Shrine of Khalid Walid

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Shrine of Khalid Walid
مقبره خالد وليد
Shrine of Warrior Khalid Waleed (Front Image).jpg
The shrine may be the earliest Muslim funerary monument in South Asia.[1]
Shrine of Khalid Walid is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Shrine of Khalid Walid
Situated at Khati Pur Thaheem
Shrine of Khalid Walid is located in Pakistan
Shrine of Khalid Walid
Shrine of Khalid Walid (Pakistan)
Coordinates30°28′36″N 71°43′24″E / 30.4768°N 71.7232°E / 30.4768; 71.7232Coordinates: 30°28′36″N 71°43′24″E / 30.4768°N 71.7232°E / 30.4768; 71.7232
Locationnear Kabirwala, Punjab, Pakistan
TypeSufi shrine
Completion datelate 12th-early 13th century

The Shrine of Khalid Walid (Urdu: مقبره خالد وليد‎) is a Sufi shrine located in the village of Nawan Shehr,[2] near the Pakistani city of Kabirwala. The shrine is dedicated to the 12th century warrior-saint Khaliq Walid, popularly known instead as Khalid Walid.[3] The shrine dates from the period of the medieval Delhi Sultanate,[4] and may be the earliest Muslim funerary monument in South Asia.[1] The shrine represents the first stage of evolution of funerary monuments in southern Punjab which would later culminate with the Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan.[5]

History[edit]

The tomb dates from between the last quarter of the 12th century,[6] and the early decades of the 13th century.[4] The shrine bears an inscription stating that the shrine was built by Ali bin Karamakh, who served as Governor of Multan during the reign of Muhammad of Ghor.[7] The tomb was rediscovered and identified as the shrine of Khalid Walid by Dr Ahmad Nabi Khan and Kamil Khan.[8]

Architecture[edit]

The shrine features elements of military architecture, such as bastions and crenellations.

Exterior[edit]

The shrine assumes the form of a fortified rectangle measuring 70 by 90 feet, and is capped by a low and sloped dome,[9] with an exterior made of plain brick and inward sloping walls that may derive from Seljuk architecture from Central Asia.[10] The use of wooden bands horizontally across the shrine, and use of both glazed and cut brick also represents the influence of Central Asian Seljuk architecture.[10]

The shrine reflects elements of military architecture, with semicircular bastions in each of the shrine's corners, as well as in the middle of 3 of the 4 walls. The western wall of the shrine features a small projection, indicating the location of the mihrab.[5] The roofline is decorated with crenellations - a feature commonly employed in fortified structures such as the Rohtas Fort. Similar influence of military architecture is found at the Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan.[11]

Interior[edit]

The shrine's interior is square shaped measuring 24 feet on each side,[12] with entrance on each side that open to vaulted galleries, and rectangular shaped chambers on the east and west side of the shrine.[13] The interior space is divided into a series of galleries The shrine's interior walls are decorated with cut-brick designs.[13] The shrine is notable for its exceptional mihrab made of cut and molded brick, decorated with Kufic calligraphy,[2] capped with a hood similar to a baldachin. Decorative cut-brick patterns on the ornate mihrab differ from patterns on the rest of the shrine.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Khan, Ahmad Nabi (1983). Multan. Islamabad: Islamic University.
  2. ^ a b Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila. Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. OUP USA. p. 23. ISBN 9780195309911. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  3. ^ Tirmizi, Muhammad Ali (1991). Sultanate Period Architecture: Proceedings of the Seminar on the Sultanate Period Architecture in Pakistan, Held in Lahore, November 1990. Anjuman Mimaran. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b Parihar, Subhash (2007). History and Architectural Remains of Sirhind: The Greatest Mughal City on Delhi-Lahore Highway. Aryan Books International. p. 92. ISBN 9788173053115. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b Petersen, Andrew (2002). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. ISBN 9781134613656. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  6. ^ Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila (1995). The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300064650. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  7. ^ Hasan, Shaikh Khurshid (2001). The Islamic Architectural Heritage of Pakistan: Funerary Memorial Architecture. Royal Book Company. ISBN 9789694072623. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  8. ^ Mumtaz, Kamil Khan (1989). Temples of Koh-e-Jud & Thar: proceedings of the Seminar on Shahiya Temples of the Salt Range, held in Lahore, Pakistan, June 1989. Anjuman Mimaran. p. 23. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  9. ^ Journal of Central Asia, Volume 15. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 1992. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  10. ^ a b Mughal, Mohammad (2006). TURKEMINSTAN-UNESCO: APPRAISAL OF THE HISTORICAL CULTURAL VALUES AND DETERMINATION OF THE WAYS ON THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTIES: Abstracts of reports of the International Scientific Conference (PDF). Abstracts of reports of the International Scientific Conference. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  11. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert (2004). Islamic Architecture: Form, Function, and Meaning. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231101332.
  12. ^ Architecture in Pakistan (PDF). Archnet. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b c UNESCO (1992). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231036545. Retrieved 15 September 2017.