Shulaveri-Shomu culture

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Shulaveri-Shomu culture
Geographical range South Caucasus, Armenian Highlands
Period Neolithic
Dates circa 6,000 B.C.E. — circa 4,000 B.C.E.
Major sites Shulaveri, Shomu-tepe
Followed by Kura–Araxes culture
Holocene Epoch
Pleistocene
Holocene/Anthropocene
Preboreal (10.3–9 ka)
Boreal (9–7.5 ka)
Atlantic (7.55 ka)
Subboreal (52.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka–present)

Shulaveri-Shomu culture (Georgian: შულავერი-შომუთეფეს კულტურა) is a Late Neolithic/Eneolithic culture that existed on the territory of present-day Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Armenian Highlands.[1] The culture is dated to mid-6th or early-5th millennia BC and is thought to be one of the earliest known Neolithic cultures.[1]

Shulaveri culture predates the Kura-Araxes culture and surrounding areas, which is assigned to the period of ca. 4000 - 2200 BC, and had close relation with the middle Bronze Age culture called Trialeti culture (ca. 3000 - 1500 BC).[2] Sioni culture of Eastern Georgia possibly represents a transition from the Shulaveri to the Kura-Arax cultural complex.[3]

In around ca. 6000–4200 B.C the Shulaveri-Shomu and other Neolithic/Chalcolithic cultures of the Southern Caucasus use local obsidian for tools, raise animals such as cattle and pigs, and grow crops, including grapes.[4] Many of the characteristic traits of the Shulaverian material culture (circular mudbrick architecture, pottery decorated by plastic design, anthropomorphic female figurines, obsidian industry with an emphasis on production of long prismatic blades) are believed to have their origin in the Near Eastern Neolithic (Hassuna, Halaf).[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archeology - Page 512 by Barbara Ann Kipfer
  2. ^ Kushnareva, K. Kh. 1997. The Southern Caucasus in Prehistory: Stages of Cultural and Socioeconomic Development from the Eighth to the Second Millennium B.C. University Museum Monograph 99. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Museum.
  3. ^ Kiguradze, T. and Menabde, M. 2004. The Neolithic of Georgia. In: Sagona, A. (ed.), A View from the Highlands: Archaeological Studies in Honour of Charles Burney. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement 12. Leuven: Peeters. Pp. 345-398.
  4. ^ Anatolia and the Caucasus, 8000–2000 B.C.
  5. ^ Kiguradze, T. (2001). "Caucasian Neolithic". In Ember, Melvin; Peregrine, Peter Neal. Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 4 : Europe. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers. pp. 55–76. ISBN 0306462559.