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Logo of Shriners International

Shriners International, formally known as the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (AAONMS), is an American Masonic society. Founded in 1872 in New York City, it is headquartered in Tampa, Florida and has over 200 chapters across nine countries, with a global membership of nearly 200,000 "Shriners".[1] The organization is known for its colorful Middle Eastern theme, elaborate participation in parades and festivals, and the Shriners Children's network of nonprofit pediatric medical facilities.[2]

Shriners International describes itself as a global fraternity "based on fun, fellowship, and the Masonic principles of brotherly love, relief, and truth".[3] As an appendant body within Freemasonry, membership is open to men who have been initiated as Master Masons in a Masonic rite; various partner organizations accept women and youth.[4] Shriners are obliged to uphold the fraternity's mission and values, which include self-improvement, service and leadership to the community, and active involvement in social and philanthropic causes.[5]

Shriners International is recognizable for its Middle Eastern-inspired iconography, ceremonies, and motif: Shriners wear distinctive red fezzes as their official headgear, while fraternal regalia often features camels, pyramids, the Sphinx and other ancient Egyptian and Arabian symbols. The headquarters of local chapters, formally known as Shrine Centers, are sometimes called "Temples" or even "Mosques";[6] most have names such as Egypt, Sahara, Morocco, and Oasis, and many are built in the Moorish Revival style. The organization is governed by the "Imperial Divan"—referring to the traditional government councils of the Near East—composed of 12 "Imperial Officers" who serve as a board of directors. However, Shriners International has no connection with the region nor with Islam.[6]

Previously known as Shriners North America, the fraternity adopted its current name in 2010 in recognition of its increasingly global membership; as of 2024, there are Shrine Centers in Canada (since 1888), Mexico (1907) and Panama (1918), Puerto Rico, the Philippines (2010), Germany (2011), Brazil (2015) and Bolivia (2018).[2]

Notable American Shriners include actors Mel Blanc, John Wayne, Ernest Borgnine, and Roy Rogers, Supreme Court chief justice Earl Warren, General Douglas MacArthur, and presidents Gerald Ford and Harry Truman.[7]


Walter M. Fleming
William J. Florence

In 1870, there were several thousand Freemasons in Manhattan, many of whom lunched at the Knickerbocker Cottage at a special table on the second floor. There, the idea of a new fraternity for Masons, stressing fun and fellowship, was discussed. Together, Walter M. Fleming and William J. Florence established a separate fellowship to fulfill those ideals.

While on tour in Marseille, Florence, an actor, was invited to a party given by an Arab diplomat. The entertainment was a musical comedy. At its conclusion, the guests became members of a secret society. Florence took notes and drawings at his initial viewing and on two other occasions, once in Algiers and once in Cairo. When he returned to New York in 1870, he showed his material to Fleming.[8]

Fleming created the ritual, emblem and costumes. Florence and Fleming were initiated August 13, 1870, and they initiated 11 men on June 16, 1871.[9]

The group adopted a Middle Eastern theme and soon established Temple, although the term Temple has now been replaced by Shrine Auditorium or Shrine Center. The first Temple established was Mecca Temple, established at the New York City Masonic Hall on September 26, 1872. Fleming was the first potentate.[10]

In 1875, there were 43 Shriners in the organization. To encourage membership, the Imperial Grand Council of the Ancient Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America was created at the June 6, 1876 meeting of Mecca Temple. Fleming was elected the first imperial potentate. By 1878, there were 425 members in 13 temples in eight states, and by 1888, there were 7,210 members in 48 temples in the United States and Canada. By the Imperial Session held in Washington, D.C. in 1900, there were 55,000 members and 82 Temples.[11]

Black Shrine[edit]

Historically, the Shrine was open to only white men. In 1893, a black counterpart to the Shriners movement was initiated by John G. Jones and other Prince Hall masons, initially called The Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order Nobles Mystic Shrine of North and South America and Its Jurisdictions.[12] Early in the group's history, there was legal conflict between the white and black orders, with a white order from Texas filing suit against a local black order for infringement of white Shriners regalia and traditions. The white order was initially successful in quashing the black temple until the ruling was overturned in appeals in 1929, protecting the right of black Shriners to continue practicing and fundraising nationwide.[13] The Worldwide Fraternal Shrine Family counts 35,000 members in 227 shrines, with its own women's auxiliary organizations. Their primary recipients of charitable donations are the NAACP, the National Urban League, the UNCF, and various hospitals and universities.[12]

Syria mosque[edit]

In 1911, the Syria Mosque was completed in Pittsburgh and inaugurated in 1916. This 3,700-seat performance venue, originally for Shriners, later became significant as the "birthplace of network television."[14] An example of Exotic Revival architecture, it was never used as a mosque but featured religious Arabic iconography and inscriptions,[15] partly based on the Alhambra.[16] Architect Gulzar Haider was "fascinated" by its design, but criticized the "insensitive and callous misuse of another religion’s artistic vocabulary and symbolic grammar," claiming it was part of the "'oriental obsession' of the otherwise 'puritanical' Europeans and Americans."[16]

Musicians who have performed at the Syria Mosque include Bruce Springsteen, Louis Armstrong, Bob Dylan, Pink Floyd, Jimmy Buffett, and The Beach Boys. Political event hosts included Reagan, Nixon, Truman, and Kennedy. Despite efforts to conserve the building as a historic landmark, the Syria Mosque was torn down in 1991.[17]

Women's auxiliaries[edit]

The Ladies Oriental Shrine of North America was founded in 1903 in Wheeling, West Virginia,[18] and the Daughters of the Nile was founded in 1913 in Seattle, Washington.[19] Both are for women only and they support the Shriners Hospitals and promote sociability. Membership in either organization is open to any woman 18 years of age and older who is related to a Shriner or Master Mason by birth or marriage. The latter organization has local branches called "Temples," and there were ten of these in 1922. Among the famous members of the Daughters of the Nile was First Lady Florence Harding, wife of Warren G. Harding.[20]


By 1938 there were about 340,000 members in the United States. That year, Life published photographs of the Shriners' rites. It described the Shriners as being the first in prestige, wealth and show among secret societies, and that Shriners organizations typically include a town's most prominent citizens.[21]

Organizational rebranding[edit]

In 2002, following the September 11 attacks, the "faux-Middle Eastern practices and trappings" led Shriners to be "mistaken for a Muslim organization, leading to harassment and vandalism."[22] This included threatening phone calls and harassment of Rhode Island Shriners (formerly known as Palestine Temple Shriners) driving a Shriners van to drive sick children to Shriner hospitals.[22]

Daughters of the Nile at Shriners Hospital for Children – Canada in Montreal in 1948.

By 2011, Shriners removed much of the Middle Eastern theming, both locally[22] and within the broader organization.[23] This was in continued response to "the events of Sept. 11, 2001 and subsequent military conflicts."[23] Changes included renaming the organization from "Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine" to "Shriners International;" renaming the "Arabic Patrol" to "The Patrol" and removing the word Syria from Syria Shriners vanity plates. Despite these changes, the Illustrious Potentate of Pittsburgh's Syria Shrine chapter stated that "pretty much all non-atheists are welcome, including Muslims."[23]


Historically, a Mason had to complete either the Scottish Rite or York Rite systems to be eligible for membership in the Shrine.[24]

In 1991, brick-mason Michael G. Vaughan filed a lawsuit against the Oleika Shrine Temple in Lexington, Kentucky, for hazing practices to which he said he was subjected in his efforts to become a Shriner. In court, Vaughan told jurors that in June 1989, he was blindfolded and received a jolt of electricity that was applied to his bare buttocks as part of the Shriners' initiation rites. He said he was forced to walk on an electric mat that was meant to simulate the hot sands of the Sahara, and that he was knocked unconscious and received other injuries during his initiation. Vaughan said the initiation left him humiliated and embarrassed, and caused him to suffer anxiety, nightmares, and a sleep disorder.[25] After two hours of deliberation, the jury rejected the claim.[26]


Some of the earliest Shrine Centers often chose a Moorish Revival style for their Temples. Architecturally notable Shriners Temples include: the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles; the former Mecca Temple, now called New York City Center and used primarily as a concert hall; Newark Symphony Hall; the Landmark Theater (formerly The Mosque) in Richmond, Virginia; the Tripoli Shrine Temple in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the Polly Rosenbaum Building (formerly the El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium) in Phoenix; the Helena Civic Center (Montana) (formerly the Algeria Shrine Temple); Abou Ben Adhem Shrine Mosque in Springfield, Missouri; Murat Shrine Temple (now Old National Center) in Indianapolis; the Fox Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia, which was jointly built between the Atlanta Shriners and movie mogul William Fox; and the Syria Mosque in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


Shriners Hospitals for Children[edit]

The Shrine's charitable arm is the Shriners Hospitals for Children, a network of 22 healthcare facilities in the United States, Mexico, and Canada.

In June 1920, the Imperial Council Session voted to establish a Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children to treat orthopedic injuries and conditions, diseases, burns, spinal cord injuries, and birth defects, such as cleft lip and palate, in children.[27][28] The first hospital opened in 1922 in Shreveport, Louisiana. By the end of the decade 13 more hospitals were operational.[28]

Any child under the age of 18 can be admitted to the hospital if a doctor determines the child can be treated.[28][29] There is no requirement for religion, race or relationship to a Shriner.

Until June 2012, all care at Shriners Hospitals was provided without charge to patients and their families. At that time, because the size of their endowment had decreased due to losses in the stock market, Shriners Hospitals started billing patients' insurance companies, but continued to offer free care to children without insurance. Shriners hospitals waive all costs insurance does not cover. Shriners Hospitals for Children is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.[27]

Shriners Hospitals for Children are located in these cities[clarification needed]:[30]

  • Boston, MA
  • Chicago, IL
  • Dayton, OH
  • Erie, PA*
  • Galveston, TX
  • Greenville, SC
  • Honolulu, HI
  • Houston, TX
  • Lexington, KY*
  • Mexico City, DF, Mexico
  • Minneapolis, MN
  • Montreal, QC, Canada
  • Pasadena, CA*
  • Philadelphia, PA
  • Portland, OR
  • Sacramento, CA
  • Salt Lake City, UT
  • Shreveport, LA
  • Spokane, WA
  • Springfield, MA
  • St. Louis, MO

*This location is an outpatient, ambulatory care center.[30]


A Shriner clown

Shriners host the annual East–West Shrine Game, a college football all-star game.

The Shriners originally hosted a golf tournament in association with singer/actor Justin Timberlake, called the Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open, a PGA Tour golf tournament played in Las Vegas, Nevada.[31] The relationship between Timberlake and the Shriners ended in 2012, when the Shriners reported that Timberlake was interested in being involved with the organization only when television cameras were present.[32] In July 2012, the PGA Tour and Shriners Hospitals for Children announced a five-year title sponsorship extension, carrying the commitment to the Shriners Hospitals for Children Open through 2017.[33] The name was changed to The Shriners Hospitals for Children Open and is played in Las Vegas, Nevada.[34]

Many Shrine Centers also hold a yearly Shrine Circus as a fundraiser.

Once a year, the fraternity meets for the Imperial Session in a North American city.

Shriners International Imperial Sessions[edit]

Shriners International Imperial Sessions
# Year City State/Province Host Chapter Imperial Potentate
1 1876 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
2 1877 Albany NY Cyprus Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
3 1878 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
4 1879 Albany NY Cyprus Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
5 1880 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
6 1880 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
7 1881 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
8 1882 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
9 1883 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
10 1884 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
11 1885 New York NY Mecca Walter M. Fleming (Mecca)
12 1886 Cleveland OH Al Koran Sam Briggs (Al Koran)
13 1887 Indianapolis IN Murat Sam Briggs (Al Koran)
14 1888 Toronto Ontario Rameses Sam Briggs (Al Koran)
15 1889 Chicago IL Medinah Sam Briggs (Al Koran)
16 1890 Pittsburgh PA Syria Sam Briggs (Al Koran)
17 1891 Niagara Falls NY Ismailia Sam Briggs (Al Koran)
18 1892 Omaha NE Tangier William B. Melish (Syrian)
19 1893 Cincinnati OH Syria William B. Melish (Syrian)
20 1894 Denver CO El Jebel Thomas J. Hudson (Syria)
21 1895 Nantasket Beach MA Aleppo Charles L. Field (Islam)
22 1896 Cleveland OH Al Koran Harrison Dingman (Almas)
23 1897 Detroit MI Moslem Albert B. McGaffey (El Jebel)
24 1898 Dallas TX Hella Ethelbert F. Allen (Ararat)
25 1899 Buffalo NY Ismailia John H. Atwood (Tangier)
26 1900 Washington DC Almas Lou B. Winsor (Saladin)
27 1901 Kansas City MO Ararat Philip C. Shaffer (Lu Lu)
28 1902 San Francisco CA Islam Henry C. Akin (Tangier)
29 1903 Saratoga Springs NY Oriental George L. Brown (Ismailia)
30 1904 Atlantic City NJ Crescent George L. Brown (Ismailia)
31 1905 Niagara Falls NY Ismailia Henry A. Collins (Rameses)
32 1906 Chicago IL Medinah Alvah P. Clayton (Moila)
33 1907 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah Frank C. Roundy (Medinah)
34 1908 Saint Paul MN Osman Edwin I. Alderman (El Kahir)
35 1909 Louisville KY Kosair George L. Street (Acca)
36 1910 New Orleans LA Jerusalem Fred A. Hines (Al Malaikah)
37 1911 Rochester NY Damascus John F. Treat (El Zagal)
38 1912 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah William J. Cunningham (Boumi)
39 1913 Dallas TX Hella William W. Irwin (Osiris)
40 1914 Atlanta GA Yaarab Frederick R. Smith (Damascus)
41 1915 Seattle WA Nile J. Putnam Stevens (Kora)
42 1916 Buffalo NY Ismailia Henry F. Niedringhaus, Jr. (Moolah)
43 1917 Minneapolis MN Zurah Charles E. Ovenshire (Zuhrah)
44 1918 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Elias J. Jacoby (Murat)
45 1919 Indianapolis IN Murat W. Freeland Kendrick (Lu Lu)
46 1920 Portland OR Al Kader Ellis Lewis Garretson (Afifi)
47 1921 Des Moines IA Za-Ga-Zig Ernest A. Cutts (Alee)
48 1922 San Francisco CA Islam James S. McCandless (Aloha)
49 1923 Washington DC Almas Conrad V. Dykeman (Kismet)
50 1924 Kansas City MO Ararat James E. Chandler (Ararat)
51 1925 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah James C. Burger (El Jebel)
52 1926 Philadelphia PA Lu Lu David W. Crosland (Alcazar)
53 1927 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Clarence M. Dunbar (Palestine)
54 1928 Miami FL Mahi Frank C. Jones (Arabia)
55 1929 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah Leo V. Youngworth (Al Malaikah)
56 1930 Toronto Ontario Rameses Esten A. Fletcher (Damascus)
57 1931 Cleveland OH Al Koran Thomas J. Houston (Medinah)
58 1932 San Francisco CA Islam Earl C. Mills (Za-Ga-Zig)
59 1933 Atlantic City NJ Crescent John N. Sebrell (Khedive)
60 1934 Minneapolis MN Zurah Dana S. Williams (Kora)
61 1935 Washington DC Almas Leonard P. Steuart (Almas)
62 1936 Seattle WA Nile Clyde I. Webster (Moslem)
63 1937 Detroit MI Moslem Walter Smith Sugden (Osiris)
64 1938 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah A. A. D. Rahn (Zurah)
65 1939 Baltimore MD Boumi Walter D. Cline (Maskat)
66 1940 Memphis TN Al Chymia George F. Olendorf (Abou Ben Adhem)
67 1941 Indianapolis IN Murat Thomas C. Law (Yaarab)
68 1942 Chicago IL Medinah Albert H. Fiebach (Al Koran)
69 1943 Chicago IL Medinah Morley E. MacKenzie (Rameses)
70 1944 Milwaukee WI Tripoli Alfred G. Arvold (El Zagal)
71 1945 Chicago IL Medinah William H. Woodfield Jr. (Islam)
72 1946 San Francisco CA Islam George H. Bowe (Cyprus)
73 1947 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Karl Rex Hammers (Syria)
74 1948 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Gallaway Calhoun (Sharon)
75 1949 Chicago IL Medinah Harold Clayton Lloyd (Al Malaikah)
76 1950 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah Hubert McNeill Poteat (Sudan)
77 1951 New York NY Mecca Robert Gardiner Wilson, Jr. (Aleppo)
78 1952 Miami FL Mahi Harvey A. Beffa (Moolah)
79 1953 New York NY Mecca Remmie LeRoy Arnold (Acca)
80 1954 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Frank S. Land (Ararat)
81 1955 Chicago IL Medinah Walter C. Gay (Scimitar)
82 1956 Detroit MI Moslem Gerald D. Crary (Naja)
83 1957 Atlanta GA Yaarab Thomas W. Melham (Zemora)
84 1958 Chicago IL Medinah George E. Stringfellow (Salaam)
85 1959 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Clayton F. Andrews (El Maida)
86 1960 Denver CO El Jebel George A. Mattison, Jr. (Zamora)
87 1961 Miami FL Mahi Marshall M. (Marsh) Porter (Al Azhar)
88 1962 Toronto Ontario Rameses George M. Klepper, Sr. (Al Chymia)
89 1963 Chicago IL Medinah Harold C. Close (Sphinx)
90 1964 New York NY Mecca O. Carlyle Brock (Zem Zem)
91 1965 Washington DC Almas Barney W. Collins (Anezeh)
92 1966 San Francisco CA Islam Orville F. Rush (Kena)
93 1967 Washington DC Almas Thomas F. Seay (Medinah)
94 1968 Chicago IL Medinah Chester A. Hogan (Nile)
95 1969 Seattle WA Nile J. Worth Baker (Murat)
96 1970 Indianapolis IN Murat Aubrey G. Graham (Khedive)
97 1971 Miami FL Mahi C. Victor Thornton (Moslah)
98 1972 Dallas TX Hella Henry B. Struby (Hadi)
99 1973 Atlanta GA Yaarab J. A. Wingerter (Salaam)
100 1974 Atlantic City NJ Crescent Jack M. Streight (Gizeh)
101 1975 Toronto Ontario Rameses W. W. (Woody) Bennett (Ararat)
102 1976 Kansas City MO Arara Peter Val Preda (Cairo)
103 1977 New York NY Mecca Fred R. Morrison, Sr. (Moslem)
104 1978 Detroit MI Moslem Warren F. Weck, Jr. (Zuhrah)
105 1979 Denver CO El Jebel Charles J. Claypool (Antioch)
106 1980 Milwaukee WI Tripoli F. T. H. Doubler, Jr. (Abou Ben Adhem)
107 1981 New Orleans LA Jerusalem Randolph R. Thomas (Morocco)
108 1982 Orlando FL Bahia Daniel E. Bowers (Mohammed)
109 1983 Denver CO El Jebel Richard B. Olfene (Kora)
110 1984 Boston MA Aleppo V. Gene Bracewell (Yaarab)
111 1985 Atlanta GA Yaarab Walker S. Kisselburgh (Al Malaikah)
112 1986 Los Angeles CA Al Malaikah Russell H. Anthony (El Kahir)
113 1987 Las Vegas NV Zelzah Voris King (Habibi)
114 1988 New Orleans LA Jerusalem Edward G. McMullan (Al Azhar)
115 1989 Toronto Ontario Rameses George Washington Powell (Crescent)
116 1990 Chicago IL Medinah Joseph P. Padgett (Islam)
117 1991 San Francisco CA Islam John W. Dean, III (Lu Lu)
118 1992 Orlando FL Bahia Everett M. Evans (Sharon)
119 1993 San Antonio TX Alzafar Richard L. Bukey (Sabbar)
120 1994 Denver CO El Jebel Burton Ravellette, Jr. (Sahara)
121 1995 Indianapolis IN Murat Robert B. Bailey (Orak)
122 1996 New Orleans LA Jerusalem John D. Vermass (Sesostris)
123 1997 Saint Louis MO Moolah Lewis B. Brantley (Morocco)
124 1998 Orlando FL Bahia John C. Nobles (El Maida)
125 1999 Dallas TX Hella Ralph W. Semb (Melha)
126 2000 Boston MA Aleppo Robert N. Turnipseed (Calam)
127 2001 Las Vegas NV Zelzah Kenneth W. Smith (Gizeh)
128 2002 Vancouver British Columbia Gizeh Charles A. Claypool (Antioch)
129 2003 Minneapolis MN Zurah M. Burton Oien (Al Aska)
130 2004 Denver CO El Jebel Raoull L. Frevel Sr. (Boumi)
131 2005 Baltimore MD Boumi Gary W. Dunwoody (Scimitar)
132 2006 Tampa FL Egypt Nicholas Thomas (Al Malaikah)
133 2007 Anaheim CA El Bekal Bernard J. Lemieux (Zenobia)
134 2008 Saint Louis MO Moolah Douglas E. Maxwell (Moolah)
135 2009 San Antonio TX Alzafar Terry McGuire (Alzafar)
136 2010 Toronto Ontario Rameses George A. Mitchell (Rameses)
137 2011 Denver CO El Jebel Michael G. Severe (El Jebel)
138 2012 Charlotte NC Oasis Alan W. Madsen (Oasis)
139 2013 Indianapolis IN Murat John A. Cinotto (Murat)
140 2014 Minneapolis MN Zurah Dale W. Stauss (Kem)
141 2015 Houston TX Arabia Jerry G. Gantt (Arabia)
142 2016 Tampa FL Egypt Chris Smith (Wahabi)
143 2017 Daytona Beach FL Bahia Gary Bergenske (Bahia)
144 2018 Daytona Beach FL Bahia Jim L. Cain, Sr. (Al Menah)
145 2019 Nashville TN Al Menah Jeffrey L. Sowder (Rameses)
146 2020 Tampa FL Egypt James R. Smith (Ben Hur)
147 2021 Houston TX Arabia William S. “Bill” Bailey (Orak)
148 2022 Minneapolis MN Zurah Kenneth G. "Kenny" Craven (Omar)
149 2023 Charlotte NC Oasis James E. “Ed” Stolze, Jr. (El Zaribah)
150 2024 Reno NV Kerak Richard Burke (Yaarab) [If elected in line]
151 2025 Atlanta GA Yaarab Kevin R. Costello (Cyprus) [If elected in line]
152 2026 Tampa FL Egypt

| note = Source:[35] }} | note = Source:[36] }} | note = Source:[37] }} | note = Source:[38] }}


In 2008, an investigative committee established by the joint boards of the Shriners of North America fraternal organization and the Shriners Hospitals for Children found that Ralph Semb, chairman of the Shriners Hospitals Board of Trustees, had unilaterally tried to fire fund-raising executive Edgar McGonigal. McGonigal had declined to hire a direct-mail company indirectly linked to Gene Bracewell, the imperial treasurer of the fraternal organization. McGonigal said he did not hire the company because of its ties to a financial company that had performed poorly in previous dealings. The committee found that Semb and Bracewell had violated the organizations' conflict of interest policy and their ethics code and recommended that Semb and Bracewell be reprimanded. The report included accusations of financial improprieties within the organization, including not reporting benefits Shriners leaders received as income and knowingly filing incorrect tax forms for the hospitals. Other Shriners came forward with additional complaints, including the mixing of charitable and noncharitable assets and the disappearance of money raised for the hospitals.[39]

Shriners International has drawn criticism from animal welfare organizations for allowing member clubs to host circuses featuring animals. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) has staged protests during circus performances for more than a decade, expressing concern over the poor treatment animals receive in the care of the companies that the Shriners lease from, such as Carson & Barnes.[40][41] The Pittsburgh Shrine Circus stopped using animals in 2019, and the Moolah Shrine Circus in Missouri stopped using elephants in 2023.[42][43]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Home page Archived 2019-11-28 at the Wayback Machine. Shriners International. Retrieved on March 12, 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Fun With Purpose" Archived 2017-11-15 at the Wayback Machine Shriners International. Retrieved on August 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Find, Masonic. "The 3 Core Principles of Freemasonry: An Explanation". MasonicFind | Find Information About The Freemasons. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  4. ^ Partner Organizations | Shriners International
  5. ^ FAQs | Shriners International
  6. ^ a b "Alcazar Shrine | Shrine History". www.alcazarshriners.com. Retrieved 2024-06-04.
  7. ^ Sostek, Anya (10 April 2011). "Shriners shed many Middle Eastern references while continuing traditions such as the circus". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 24 August 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  8. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition, pp. 3–4.
  9. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition, p. 5.
  10. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition, p. 6.
  11. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition, p. 8.
  12. ^ a b "AEAONMS - History". aeaonms.org. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  13. ^ "ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE et al. v. MICHAUX et al". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  14. ^ "Eyewitness: 1949 / TV makes Pittsburgh 'A New Promise'". Post-gazette.com. 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
  15. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe". publishing.cdlib.org. Retrieved 2023-07-22.
  17. ^ "Historic Pittsburgh 1991". pitt.edu. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  18. ^ Ladies Oriental Shrine of North America. Accessed November 6, 2011.
  19. ^ "About Us" Archived 2011-12-01 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed November 6, 2011.
  20. ^ Preuss, Arthur A Dictionary of Secret and other Societies St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 1924; republished Detroit: Gale Reference Company 1966; p. 106.
  21. ^ "The Shriners / "Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles" Reveals its Pageantry". Life. 1938-05-16. p. 50. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
  22. ^ a b c Neidorf, Shawn (October 21, 2002). "Harassed, insulted, Shriners pay price for Islam imagery". Chicago Tribune.
  23. ^ a b c Sostek, Anya (10 April 2011). "Shriners shed many Middle Eastern references while continuing traditions such as the circus". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 24 August 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  24. ^ "Abd El Kader's Masonic Friends" (PDF). The New York Times. 1883-06-07. p. 8. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  25. ^ "Man sues Shriners over initiation injuries Trial exposes secret ritual in which electric shock is used on initiates". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  26. ^ "Jury Rejects Man's Claim He Was Hurt in Shriners' Initiation Rite". AP NEWS. December 13, 1991. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  27. ^ a b "Shriners Hospitals for Children and Joffrey's Coffee & Tea Company launch new Rise and Shrine blend that benefits the health care system". Shrinershospitalsforchildren.org. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  28. ^ a b c International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 69. St. James Press, 2005.
  29. ^ "Shriners Hospitals for Children About Us". Shriners Hospitals. Archived from the original on 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
  30. ^ a b "Shriners Hospitals for Children Locations". Shrinershospitalsforchildren.org. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  31. ^ "Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open" Archived 2011-08-10 at the Wayback Machine, Sunday, September 25, 2011 - Sunday, October 2, 2011, Las Vegas, NV 89134. Shriners International. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  32. ^ "Justin Timberlake and Shriners break charity golf ties", Usatoday.com, October 2, 2012.
  33. ^ "Shriners Hospitals for Children Extends Tournament Sponsorship" Archived 2014-07-25 at the Wayback Machine, Monday, July 2, 2012.
  34. ^ "2013 Shriners Hospitals for Children Open.", Shrinershospitalsopen.com, Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  35. ^ "Shriners International Imperial Session History". Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  36. ^ "Al Chymia Shrine Newsletter Archive". Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  37. ^ "History of the Imperial Council Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America SECOND EDITION 1872-1921". Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  38. ^ "Parade To Glory - Fred Van Deventer". Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  39. ^ Strom, Stephanie (25 July 2008). "Report on Shriners Raises Question of Wrongdoing". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  40. ^ Rhinehard, Chelsea. "PETA Accuses Shrine Circus of Animal Abuse", SanAngeloLIVE.com, 3 November 2013
  41. ^ Mancini, Ralph. "PETA protests animal circuses in Summerville", The Summerville Journal Scene, 8 February 2023
  42. ^ "PETA: Shriners Circus to stop featuring animals in Pittsburgh Shrine Circus", WTAE, 14 June 2019.
  43. ^ White, Robyn. "Missouri's Moolah Circus Elephants to 'Roam the Land' After Retirement", Newsweek, 9 January 2023.

External links[edit]