Shrimp and prawn as food

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Raw shrimp (mixed species)
Awadhi prawns.jpg
Marinated king prawns
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 297 kJ (71 kcal)
0.91 g
1.01 g
Saturated 0.115 g
Monounsaturated 0.080 g
13.61 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A 180 IU
Vitamin D
(0%)
2 IU
Minerals
Calcium
(5%)
54 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.21 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
22 mg
Phosphorus
(35%)
244 mg
Potassium
(2%)
113 mg
Sodium
(38%)
566 mg
Zinc
(10%)
0.97 mg
Other constituents
Water 83.01 g
Cholesterol 0.0013 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Shrimp and prawn are important types of seafood that are consumed worldwide. Although shrimp and prawns belong to different suborders of Decapoda, they are very similar in appearance and the terms are often used interchangeably in commercial farming and wild fisheries. A distinction is drawn in recent aquaculture literature, which increasingly uses the term "prawn" only for the freshwater forms of palaemonids and "shrimp" for the marine penaeids.[1]

In the United Kingdom, the word "prawn" is more common on menus than "shrimp"; the opposite is the case in North America. The term "prawn" is also loosely used to describe any large shrimp, especially those that come 15 (or fewer) to the pound (such as "king prawns", yet sometimes known as "jumbo shrimp"). Australia and some other Commonwealth nations follow this British usage to an even greater extent, using the word "prawn" almost exclusively. When Australian comedian Paul Hogan used the phrase, "I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you" in an American television advertisement,[2] it was intended to make what he was saying easier for his American audience to understand, and was thus a deliberate distortion of what an Australian would typically say. In Britain very small crustaceans with a brownish shell are called shrimp, and are used to make potted shrimps. They are also used in dishes where they are not the primary ingredient.

Shrimp and other shellfish are among the most common food allergens.[3] The Jewish laws of Kashrut forbid the eating of shrimp.[4] According to the King James version of the Old Testament, it is acceptable to eat finfish, but shrimp are an abomination and should not be eaten.[5] In Islam, the Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools allow the eating of shrimp, while the Hanafi school does not allow it in Sunni Islam as well as the Shi'ite school (Ja'fari).

Nutrition and toxins[edit]

As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium, iodine and protein but low in food energy. A shrimp-based meal is also a significant source of cholesterol, from 122 mg to 251 mg per 100 g of shrimp, depending on the method of preparation.[6] Shrimp consumption, however, is considered healthy for the circulatory system because the lack of significant levels of saturated fat in shrimp means that the high cholesterol content in shrimp actually improves the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and lowers triglycerides.[7]

Shrimp are high in levels of omega-3s (generally beneficial) and low in levels of mercury (generally toxic),[8] with an FDA study in 2010 showing a level of 0.001 parts per million, analysing only methylmercury.[9]

Marketing[edit]

Main article: Shrimp marketing
Frozen shrimp

Shrimp are marketed and commercialized with several issues in mind. Most shrimp are sold frozen and marketed based on their categorization of presentation, grading, colour and uniformity.[10]

Preparation[edit]

There's a million ways to cook shrimp... shrimp is the fruit of the sea. You can barbecue it, boil it, broil it, bake it, saute it. Dey's uh, shrimp-kabobs, shrimp creole, shrimp gumbo. Pan fried, deep fried, stir-fried. There's pineapple shrimp, lemon shrimp, coconut shrimp, pepper shrimp, shrimp soup, shrimp stew, shrimp salad, shrimp and potatoes, shrimp burger, shrimp sandwich...

American soldier "Bubba" in Vietnam, in the 1994 romantic-comedy film Forrest Gump[11]

Preparing shrimp for consumption usually involves removing the head, shell, tail, and "sand vein". A notable exception is the dish, Drunken shrimp, based on freshwater shrimp that are often eaten alive, but immersed in ethanol to make consumption easier.[12]

To shell a shrimp, the tail is held while gently removing the shell around the body. The tail can be detached completely at this point, or left attached for presentation purposes.

Removing the "sand vein" (a euphemism for the digestive tract) is referred to as "deveining". The sand vein can be removed by making a shallow cut lengthwise down the outer curve of the shrimp's body, allowing the dark ribbon-like digestive tract to be removed with a pointed utensil. Special deveining tools are sometimes used but knives, skewers, and even toothpicks can be used to devein.[13][14] Alternatively, if the tail has been detached, the vein can be pinched at the tail end and pulled out completely with the fingers. On large shrimp, the "blood vein" (a euphemism for the ventral nerve cord) along the inner curve of the shrimp's body is typically removed as well. The shrimp is then rinsed under cold running water. Removing the vein is not essential, as it is not poisonous and is mostly tasteless.[15] Deveining does slightly change the flavor and makes it more consistent.[16] Shrimp also sometimes consume small amounts of sand by accident and the vein thus might be gritty.

Shrimp and prawns are versatile ingredients, and are often used as an accompaniment to fried rice. Common methods of preparation include baking, boiling, frying, grilling and barbequing . They are as delicate as eggs with regard to cooking time. When they are overcooked, they have a tough and rubbery texture. Remove them from the heat when they just start to change color to pink.[17]

Mussels and shrimps, Van Gogh 1886

Recipes using shrimp form part of the cuisine of many cultures. Strictly speaking, dishes containing scampi should be made from the Norway lobster, a shrimp-like crustacean more closely related to the lobster than shrimp. Scampi is often called the "Dublin Bay prawn", and in some places it is quite common for other prawns to be used instead.

Wet shrimp is commonly used as a flavoring and as a soup base in Asian cuisines while fried shrimp is popular in North America. In Europe, shrimp is very popular, forming a necessary ingredient in Spanish paella de marisco, Italian cacciucco, Portuguese caldeirada and many other seafood dishes. Shrimp curry is very popular in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Shrimp are also found in Latin and Caribbean dishes such as enchiladas and coconut shrimp. Other recipes include jambalaya, okonomiyaki, poon choi and bagoong. Shrimp are also consumed as salad, by frying, with rice, and as shrimp guvec (a dish baked in a clay pot) in the Western and Southern coasts of Turkey. In the subject of Japanese sushi, shrimp has long been valued as the "king of sushi-dane", as its composition can be either raw or cooked, and its latter preparation has often been considered a good introduction or choice for those unfamiliar to eating sushi, especially dishes involving raw fish.

Shrimp dishes[edit]

Main article: List of shrimp dishes
External video
Peeling and Deveining Shrimp - YouTube

Many various dishes are prepared using shrimp as a primary ingredient.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Shrimp Aquaculture and the Environment - An Environment Impact Assessment Report, chapter 2; IAA report" (PDF). Indian Aquaculture Authority. 2001. 
  2. ^ Bill Baker & Peggy Bendel. "Come and Say G'Day!". Travel Marketing Decisions. Association of Travel Marketing Executives (Summer 2005). Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Common Food Allergens". Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  4. ^ Yoreh De'ah - Shulchan-Aruch Chapter 1, torah.org. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  5. ^ "All that are in the waters: all that... hath not fins and scales ye may not eat" (Deuteronomy 14:9-10) and are "an abomination" (Leviticus 11:9-12).
  6. ^ "Cholesterol Content in Seafoods". Retrieved January 7, 2007. 
  7. ^ Elizabeth R. De Oliveira e Silva, Cynthia E. Seidman, Jason J. Tian, Lisa C. Hudgins, Frank M. Sacks & Jan L. Breslow (1996). "Effects of shrimp consumption on plasma lipoproteins" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64 (5): 712–717. PMID 8901790. 
  8. ^ Smith KL and Guentzel JL (2010) "Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits" Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60 (9): 1615–1618. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.06.045,
  9. ^ Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish (1990–2010) U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed 8 January 2012.
  10. ^ Yung C. Shang, Pingsun Leung & Bith-Hong Ling (1998). "Comparative economics of shrimp farming in Asia". Aquaculture. 164 (1–4): 183–200. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00186-0. 
  11. ^ Bubba at the Internet Movie Database
  12. ^ Lin, E. (2006). "2 Live food or the fresh and the furious. Live drunken shrimp & live lobster sashimi". Deep End Dining. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  13. ^ What's Cooking America: All About Shrimp
  14. ^ Recipe Tips: How to Prepare and Devein Shrimp
  15. ^ H-E-B's Guide on Storing and Deveining Shrimp
  16. ^ How to Devein Shrimp
  17. ^ Cajun Shrimp Creole Recipe at 123recipes.com

External links[edit]