The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, it may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. In some fields, however, the term is used more narrowly, and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group, or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails (abdomens), long whiskers (antennae), and slender legs. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one. They swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens, although their escape response is typically repeated flicks with the tail driving them backwards very quickly. Crabs and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin fragile legs which they use primarily for perching.
Shrimp are widespread and abundant. There are thousands of species adapted to a wide range of habitats. They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. To escape predators, some species flip off the seafloor and dive into the sediment. They usually live from one to seven years. Shrimp are often solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season.
They play important roles in the food chain and are an important food source for larger animals ranging from fish to whales. The muscular tails of many shrimp are edible to humans, and they are widely caught and farmed for human consumption. Commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, and in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming became more prevalent during the 1980s, particularly in China, and by 2007 the harvest from shrimp farms exceeded the capture of wild shrimp. There are significant issues with excessive bycatch when shrimp are captured in the wild, and with pollution damage done to estuaries when they are used to support shrimp farming. Many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm (0.79 in) long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm (9.8 in). Larger shrimp are more likely to be targeted commercially, and are often referred to as prawns, particularly in Britain.
Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular abdomens and long antennae. Unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed pleopods (swimmerets) and slender walking legs; they are more adapted for swimming than walking. Historically, it was the distinction between walking and swimming that formed the primary taxonomic division into the former suborders Natantia and Reptantia. Members of the Natantia (shrimp in the broader sense) were adapted for swimming while the Reptantia (crabs, lobsters, etc.) were adapted for crawling or walking. Some other groups also have common names that include the word "shrimp"; any small swimming crustacean resembling a shrimp tends to be called one.
|Differences between shrimp, lobsters and crabs|
|Shrimp are slender with long muscular abdomens. They look somewhat like small lobsters, but not like crabs. The abdomens of crabs are small and short, whereas the abdomens of lobsters and shrimp are large and long. The lower abdomens of shrimp support pleopods which are well adapted for swimming. The carapace of crabs are wide and flat, whereas the carapace of lobsters and shrimp are more cylindrical. The antennae of crabs are short, whereas the antennae of lobsters and shrimp are usually long, reaching more than twice the body length in some shrimp species.||Clawed lobsters (pictured left) and spiny lobsters (pictured right) are an intermediate evolutionary development between shrimp and crabs. They look somewhat like large versions of shrimp. Clawed lobster have large claws while spiny lobsters don't, but have instead spiny antennae and a spiny carapace. Some of the biggest decapods are lobsters. Like crabs, lobsters have robust legs and are highly adapted for walking on the seafloor, though they do not walk sideways. Some species have rudimentary pleopods, which give them some ability to swim, and like shrimp they can lobster with their tail to escape predators, but their primary mode of locomotion is walking, not swimming.||Crabs evolved from early shrimp, though they do not look like shrimp. Unlike shrimp, their abdomen is small, and they have short antennae and a short carapace that is wide and flat. They have prominent grasping claws as their front pair of limbs. Crabs are adapted for walking on the seafloor. They have robust legs and usually move about the seafloor by walking sideways. They have pleopods, but they use them as an intromittent organ or to hold egg broods, and not for swimming. Whereas shrimp and lobsters escape predators by lobstering, crabs cling to the seafloor and burrow into sediment. Compared to shrimp and lobsters, the carapace of crabs are particularly heavy, hard and mineralised.|
The following description refers mainly to the external anatomy of the common European shrimp, Crangon crangon, as a typical example of a decapod shrimp. The body of the shrimp is divided into two main parts: the head and thorax which are fused together to form the cephalothorax, and a long narrow abdomen. The shell which protects the cephlathorax is harder and thicker than the shell elsewhere on the shrimp, and is called the carapace. The carapace typically surrounds the gills, through which water is pumped by the action of the mouthparts. The rostrum, eyes, whiskers and legs also issue from the carapace. The rostrum, from the Latin rōstrum meaning beak, looks like a beak or pointed nose at the front of the shrimp's head. It is a rigid forward extension of the carapace, and can be used for attack or defence. It may also stabilize the shrimp when it swims backwards. Two bulbous eyes on stalks sit either side of the rostrum. These are compound eyes which have panoramic vision and are very good at detecting movement. Two pairs of whiskers (antennae) also issue from the head. One of these pairs is very long, and can be twice the length of the shrimp, while the other pair are quite short. The antennae have sensors on them which allow the shrimp to feel where they touch, and also allow them to "smell" or "taste" things by sampling the chemicals in the water. The long antennae help the shrimp orient itself with regard to its immediate surroundings, while the short antennae help assess the suitability of prey.
Eight pairs of appendages issue from the cephlathorax. The first three pairs, the maxillipeds, Latin for "jaw feet", are used as mouthparts. In Crangon crangon, the first pair, the maxillula, pumps water into the gill cavity. After the maxilliped come more five pairs of appendages, the pereiopods. These form the ten decapod legs. In Crangon crangon, the first two pairs of pereiopods have claws or chela. The chela can grasp food items and bring them to the mouth. They can also be used for fighting and grooming. The remaining six legs are long and slender, and are used for walking or perching.
The muscular abdomen has six segments and has a thinner shell than the carapace. Each segment has a separate overlapping shell, which can be transparent. The first five segments each have a pair of appendages on the underside, which are shaped like paddles and are used for swimming forward. The appendices are called pleopods or swimmerets, and can be used for more purposes than just swimming. Some shrimp species use them for brooding eggs, others have gills on them for breathing, and the males in some species use the first pair or two for insemination. The sixth segment terminates in the telson flanked by two pairs of appendages called the uropods. The uropods allow the shrimp to swim backwards, and function like rudders, steering the shrimp when it swims forward. Together, the telson and uropods form a splayed tail fan. If a shrimp is alarmed, it can flex its tail fan in a rapid movement. This results in a backward dart called the caridoid escape reaction (lobstering).
Shrimp are widespread, and can be found near the seafloor of most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. There are numerous species, and usually there is a species adapted to any particular habitat. Most shrimp species are marine, although about a quarter of the described species are found in fresh water. Marine species are found at depths of up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft), and from the tropics to the polar regions.
There are many variations in the ways different types of shrimp look and behave. Even within the core group of caridean shrimp, the small delicate Pederson's shrimp (above) looks and behaves quite unlike the large commercial pink shrimp or the snapping pistol shrimp. The caridean family of pistol shrimp are characterized by big asymmetrical claws, the larger of which can produce a loud snapping sound. The family is diverse and worldwide in distribution, consisting of about 600 species. Colonies of snapping shrimp are a major source of noise in the ocean and can interfere with sonar and underwater communication. The small emperor shrimp has a symbiotic relationship with sea slugs and sea cucumbers, and may help keep them clear of ectoparasites.
Most shrimp are omnivorous, but some are specialised for particular modes of feeding. Some are filter feeders, using their setose (bristly) legs as a sieve; some scrape algae from rocks. Cleaner shrimp feed on the parasites and necrotic tissue of the reef fish they groom. In turn, shrimp are eaten by various animals, particularly fish and seabirds, and frequently host bopyrid parasites.
Females of the freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera are capable of storing sperm from multiple partners, and thus can produce progeny with different paternities. Reproductive success of sires was found to correlate inversely with their genetic relatedness to the mother. This finding suggests that sperm competition and/or pre- and post-copulatory female choice occurs. Female choice may increase the fitness of progeny by reducing inbreeding depression that ordinarily results from the expression of homozygous deleterious recessive mutations.
There is little agreement among taxonomists concerning the phylogeny of crustaceans. Within the decapods "every study gives totally different results. Nor do even one of these studies match any of the rival morphology studies". Some taxonomists identify shrimp with the infraorder Caridea and prawns with the suborder Dendrobranchiata. While different experts give different answers, there is no disagreement that the caridean species are shrimp. There are over 3000 caridean species. Occasionally they are referred to as "true shrimp".
Traditionally decapods were divided into two suborders: The Natantia or swimmers, and the Reptantia or walkers. The Natantia or swimmers included the shrimp. They were defined by their abdomen which, together with its appendages was well adapted for swimming. The Reptantia or walkers included the crabs and lobsters. These species have small abdominal appendages, but robust legs well adapted for walking. The Natantia was thought to be paraphyletic, that is, it was thought that originally all decapods were like shrimp.
However, classifications are now based on clades, and the paraphyletic suborder Natantia has been discontinued. "On this basis, taxonomic classifications now divide the order Decapoda into the two suborders: Dendrobranchiata for the largest shrimp clade, and Pleocyemata for all other decapods. The Pleocyemata are in turn divided into half a dozen infra-orders"
- The taxonomists De Grave and Fransen, 2011, recognise four major groups of shrimp: the suborder Dendrobranchiata and the infraorders Procarididea, Stenopodidea and Caridea". This group is identical to the traditional Natantia group, and contains decapods only.
- All shrimp of commercial interest belong to the Natantia. The FAO determine the categories and terminology used in the reporting of global fisheries. They define a shrimp as a "decapod crustacean of the suborder Natantia".
- According to the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO and WHO: "The term shrimp (which includes the frequently used term prawn) refers to the species covered by the most recent edition of the FAO listing of shrimp, FAO Species Catalogue, Volume 1, Shrimps and prawns of the world, an annotated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125." In turn, the Species Catalogue says the highest category it deals with is "the suborder Natantia of the order Crustacea Decapoda to which all shrimps and prawns belong".
|Major shrimp groups of the Natantia|
|Order||Suborder||Infraorder||Image||Extant species ||Description|
|Decapoda||Dendrobranchiata||533||giant tiger prawn pictured, typically have three pairs of claws, though their claws are less conspicuous than those of other shrimp. They do not brood eggs like the caridean, but shed them directly into the water. Their gills are branching, whereas the gills of caridean shrimp are lamellar. The segments on their abdomens are even-sized, and there is no pronounced bend in the abdomen.The species in this suborder tend to be larger than the caridean shrimp species below, and many are commercially important. They are sometimes referred to as prawns. Dendrobranchiata, such as the|
|Pleocyemata||Caridea||3438||The numerous species in this infraorder are known as caridean shrimp, though only a few are commercially important. They are usually small, nocturnal, difficult to find (they burrow in the sediment), and of interest mainly to marine biologists. Caridean shrimp, such as the pink shrimp pictured, typically have two pairs of claws. Female carideans attach eggs to their pleopods and brood them there. The second abdominal segment overlaps both the first and the third segment, and the abdomen shows a pronounced caridean bend.|
|Procarididea||6||A minor sister group to the Caridea (immediately above)|
|Stenopodidea||71||Known as boxer shrimp, the members of this infraorder are often cleaner shrimp. Their third pair of walking legs (pereiopods) are greatly enlarged. The banded coral shrimp (pictured) is popular in aquariums. The Stenopodidea are a much smaller group than the Dendrobranchia and Caridea, and have no commercial importance.|
Other decapod crustaceans also called shrimp, are the ghost or mud shrimp belonging to the infra-order Thalassinidea. In Australia they are called yabbies. The monophyly of the group is not certain; recent studies have suggested dividing the group into two infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea.
A wide variety of non-decapod crustaceans are also commonly referred to as shrimp. This includes the brine shrimp, clam shrimp, fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp belonging to the branchiopods, the lophogastridan shrimp, opossum shrimp and skeleton shrimp belonging the Malacostraca; and seed shrimp which are ostracods. Many of these species look quite unlike like the commercial decapod shrimp that are eaten as seafood. For example, skeleton shrimp have short legs and a slender tail like a scorpion tail, fairy shrimp swim upside down with swimming appendages that look like leaves, and the tiny seed shrimp have bivalved carapaces which they can open or close. Krill resemble miniature shrimp, and are sometimes called "krill shrimp".
|Other species groups commonly known as shrimp|
|Branchiopoda||Branchiopoda comes from the Greek branchia meaning gills, and pous meaning feet. They have gills on their feet or mouthparts.|
|brine shrimp||8||Brine shrimp belong to the genus Artemia. They live in inland saltwater lakes in unusually high salinities, which protects them from most predators. They produce eggs, called cysts, which can be stored in a dormant state for long periods and then hatched on demand. This has led to the extensive use of brine shrimp as fish feed in aquaculture. Brine shrimp are sold as novelty gifts under the marketing name Sea-Monkeys.|
|clam shrimp||150||Clam shrimp belong to the group Conchostraca. These freshwater shrimp have a hinged bivalved carapace which can open and close.|
|fairy shrimp||300||Fairy shrimp belong to the class Anostraca. These 1–10 cm long freshwater or brackish shrimp have no carapace. They swim upside down with their belly uppermost, with swimming appendages that look like leaves. Most fairy shrimp are herbivores, and eat only the algae in the plankton. Their eggs can survive drought and temperature extremes for years, reviving and hatching after the rain returns.|
|tadpole shrimp||20||Tadpole shrimp belong to the family Notostraca. These living fossils have not much changed since the Triassic. They are drought-resistant and can be found preying on fairy shrimp and small fish at the bottom of shallow lakes and temporary pools. The longtail tadpole shrimp (pictured) has three eyes and up to 120 legs with gills on them. It lives for 20–90 days. Different populations can be bisexual, unisexual or hermaphroditic.|
|Malacostraca||Malacostraca comes from the Greek malakós meaning soft and óstrakon meaning shell. The name is misleading, since normally the shell is hard, and is soft only briefly after moulting.|
|Lophogastrida||56||These marine pelagic shrimp make up the order Lophogastrida. They mostly inhabit relatively deep pelagic waters throughout the world. Like the related opossum shrimp, females lophogastrida carry a brood pouch.|
|mantis shrimp||400||Mantis shrimp, so called because they resemble a praying mantis, make up the order Stomatopoda. They grow up to 38 cm (15 in) long, and can be vividly coloured. Some have powerful spiked claws which they punch into their prey, stunning, spearing and dismembering them. They have been called "thumb splitters" because of the severe gashes they can inflict if handled carelessly.|
|opossum shrimp||1,000||Opossum shrimp belong to the order Mysida. They are called opossum shrimp because the females carry a brood pouch. Usually less than 3 cm long, they are not closely related to caridean or penaeid shrimp. They are widespread in marine waters, and are also found in some brackish and freshwater habitats in the Northern hemisphere. Marine mysids can form large swarms and are an important source of food for many fish. Some freshwater mysids are found in groundwater and anchialine caves.|
|skeleton shrimp||Skeleton shrimp, sometimes known as ghost shrimp, are amphipods. Their threadlike slender bodies allow them to virtually disappear among fine filaments in seaweed. Males are usually much larger than females. For a good account of a specific species, see Caprella mutica.|
|Ostracoda||Ostracod comes from the Greek óstrakon meaning shell. In this case, the shells are in two parts, like those of bivalves or clams.|
|seed shrimp||13,000||Seed shrimp make up the class Ostracoda. This is a class of numerous small crustacean species which look like seeds, typically about one millimetre (0.04 in) in size. Their carapace looks like a clam shell, with two parts held together by a hinge to allow the shell to open and close. Some marine seed shrimp drift as pelagic plankton, but most live on the sea floor and burrow in the upper sediment layer. There are also freshwater and terrestrial species. The class includes carnivores, herbivores, filter feeders and scavengers.|
In 1991, archeologists suggested that ancient raised paved areas near the coast in Chiapas, Mexico, were platforms used for drying shrimp in the sun, and that adjacent clay hearths were used to dry the shrimp when there was no sun. The evidence was circumstantial, because the chitinous shells of shrimp are so thin they degrade rapidly, leaving no fossil remains. In 1985 Quitmyer and others found direct evidence dating back to 600 AD for shrimping off the southeastern coast of North America, by successfully identifying shrimp from the archaeological remains of their mandibles (jaws). Clay vessels with shrimp decorations have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. In the 3rd century AD, the Greek author Athenaeus wrote in his literary work, Deipnosophistae; "... of all fish the daintiest is a young shrimp in fig leaves."
In North America, Native Americans captured shrimp and other crustaceans in fishing weirs and traps made from branches and Spanish moss, or used nets woven with fibre beaten from plants. At the same time early European settlers, oblivious to the "protein-rich coasts" all about them, starved from lack of protein. In 1735 beach seines were imported from France, and Cajun fishermen in Louisiana started catching white shrimp and drying them in the sun, as they still do today. In the mid nineteenth century, Chinese immigrants arrived for the California Gold Rush, many from the Pearl River Delta where netting small shrimp had been a tradition for centuries. Some immigrants starting catching shrimp local to San Francisco Bay, particularly the small inch long Crangon franciscorum. These shrimp burrow into the sand to hide, and can be present in high numbers without appearing to be so. The catch was dried in the sun and was exported to China or sold to the Chinese community in the United States. This was the beginning of the American shrimping industry. Overfishing and pollution from gold mine tailings resulted in the decline of the fishery. It was replaced by a penaeid white shrimp fishery on the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. These shrimp were so abundant that beaches were piled with windrows from their moults. Modern industrial shrimping methods originated in this area.
""For shrimp to develop into one of the world's most popular foods, it took the simultaneous development of the otter trawl... and the internal combustion engine." Shrimp trawling can capture shrimp in huge volumes by dragging a net along the seafloor. Trawling was first recorded in England in 1376, when King Edward III received a request that he ban this new and destructive way of fishing. In 1583, the Dutch banned shrimp trawling in estuaries.
In the 1920s, diesel engine were adapted for use in shrimp boats. Power winches were connected to the engines, and only small crews were needed to rapidly lift heavy nets on board and empty them. Shrimp boats became larger, faster, and more capable. New fishing grounds could be explored, trawls could be deployed in deeper offshore waters, and shrimp could be tracked and caught round the year, instead of seasonally as in earlier times. Larger boats trawled offshore and smaller boats worked bays and estuaries. By the 1960s, steel and fibreglass hulls further strengthened shrimp boats, so they could trawl heavier nets, and steady advances in electronics, radar, sonar, and GPS resulted in more sophisticated and capable shrimp fleets.
As shrimp fishing methods industrialised, parallel changes were happening in the way shrimp were processed. "In the 19th century, sun dried shrimp were largely replaced by canneries. In the 20th century, the canneries were replaced with freezers."
In the 1970s, significant shrimp farming was initiated, particularly in China. The farming accelerated during the 1980s as the quantity of shrimp demanded exceeded the quantity supplied, and as excessive bycatch and threats to endangered sea turtle became associated with trawling for wild shrimp. In 2007, the production of farmed shrimp exceeded the capture of wild shrimp.
Although there are thousands of species of shrimp worldwide, only about 20 of these species are commercially significant. The following table contains the principal commercial shrimp, the seven most harvested species. All of them are decapods; most of them belong to the Dendrobranchiata and four of them are penaeid shrimp.
|Principal commercial shrimp species|
|Group||Common name||Scientific name||Description||Max length (mm)||Depth (m)||Habitat||FAO||WoRMS||2010 production (thousand tonnes)|
|Dendrobranchiata||Whiteleg shrimp||Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)||The most extensively farmed species of shrimp. Listed on the Greenpeace seafood redlist.||230||0–72||marine, estuarine||||||1||2721||2722|
|Giant tiger prawn||Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798||Listed on the Greenpeace seafood redlist.||336||0–110||marine, estuarine||||||210||782||992|
|Akiami paste shrimp||Acetes japonicus Kishinouye, 1905||Most intensively fished species. They are small with black eyes and red spots on the uropods. Only a small amount is sold fresh, most is dried, salted or fermented.||30||shallow||marine||||||574||574|
|Southern rough shrimp||Trachysalambria curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860)||Easier to catch at night, and fished only in waters less than 60 m (200 ft) deep. Most of the harvest is landed in China.||98||13–150||marine||||||294||294|
|Fleshy prawn||Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck, 1765)||Trawled in Asia where it is sold frozen. Exported to Western Europe. Cultured by Japan and South Korea in ponds.||183||90–180||marine||||||108||45||153|
|Banana prawn||Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (De Man, 1888)||Typically trawled in the wild and frozen, with most catches made by Indonesia. Commercially important in Australia, Pakistan and the Persian Gulf. Cultured in Indonesia and Thailand. In India it tends to be confused with Fenneropenaeus indicus, so its economic status is unclear.||240||10–45||marine, estuarine||||||93||20||113|
|Caridea||Northern prawn||Pandalus borealis (Krøyer, 1838)||Widely fished since the early 1900s in Norway, and later in other countries following Johan Hjort's practical discoveries of how to locate them. They have a short life which contributes to a variable stock on a yearly basis. They are not considered overfished.||165||20–1380||marine||||||361||361|
|All other species||
Shrimp trawling can result in very high incidental catch rates of non-target species. In 1997, the FAO found discard rates up to 20 pounds for every pound of shrimp. The world average was 5.7 pounds for every pound of shrimp. Trawl nets in general, and shrimp trawls in particular, have been identified as sources of mortality for species of finfish and cetaceans. Bycatch is often discarded dead or dying by the time it is returned to the sea, and may alter the ecological balance in discarded regions. Worldwide, shrimp trawl fisheries generate about 2% of the world's catch of fish in weight, but result in more than one third of the global bycatch total.
The most extensively fished species are the akiami paste shrimp, the northern prawn, the southern rough shrimp, and the giant tiger prawn. Together these four species account for nearly half of the total wild capture. In recent years, the global capture of wild shrimp has been overtaken by the harvest from farmed shrimp.
A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the United States, Japan and Western Europe. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9 billion U.S. dollars. About 75% of farmed shrimp are produced in Asia, in particular in China, Thailand and in the Philippines. The other 25% are produced mainly in Latin America, where Brazil is the largest producer. The largest exporting nation is Thailand.
As can be seen from the global production chart on the left, significant aquaculture production started slowly in the 1970s and then rapidly expanded during the 1980s. After a lull in growth during the 1990s, due to pathogens, production took off again and by 2007 exceeded the capture from wild fisheries. By 2010, the aquaculture harvest was 3.9 million tonnes, compared to 3.1 million tonnes for the capture of wild shrimp.
In the earlier years of marine shrimp farming the preferred species was the large giant tiger prawn. This species is reared in circular holding tanks where they think they are in the open ocean, and swim in "never ending migration" around the circumference of the tank. In 2000, global production was 630,984 tonnes, compared to only 146,362 tonnes for whiteleg shrimp. Subsequently, these positions reversed, and by 2010 the production of giant tiger prawn increased modestly to 781,581 tonnes while whiteleg shrimp rocketed nearly twenty-fold to 2,720,929 tonnes. The whiteleg shrimp is currently the dominant species in shrimp farming. It is a moderately large shrimp reaching a total length of 230 mm (9"), and is particularly suited to farming because it "breeds well in captivity, can be stocked at small sizes, grows fast and at uniform rates, has comparatively low protein requirements... and adapts well to variable environmental conditions." In China, prawns are cultured along with sea cucumbers and some fish species, in integrated multi-trophic systems.
The major producer of farmed shrimp is China. Other significant producers are Thailand, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Ecuador and Bangladesh. Most farmed shrimp is exported to the United States, the European Union and Japan.
Investigations by The Guardian in 2014 and The Associated Press in 2015 found human rights abuses on fishing boats operated by Thailand. The boats are manned with slaves, and catch shrimp and fish (including fish for the production of fishmeal which is fed to farmed prawns). Greenpeace has challenged the sustainability of tropical shrimp farming practices on the grounds that farming these species "has led to the destruction of vast areas of mangroves in several countries [and] over-fishing of juvenile shrimp from the wild to supply farms." Greenpeace has placed a number of the prominent tropical shrimp species that are farmed commercially on its seafood red list, including the whiteleg shrimp, Indian prawn and giant tiger shrimp.
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
Shrimp are marketed and commercialized with several issues in mind. Most shrimp are sold frozen and marketed based on their categorization of presentation, grading, colour, and uniformity. Shrimp have high levels of omega-3 fatty acids and low levels of mercury. Usually shrimp is sold whole, though sometimes only the meat of shrimp is marketed.
As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium, iodine and protein but low in food energy. A shrimp-based meal is also a significant source of cholesterol, from 122 mg to 251 mg per 100 g of shrimp, depending on the method of preparation. Shrimp consumption, however, is considered healthy for the circulatory system because the lack of significant levels of saturated fat in shrimp means that the high cholesterol content in shrimp actually improves the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and lowers triglycerides.
Shrimp and other shellfish are among the most common food allergens. They are not kosher and thus are forbidden in Jewish cuisine. Shrimp are halal according to some madhāhib, and therefore permissible to most, but not all, Muslims.
Several types of shrimp are kept in home aquaria. Some are purely ornamental, while others are useful in controlling algae and removing debris. Freshwater shrimp commonly available for aquaria include the Bamboo shrimp, Japanese marsh shrimp (Caridina multidentata, also called "Amano shrimp," as their use in aquaria was pioneered by Takashi Amano), cherry shrimp (Neocaridina heteropoda), and ghost or glass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.). Popular saltwater shrimp include the cleaner shrimp Lysmata amboinensis, the fire shrimp (Lysmata debelius) and the harlequin shrimp (Hymenocera picta).
|Freshwater aquaria variant shrimp come in many colours|
Shrimp versus prawn
The terms shrimp and prawn are common names, not scientific names. They are vernacular or colloquial terms which lack the formal definition of scientific terms. They are not taxa, but are terms of convenience with little circumscriptional significance. There is no reason to avoid using the terms shrimp or prawn when convenient, but it is important not to confuse them with the names or relationships of actual taxa.
According to the crustacean taxonomist Tin-Yam Chan, "The terms shrimp and prawn have no definite reference to any known taxonomic groups. Although the term shrimp is sometimes applied to smaller species, while prawn is more often used for larger forms, there is no clear distinction between both terms and their usage is often confused or even reverse in different countries or regions." Writing in 1980, L. B. Holthuis noted that the terms prawn and shrimp were used inconsistently "even within a single region", generalising that larger species fished commercially were generally called shrimps in the United States, and prawns in other English-speaking countries, although not without exceptions.
A lot of confusion surrounds the scope of the term shrimp. Part of the confusion originates with the association of smallness. That creates problems with shrimp-like species that are not small. The expression "jumbo shrimp" can be viewed as an oxymoron, a problem that doesn't exist with the commercial designation "jumbo prawns".
The term shrimp originated around the 14th century with the Middle English shrimpe, akin to the Middle Low German schrempen, and meaning to contract or wrinkle; and the Old Norse skorpna, meaning to shrivel up. It is not clear where the term prawn originated, but early forms of the word surfaced in England in the early 15th century as prayne, praine and prane. According to the linguist Anatoly Liberman it is unclear how shrimp, in English, came to be associated with small. "No Germanic language associates the shrimp with its size... The same holds for Romance... it remains unclear in what circumstances the name was applied to the crustacean."
Taxonomic studies in Europe on shrimp and prawns were shaped by the common shrimp and the common prawn, both found in huge numbers along the European coastlines. The common shrimp, Crangon crangon was categorised in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, and the common prawn was categorised in 1777 by Thomas Pennant. The common shrimp is a small burrowing species aligned with the notion of a shrimp as being something small, whereas the common prawn is much larger. The terms true shrimp or true prawn are sometimes used to mean what a particular person thinks is a shrimp or prawn. This varies with the person using the terms. But such terms are not normally used in the scientific literature, because the terms shrimp and prawn themselves lack scientific standing. Over the years the way shrimp and prawn are used has changed, and nowadays the terms are almost interchangeable. Although from time to time some biologists declare that certain common names should be confined to specific taxa, the popular use of these names seems to continue unchanged.
Various coastal settlements in the United States have claimed the title "Shrimp Capital of the World". For example, the claim was made earlier in the nineteenth century for the Port of Brunswick in Georgia, and Fernandina and Saint Augustine in Florida. More recent claims have been made for Aransas Pass and Brownsville in Texas, as well as Morgan City in Louisiana. The claim has also been made for Mazatlán in Mexico.
- Shrimp Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Rudloe & Rudloe (2009)
- Rudloe & Rudloe (2009), pp. 15–26.
- "A bouillabaisse of fascinating facts about fish". NOAA: National Marine Fisheries Service. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- A. Gracia (1996). "White shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) recruitment overfishing". Marine and Freshwater Research. 47 (1): 59–65. doi:10.1071/MF9960059.
- Bauer, 2004, Chapter 1, pp. 3–14,
- Shrimp Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Prawn Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Bauer, 2004, Chapter 1, pp. 3–14.
- Bauer, 2004, Chapter 2, pp. 15–35.
- Ruppert et al. (2004), pp. 628–650.
- Mortenson, Philip B (2010) This is not a weasel: a close look at nature's most confusing terms Pages 106–109, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471273967.
- Bruce, Niel and Alison MacDiarmid (2009) "Crabs, crayfish and other crustaceans – Lobsters, prawns and krill" Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 2 March 2009
- Ward, Peter (2006) Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth's Ancient Atmosphere page 219, National Academies Press. ISBN 9780309141239.
- Boßelmann, F.; P. Romanob; H. Fabritiusb; D. Raabeb; M. Epple (October 2007). "The composition of the exoskeleton of two crustacea: The American lobster Homarus americanus and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.". Thermochimica Acta. 463 (1–2): 65–68. doi:10.1016/j.tca.2007.07.018. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- Fenner A. Chace, Jr. & Donald P. Abbott (1980). "Caridea: the shrimps". In Robert Hugh Morris, Donald Putnam Abbott & Eugene Clinton Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press. pp. 567–576. ISBN 978-0-8047-1045-9.
- Decapod Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- S. De Grave, Y. Cai & A. Anker (January 2008). Estelle Virginia Balian; C. Lévêque; H. Segers; K. Martens, eds. "Global diversity of shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) in freshwater". Hydrobiologia. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment. Springer. 595 (1): 287–293. doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9024-2. ISBN 978-1-4020-8258-0.
- Snyderman, Marty and Wiseman, Clay (1996) Guide to Marine Life: Caribbean, Bahamas, Florida Aqua Quest Publications. ISBN 9781881652069.
- A. Anker; S. T. Ahyong; P. Y. Noel & A. R. Palmer (December 2006). "Morphological phylogeny of alpheid shrimps: parallel preadaptation and the origin of a key morphological innovation, the snapping claw". Evolution. 60 (12): 2507–2528. doi:10.1554/05-486.1. PMID 17263113.
- "Shrimp, bubble and pop". BBC News. September 21, 2000. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Kenneth Chang (September 26, 2000). "Sleuths solve case of bubble mistaken for a snapping shrimp". New York Times. p. 5. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- "Sea creatures trouble sonar operators – new enzyme". New York Times. February 2, 1947. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- "Indo-Pacific Periclimines Shrimp (An Overview)".
- Yue GH, Chang A (14 September 2010). "Molecular evidence for high frequency of multiple paternity in a freshwater shrimp species Caridina ensifera". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): e12721. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012721. PMC . PMID 20856862.
- Charlesworth D, Willis JH (November 2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nat. Rev. Genet. 10 (11): 783–96. doi:10.1038/nrg2664. PMID 19834483.
- Decapoda: Reptantia Palaeos. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Decapoda: Caridea Palaeos. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- What's the difference between a prawn and a shrimp? Museum Victoria. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- S. De Grave & C. H. J. M. Fransen (2011). "Carideorum Catalogus: the Recent species of the dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)". Zoologische Mededelingen. 85 (9): 195–589, figs. 1–59. ISBN 978-90-6519-200-4.
- Baeur, 2004, p.4.
- Decapoda Palaeos. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109.
- Shrimp Glossary of aquaculture. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Codex Alimentarius Commission (2009) Codex Alimentarius: Code of practice for fish and fishery products Page 10, Joint FAO and WHO Food Standards Programme, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105914-2.
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Introduction
- Charles Raabe & Linda Raabe (2008). "The Caridean shrimp: Shrimp Anatomy – Illustrations and Glossary".
- Chow S and Sandifer PA (2001) Sperm–egg interaction in the palaemonid shrimp Palaemonetes .. Fisheries Science, 67: 370–372.
- Lipke B. Holthuis (1980) "Systematic catalogue of species" Chapter 2, page 1. In: Shrimps and prawns of the world, Volume I of the FAO species catalogue, Fisheries synopsis 125, Rome. ISBN 92-5-100896-5.
- "Yabby". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
- Marin J "Shrimps and Krill" Fisheries and Aquaculture – Volume 2, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, UNESCO.
- Volker Siegel (2011). V. Siegel, eds. "Euphausiidae Dana, 1852". World Euphausiacea database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland, Ohio: Wiley Publishing. 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Georges Cuvier (trans. William Benjamin Carpenter) (1851). "Crustacean Entomostraca (Müller)". The animal kingdom: arranged after its organization, forming a natural history of animals, and an introduction to comparative anatomy. W. S. Orr and co. pp. 434–448.
- Martin Daintith (1996). Rotifers and Artemia for Marine Aquaculture: a Training Guide. University of Tasmania. OCLC 222006176.
- Douglas Grant Smith (2001). "Phyllopodous Branchiopoda (fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps)". In Douglas Grant Smith. Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons. pp. 427–452. ISBN 978-0-471-35837-4.
- Denton Belk (2007). "Branchiopoda". In Sol Felty Light; James T. Carlton. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th ed.). University of California Press. pp. 414–417. ISBN 978-0-520-23939-5.
- Gooderham, John and Tsyrlin, Edward (2002) The Waterbug Book: A Guide to the Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Temperate Australia Page 76, Csiro Publishing. ISBN 9780643099715.
- "malacostracan". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Patricia Vickers Rich, Mildred Adams Fenton, Carroll Lane Fenton & Thomas Hewitt Rich (1996). "Crustaceans". The Fossil Book: a Record of Prehistoric Life (2nd ed.). Courier Dover Publications. pp. 213–221. ISBN 978-0-486-29371-4.
- J. Mauchline (1980). J. H. S. Blaxter; F. S. Russell; M. Yonge, eds. The Biology of Mysids and Euphausiids. Advances in Marine Biology. 18. Academic Press. pp. 1–680. ISBN 978-0-08-057941-2.
- Gilbert L. Voss (2002). "Order Stomatopoda: Mantis shrimp or thumb splitters". Seashore Life of Florida and the Caribbean. Dover pictorial archive series. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 120–122. ISBN 978-0-486-42068-4.
- Kenneth Meland (October 2, 2000). "Mysidacea: Families, Subfamilies and Tribes". Australian Museum. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- Judith Oakley (2006). "Japanese skeleton shrimp – Caprella macho". Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 – Japanese skeleton shrimp". NOBANIS: European Network on Invasive Alien Species. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Robert D. Barnes (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 680–683. ISBN 0-03-056747-5.
- Based on data sourced from the FishStat database
- Voorhies B, Michaels GH and Riser GM (1991) "An Ancient Shrimp Fishery in South Coastal Mexico" National Geographic Research and Exploration,7(1): 20–35.
- Reconstructing mobility patterns of late hunter-gatherers in coastal Chiapas, Mexico: The view from the shellmounds" Barbara Voorhies, University of Colorado.
- Quitmyer IR, Wing ES, Hale HS and Jones DS (1985) "Aboriginal Subsistence and Settlement Archaeology of Kings Bay Locality" In Volume 2: Zooarchaeology, Reports of Investigations 2, edited by W.H. Adams. University of Florida, Department of Anthropology, Gainesville, FL.
- Quitmyer IR (1987) "Evidence for Aboriginal Shrimping Along the Southeastern Coast of North America" Paper presented at the 43rd Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Charleston, SC.
- Rudloe and Rudloe, 2009, pp.27–47.
- Athenaeus (c. 300 AD) Deipnosophistae, 1 (7): 433.
- Holdsworth, Edmund William H (1883) The sea fisheries of Great Britain and Ireland Oxford University. ISBN 9781115411851. Full text
- Roberts, p.138
- Seafood Red list Greenpeace. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Page 46
- Penaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- S. De Grave (2010). "Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- FAO species catalogue, 1980. Page 50
- Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- S. De Grave (2010). "Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- W. Fischer; G. Bianchi, eds. (1984). "Sergestidae". Western Indian Ocean: Fishing Area 51 (PDF). FAO Species identification sheets for fishery purposes. 5. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Page 65
- Acetes japonicus (Kishinouye, 1905) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- S. De Grave (2010). "Acetes japonicus Kishinouye, 1905". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- "Trachypenaeus curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860)" (PDF). Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO Species Identification Sheets, Volume 5. Food and Agriculture Organization. PEN Trachyp 5. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- R. Gillett (2008). Global Study of Shrimp Fisheries (PDF). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-106053-7. Fisheries Technical Paper 475.
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Page 53
- Trachysalambria curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- C. Fransen & M. Türkay (2010). "Trachysalambria curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- Penaeus chinensis (Osbeck, 1765) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Pages 41–42
- S. De Grave (2010). "Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck, 1765)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- Penaeus merguiensis (De Man, 1888) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Page 43
- S. De Grave (2010). "Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (De Man, 1888)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- FAO species catalogue (1980) Pages 138–139
- Pandalus borealis (Krøyer, 1838) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 2012.
- M. Türkay (2010). "Pandalus borealis (Krøyer, 1838)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in:
- Ivor Clucas (1997). Discards and bycatch in shrimp trawl fisheries. Fisheries Circular No. 928 FIIU/C928. Food and Agriculture Organization.
- "Final Habitat Plan for the South Atlantic Region". South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council. 1998.
- Lance E. Morgan & Ratana Chuenpagdee (2003). Shifting Gears. Addressing the Collateral Impacts of Fishing Methods in U.S. Waters (PDF). Pew science series on conservation and the environment. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-659-9.
- Kaplan (2006) p. 145.
- Lucas JS and Southgate PC (2011) Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants Section 21.2.3, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444347111.
- Shrimp, Aquaculture Stewardship Council (page visited on 7 September 2012).
- Martha Mendoza, Margie Mason and Robin McDowell (March 2015). AP Investigation: Is the fish you buy caught by slaves?, The Associated Press
- Kate Hodal, Chris Kelly and Felicity Lawrence (June 2014). Revealed: Asian slave labour producing prawns for supermarkets in US, UK, The Guardian
- Yung C. Shang, Pingsun Leung & Bith-Hong Ling (1998). "Comparative economics of shrimp farming in Asia". Aquaculture. 164 (1–4): 183–200. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00186-0.
- Smith KL and Guentzel JL (2010) "Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits" Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60 (9): 1615–1618. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.06.045,
- "Cholesterol Content in Seafoods". Retrieved January 7, 2007.
- Elizabeth R. De Oliveira e Silva, Cynthia E. Seidman, Jason J. Tian, Lisa C. Hudgins, Frank M. Sacks & Jan L. Breslow (1996). "Effects of shrimp consumption on plasma lipoproteins" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64 (5): 712–717. PMID 8901790.
- "Common Food Allergens". Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- Joe Anderson. "Freshwater Shrimp in the Aquarium". The Krib. Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- Chan, TY (1998) Shrimps and prawns In K.E. Carpenter & V.H. Niem. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Rome, FAO.
- Holthuis, L. B. (1980) Shrimps and prawns of the world Volume I of the FAO species catalogue, Fisheries Synopsis No.125, Rome. ISBN 92-5-100896-5.
- Warren S. Blumenfeld (20 November 1986). Jumbo shrimp & other almost perfect oxymorons: contradictory expressions that make absolute sense. Putnam. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-399-51306-0.
- "Shrimp". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- prawnOnline Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Prawn Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Liberman, Anatoly (2012) After ‘shrimp’ comes ‘prawn’ Oxford University Press's Blog, 16 May 2012.
- Liberman, Anatoly (2012) A scrumptious shrimp with a riddle Oxford University Press's Blog, 18 April 2012.
- Richardson LR and Yaldwyn JC (1958) A Guide to the Natant Decapod Crustacea (Shrimps and Prawns) of New Zealand Tuatara, 7 (1).
- Fenner A. Chace, Jr. & Raymond B. Manning (1972). "Two new caridean shrimps, one representing a new family, from marine pools on Ascension Island (Crustacea: Decapoda: Natantia)" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 131: 18 pp. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.131.
- Seabrook, Charles (2012) The World of the Salt Marsh: Appreciating and Protecting the Tidal Marshes of the Southeastern Atlantic Coast Page 301, University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820327068
- Jamison CA and Jamison B (2011) Texas Home Cooking Page 257, Harvard Common Press. ISBN 9781558320598.
- Koock, Mary Faulk (2001) The Texas Cookbook Page 218, University of North Texas Press. ISBN 9781574411362.
- Calhoun M and McGovern B (2008) Louisiana Almanac 2008–2009 Page 273, Pelican Publishing. ISBN 9781589805422.
- Stockton, Ethel (2003) Old Is a 4-Letter Word Page 107, Equine Graphics Publishing Group. ISBN 9781410794680.
- Bauer, Raymond T (2004) "Remarkable Shrimps: Adaptations and Natural History of the Carideans" University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806135557.
- R. Gillett (2008). Global Study of Shrimp Fisheries. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 978-92-5-106053-7. Fisheries Technical Paper 475.
- Fransen CHJM and De Grave S (2009) "Evolution and radiation of shrimp-like decapods: an overview" In: Martin J.W., Crandall K.A., Felder D.L. (eds.), Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics. CRC Press, pp. 246–259.
- Kaplan, Eugene H (2010) Sensuous Seas: Tales of a Marine Biologist Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691125602.
- Meyer R, Lochner S and Melzer RR (2009) Decapoda – Crabs, Shrimps & Lobsters pp. 623–670 In: Häussermann V and Förstera G (eds) Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia: Illustrated Identification Guide", Nature in Focus. ISBN 9789563322446.
- Poore, Gary (2004) Marine Decapod Crustacea of Southern Australia: A Guide to Identification" Csiro Publishing. ISBN 9780643099258.
- Fearnley-Whittingstall, H and Fisher N (2007) The River Cottage Fish Book Page 541–543, Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9780747588696.
- Roberts, Callum (2009) The unnatural history of the sea Island Press. ISBN 9781597265775.
- Rudloe, Jack and Rudloe, Anne (2009) Shrimp: The Endless Quest for Pink Gold FT Press. ISBN 9780137009725.
- Ruppert EE, Fox RS and Barnes RD (2004) Invertebrate zoology: A functional evolutionary approach 7th edition, Thomson-Brooks/Cole. ISBN 9780030259821.
- Frederick Schram (1986). The Crustacea (PDF). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978 90 04 12918 4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dendrobranchiata.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caridea.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shrimps in art.|