006, p. 386.
- Gupta 2000, p. 700.
- "Pride of the South".
- "R-Day parade: state tableau wins first prize". The Times of India.
- "And India's 7 wonders are", The Times Of India, 5 August 2007
- "Adarsh Smarak Monument". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- Karnataka State Gazetteer 1983
- Rice, B. Lewis (1889), Inscriptions at Sravana Belgola: a chief seat of the Jains, (Archaeological Survey of Mysore), Bangalore: Mysore Govt. Central Press
- Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2001), Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2
- Biswas, Subhash C. (2014), India the Land of Gods, Partridge Publishing, ISBN 9781482836547
- Krishna, Nanditha (2017), Hinduism and Nature, Penguin Random House India Private Limited, ISBN 9789387326545
- Sangave, Vilas Adinath (1981), The Sacred ʹSravaṇa-Beḷagoḷa: A Socio-religious Study, Murtidevī granthamālā, 8, Mumbai: Bhartiya Jnanpith, ISBN 9789326355599
- Biswas, Subhash C (2014), India the Land of Gods, Partridge Publishing, ISBN 9781482836547
- Subbanna, K V (2014), Community and Culture: Selected Writings, Akshara Prakashana
- Singh, Vipul (2010), Longman History & Civics ICSE 9, Pearson Education India, ISBN 9788131720417
- Dundas, Paul (2002) , The Jains (Second ed.), London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-26605-5
- Thurston, Edgar (2011) , The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and the Associated States, Provincial Geographies of India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9781107600683
- Wiley, Kristi L. (2009), The A to Z of Jainism, The A to Z Guide Series, 38, Scarecrow, ISBN 978-0-8108-6337-8
- Prasad, S. Shyam (2018), Enigmas of Karnataka: Mystery meets History, Notion Press, ISBN 9781642491227
- Davey, Steve (2016), Around the World in 500 Festivals, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 9781510705920
- Hardy, Adam (1995) , Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation : the Karṇāṭa Drāviḍa Tradition, 7th to 13th Centuries, New Delhi: Abhinav, ISBN 9788170173120
- Raman, Afried (1994), Bangalore - Mysore, Bangalore: Orient Blackswan, ISBN 9780863114311
- Gupta, Kulwant Rai (2000), Directory of Libraries in India, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, ISBN 9788171569847
- Rice, Benjamin Lewis (1889). Epigraphia Carnatica: Rev. ed. Epigraphia Carnatica. 2. Bangalore: Government of Mysore Central Press.
- Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) . A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.
- Flügel, Peter (2006), Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues, Routledge, ISBN 9781134235513
- Chugh, Lalit (2016), Karnataka's Rich Heritage - Art and Architecture (From Prehistoric Times to the Hoysala Period ed.), Notion Press, ISBN 9789352068258
- Knapp, Stephen (2008), Seeing Spiritual India, iUniverse, ISBN 9780595614523
- "Akkana Basti, Sravanabelagola". Archaeological Survey of India, Bengaluru Circle. ASI Bengaluru Circle. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "Chamundaraya Basti, Sravanabelagola". Archaeological Survey of India, Bengaluru Circle. ASI Bengaluru Circle. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shravanabelagola.|