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|Alan Shugart (Founder)|
|Products||Floppy disk drives|
Shugart Associates (later Shugart Corporation) was a computer peripheral manufacturer that dominated the floppy disk drive market in the late 1970s and is famous for introducing the 51⁄4-inch minifloppy floppy disk drive. In 1979 it was one of the first companies to introduce a hard disk drive form factor compatible with a floppy disk drive, the SA1000 form factor compatible with the 8-inch FDD form factor.
Founded in 1973, Shugart Associates was purchased by Xerox in 1977 who then exited the business in 1985 and 1986, selling the brand name and the 8-inch floppy product line to Narlinger Group (in March 1986) which ultimately ceased operations circa 1991.
Alan Shugart, after a distinguished career at IBM and a few years at Memorex, decided to strike out on his own, and in 1973 he gathered up some venture capital and started Shugart Associates. The original business plan was to build a small-business system (similar to the IBM 3740) including the development of all of the major components, including floppy disk drives, a printer, etc. After two years the seed money was gone and Shugart had no product to show for it. The Board wanted to focus on the floppy disk drive but Shugart wanted to continue the original plan. Official company documents state that Shugart quit, but he tells the story another way, that he was fired by the venture capitalists. Shugart went on with Finis Conner to found Shugart Technology in 1979, whose name was changed to Seagate Technology in response to a legal challenge by Xerox.
The 51⁄4-inch disk drive was introduced by Shugart in September 1976 as the Shugart SA-400 Minifloppy (Shugart's trademarked brand name) at an OEM price of $390 for the drive and $45 for ten diskettes. The SA-400 and related models became their best selling products, with shipments of up to 4000 drives per day.
The original SA-400 was single-sided and supported 35-track formatting. It could be used on either a hard or soft-sector floppy controller and was rated at 85k (with a single-density controller) or 110k (with a double-density controller). The drive became the basis of the disk system on the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I, Apple II, and many other early microcomputers.
Xerox announced acquisition of Shugart Associates in August 1977 and completed its purchase that December at a price of about $41 million
In 1979, Shugart Associates introduced the "Shugart Associates System Interface" (SASI) to the computing world; the interface subsequently evolved into SCSI (Small Computer System Interface). The first standard process completed in 1986 with ANSI standard X3.131-1986 (popularly known as SCSI-1) as the result. Larry Boucher led the SASI engineering team; he and several of the engineers who worked on SASI left in 1981 to found host adapter maker Adaptec.
Also in 1979, Shugart Associates introduced the SA-1000, a series of hard disk drives keeping as many mechanical, electrical and formatting similarities with its floppy-disk counterparts as possible. The physical dimensions, including mounting holes are the same as an 8-inch floppy drive making this an early if not first HDD compatible with an FDD form factor. By 1983 Shugart Associates had shipped over 100,000 such drives.
In the early 1980s, in order to avoid development and start-up costs, the company turned to Matsushita Communications Inc., a subsidiary of Matsushita, for its half-height 51⁄4-inch drives, starting that company on its way to becoming the largest floppy drive manufacturer in the world. In 1985, in order to resolve an inventory accumulation and as part of its exit strategy, Xerox gave up Shugart's exclusive rights to the Matsushita half-height 51⁄4-inch floppy disk drives. Shugart's downfall partially came about as a result of the company failing to develop a reliable 80-track disk drive.
In 1983 the company changed its name to Shugart Corporation.
Shugart's operating loses in 1984 along with its own troubles led Xerox in 1985 to conclude Shugart businesses were no longer strategically important and therefore rather than invest in recovery Xerox would close Shugart. Most of Shugart's businesses were shut down. However, in March 1986 the floppy disk drive business was sold to Narlinger who promptly rebranded itself as Shugart Corporation Under Narlinger management, Shugart acquired several discontinued product lines such as Tandon's 8-inch FDDs (1986), the Optotech 5984 Write Once Read Many (WORM) drive (1988), etc. It ceased operations around 1991
- IBM 3740 IBM Archives
- Sollman, G. Evolution of the minifloppy (TM) product family IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Jul 1978.
- Shugart Adds Minifloppy Drive, Computerworld, Sept 13, 1976, p. 51.
- BARBASH, SHEPARD (January 17, 1985). "Xerox to Close Its Shugart Disk-Drive Manufacturer". LA Times. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Yencharis, Len (September 13, 1979). "Winchester technology invades floppy territory with low-cost 8-in. drive". Electronic Design: 70, 71 & 75.
- Nee, Eric (March 10, 1986). "Xerox Sells Rest Of Shugart; Sets Drive Opns. Date". Electronic News: 17.
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