Shughni language

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Shughni
Shugnani-Rushani
xuǧnůn ziv/хуг̌ну̊н зив, pomiray/помирай зив
Native toTajikistan, Afghanistan
Native speakers
(50,000 Shughni proper, ca. 75,000 all varieties cited 1990)[1]
Dialects
Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3sgh
Glottologshug1248
ELP

Shughni or Khughni (in the local language: хуг̌ну̊н зив tr. khughnön ziv; Tajik: шуғнонӣ, Persian: شغنانی), is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group.[2][1] Its distribution is in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in Tajikistan and Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan.[2]

Shughni-Rushani tends towards SOV word order, distinguishes a masculine and feminine gender in nouns and some adjectives, as well as the 3rd person singular of verbs. Shughni distinguishes between an absolutive and an oblique case in its system of pronouns. Rushani is noted for a typologically unusual 'double-oblique' construction, also called a 'transitive case', in the past tense. Normally Soviet school scientists consider Rushani as a close but independent language to Shughni, whilst Western school scientists codes Rushani as a dialect of Shughni due to Afghanistan Rushani speakers living in the Sheghnan district of Badakhshan Province.

Dialects[edit]

Rushani, Bartangi, Oroshori (Roshorvi), Khufi and Shughni proper are considered to be dialects. However, Bartangi and Khufi are quite distinct and may be separate languages.

Vocabulary[edit]

Chart of Sounds in Shughni
Letter Phoneme English equivalent Usage in Shugni
A/a a apple, angry bad, akuniath, aram, anor
Aa/aa Harvard, march xhaab, daav, zamunaa, baad
Ai/ai bite, fire taiyor, arai, aiyuum, maile
B/b b big, able biyor, balad, abor
Ch/ch t͡ʃ church, chair chiiz, chiid, choi, chorik
D/d d dead, dried daak, diidor, murd, dar
Dh/dh ð this, mother dhid, dhust, dhud, pidhid, podh'
Dz/dz d͡z buds, lads (approximate) dzulik, pindz, wixhidz, majdzuunj
E/e ɛ elephant, egg elak, qate, qine, biide
Ee/ee team, breeze tseem, teez, deer, Apreel
Ey/ey e aid, ancient peydow, xheydow,
Ff/ff f fat, roof fort, famtow, faand, boft
G/g g girl, big gaap, gandaa, gardha, yiga
Gh/gh ɣ sound not used in English ghaats, ghalat, bogh, shagh
I/i ɪ big, lift nist, yiwath, khirs, chis
Ii/ii feet, beat tiidow, miidow, shiintow, zhiiwj
J/j d͡ʒ jam, barge jumla, jazo, majlis, ajab
Jh/jh ʁ sound not used in English jhinik, saajh, majh, sipajh
K/k k book, kit kitob, maak, tukmaa, kiinaa
Kh/kh x loch, Khorog (only for some speakers) khaat, sakht, bakht, kharid
L/l l like, feel lap, liing, tambal, balad
M/m m mouse, meet mund, tamand, famtow, shaam
N/n n nut, mean naan, qand, fanaa, baandak
O/o o pot, shop oyandaa, ofarin, boft, nolaan
Oo/oo boot, poodle noor, joor, mood, moon
P/p p paint, top parwiin, lap, pardhedow, pool
Q/q q sound not used in English qamoch, qand, nuqtaa, qiin
R/r r rabbit, rob raang, tsarang, roosht, rukhsat
S/s s sit, miss sarake, baas, kasal, safar
Sh/sh ʃ shout, bush shamol, maash, bashand, shogird
T/t t title, time tavaar, turd, sust, chust
Th/th θ think, moth achath, khobath, aquniath, thiir
Ts/ts t͡s blitz, fits (approximate) tsavor, buts, tsarang, xhats
U/u u look, should duzd, mund, tuid, buts
Uu/uu earn, fern luuvd, uun, yuudand, okhoruun
V/v v vet, leave viidow, helav, vaz, virod
W/w w few, wait chiidow, wiintow, boware, wazmin
Xh/xh χ sound not used in English xheidow, xhats, tuxhna, duxhman
Y/y j yellow, yet yordam, yelav, oyandaa, boyad
Z/z z zoo, blaze zamiin, bozor, zardak, ziird
Zh/zh ʒ pleasure, déjà vu zholaa, zhiiwj, ghazhd, zhow

Orthography[edit]

Cyrillic alphabet[edit]

The Shughni cyrillic alphabet is as follows:

А а А̄ а̄ Б б В в В̌ в̌ Г г Ғ ғ Г̌ г̌ Ғ̌ ғ̌ Д д Д̌ д̌
Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з З̌ з̌ И и Ӣ ӣ Й й К к Қ қ Л л
М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т Т̌ т̌ У у Ӯ ӯ У̊ у̊
Ф ф Х х Ҳ ҳ Х̌ х̌ Ц ц Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ш ш ъ Э э

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The following are the vowels of Shughni:

Shughni vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Open a~æ a

Long vowels occur as /, , /.

Consonants[edit]

The following are the consonants of Shughni:[3]

Shughni consonants
Labial Dental Alveolar Alveolo-
palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ q
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ χ ʁ (h)
Approximant l j w
Rhotic r
  • /r/ can be realised as a trill [r] or a tap [ɾ].
  • Velar sounds /x, ɣ/ can also be realised as more fronted palatal sounds [ç, ʝ].

Literature[edit]

  • Zarubin, I.I. Shugnanskie teksty i slovar. Moskva : Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1960.
  • Džoy I. Edelman and Leila R. Dodykhudoeva (2009). Shughni. In Gernot Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian Languages, 787-824. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Olson, Karen (2017). Shughni Phonology Statement. SIL International.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Shughni at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Karamšoev, Dodchudo K. (1988–99). Šugnansko-russkij slovar. 3 vols. Moskva: Nauka. ISBN 5-02-016991-9 (Vol. 2), ISBN 5-02-018101-3 /ISBN 5-02-017858-6 (Vol. 3)
  3. ^ Arno, James C. (2007). "Shughni" (PDF) – via people.umass.edu.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

External links[edit]