Shumi Maritsa

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Шуми Марица
English: Maritsa Rushes
Šumi Marica
Bulgarian Anthem Music Sheet.InstrumentalSimple (1886-1944).svg

National anthem of Principality of Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria (1885–1908)
Kingdom of Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908–1946)
People's Republic of Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1947)

Also known asBulgarian: Окървавена, translit. Okërvavena (English: Blood-stained)
Bulgarian: Черняев марш, translit. Černjaev marš (English: Chernyayev March (original title))
LyricsNikola Zhivkov, 1876[1]
Major revision in 1912 by Ivan Vazov[1]
Minor revision in 1914 by Ivan Vazov[1]
MusicAlexander Kosmar, 1839
Adopted1885
Relinquished1947
Audio sample
1914 version of Shumi Maritsa

"Shumi Maritsa" (Bulgarian: Шуми Марица, pronounced [ʃoˈmi mɐˈritsɐ]) was the Bulgarian national anthem from 1886 until 1947. The music was derived from the German folk song "Wenn die Soldaten durch die Stadt marschieren" that was very popular in Bulgaria in the mid-19th century. The original text was written by Nikola Zhivkov, a head teacher in Veles (now in the Republic of Macedonia). The lyrics were edited many times, most notably in 1912 by the poet Ivan Vazov. The title refers to the Maritsa river. It literally translates to "Maritsa makes noise" but the connotation is closer to "Maritsa roars".

History[edit]

History of the melody[edit]

On 1839 in Wrocław, the poet Alexander Kosmar created the satirical farce "The Pirates". Originally, the song was performed with entertainment and satirical sense in cabarets.[2] It quickly gained popularity, and soon the melody of the song became the German song "Wenn die Soldaten durch die Stadt marschieren".

The melody of the anthem was introduced to Bulgaria by Atanas Gratinski. He heard the song in the city of Shumen, when the Crocus Orchestra from Hungarian emigrants that settled in the city performed the German song "Wenn die Soldaten durch die Stadt marschiern" (When the soldiers march through the city). The melody insipred Gratinski to adjusts the song to the poem "Sunshine" that he made from 1855 until 1856[3] and taught the song to his students. The song become popular in Bulgaria.[1][4]

In the beginning of 1925, a competition for musical harmonization of the anthem was announced. The scientific archive of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences maintains 15 projects for the composition, some of which composed anonymously, while the other projects was composed by Georgi Atanasov, Ivan Kasabov, Nikola Yordanov, Dobri Hristov and other composers.[5]

In 1935 a project was made to merge Shumi Maritsa and the royal anthem of Bulgaria. The project was worked by Pancho Vladigerov and Menakhem Bensusan, but the whole project fails. However, after the project, the royal anthem of Bulgaria is performed after Shumi Maritsa without interruption.[5]

History of the lyrics[edit]

Nikola Zhivkov

Nikola Zhivkov created the lyrics of the song when he was among the Bulgarian volunteers who participated in the Serbian-Turkish war that broke out in 1876. He created the song because of his admiration to the personality and charisma of General Mikhail Chernyayev, who commands the Bulgarian volunteers. The song is composed by the title of "Chernyayev March". The melody of the song is inspired by the musical poem "Sunshine".

The song "Chernyayev March" was first published in 1877 in the newspaper "Sekydnevny Novinar" by S.P.Bobekov, and then in 1878 in the collection of songs "Gusla i pesni".[6]

The title of the song was later changed to "Shumi Maritsa", at the play "Ilyo Voyvoda". The song was published at the end of the play.[7]

Ivan Vazov

The lyrics of the song underwent a major revision by poet Ivan Vazov in 1912. Covered by the patriotic enthusiasm after the first victories during the Balkan War, the folk poet wrote almost entirely new lyrics of the song, borrowing motifs from his own poem "Maritsa rushes bloodily" (which would be the first and second line of the song). He published it for the first time on December 4, 1912 with the following editorial note:

Shumi Maritsa in a German postcard from World War I.

Another minor revision was done in 1914. The revision appeared in the poems collection "Under the Thunder of Victories." Because of the World War I, the revision gained small attention. This has led Ivan Vazov to republish the text in his poem "Songs for Macedonia 1913-1916" printed in 1916 with the following remark:

There are some other attempts to revise the text in the following years, but proved unsuccessful.[1]

Usage of the anthem[edit]

The anthem was used as the official Bulgarian anthem from the Bulgarian unification in 1885, and was relinquished in 1947, replaced by the anthem "Republiko nasha, zdravey!".

Notable performances of the anthem[edit]

The anthem was last played as the national anthem of Bulgaria on January 1, 1947 by the Red Army's Alexandrov Ensemble, at a reception given by the President of the 6th Grand National Assembly, Vasil Kolarov.[4]

According to the newspaper "Fatherland Front", the Botev celebrations in Bulgaria was opened on June 2, 1947, with "Shumi Maritsa".[8]

Status of the anthem in the Bulgarian People's Republic[edit]

The anthem served as a de facto anthem in the Bulgarian People's Republic, due to the anthem doesn't being mentioned at the constitution of that time, the Dimitrov Constitution.

During the era of the Bulgarian People's Republic, Shumi Maritsa is almost always associated negatively. During these times, the creator of the lyrics for the song, Ivan Vazov, was considered as a petite bourgeoisie. In the regime, Shumi Maritsa is considered to be written by a bourgeois poet, performed in bourgeois times, and was reminiscent of the monarchical regime. Even though the anthem was considered bourgeois, there was no indication that the anthem was banned during the regime.[9]

Proposals of the readoption of the anthem[edit]

During the discussion for the new constitution of Bulgaria in the 7th Grand National Assembly, there are some proposals submitted for a new anthem. The most popular proposal include the readoption of Shumi Maritsa as the national anthem of Bulgaria. [10][11]

Performance of the anthem in the battlefield[edit]

The anthem was the standard march of the Bulgarian Army in the battlefield. During the Serbo-Bulgarian War and the Balkan Wars, the Bulgarian army fought with chanting "Shumi Maritsa" . The military orchestra constantly plays the anthem during the battle, even when their instruments are shot by enemy bullets and broken by grenades.[12]

Russo-Turkish War[edit]

Illustration of the bayonet charge.

During the second Battle of Shipka Pass in the Russo-Turkish War, the Russian command sees that the spiked position can not be held back any more. General Stoletov, the commander of the Bulgarian forces takes a decision to retreat. The Russian regiments retreat along the Gabrovo highway to slow Turkish troops. The Bulgarian volunteers are at the Shipka Peak, while the Turkish forces was en route to capture the Bulgarian positions. Bravely, Major Chilyayev stood on a rock and sang "Shumi Maritsa". When they hear, the volunteers stop and slam their march, throw themselves in a bayonet charge. The Turks see the frenzied Bulgarians in front of them and retreated from their position.[12]

Serbo-Bulgarian War[edit]

Sketch of the attack of the Bulgarian Army taking Serbian positions.

During the Battle of Slivnitsa, part of the Serbo-Bulgarian War in 1885, a large group of Serbian Army was defending their positions at Slivnitsa and was reinforced before by a 135-kilometer march from southern Bulgaria to the Slivnitsa position. When the two battalions of the Serbian Army' Danubian Regiment arrived on the battlefield, Captain Benderev as the commander of the Bulgarian Army issued order to take Serbian positions immediately. This attack of the Danube Regiment is the most glorious and most important moment in Bulgarian history. Without a fight, in the performance of Shumi Maritsa, the Danube Regiment quickly climbed on a steep cliff. When the Serbian army heard the sound of the Shumi Maritsa", the Serbian Army escaped panically. The attack by the Bulgarian army ends the battle with the Serbs retreating.[13]

Balkan Wars[edit]

First Balkan War[edit]

On October 16, 1912, at Karaağaç, the commander of the 18th King Ferdinand I regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Antonov sees the advancing Turkish infantry battalions. He takes over the regal shrine and with a sword taken out, under the sounds of Shumi Maritsa performed by the regimental brass band, he led the attack of his army. The attacking forces of Turkish Army was dismissed, and the regiment's advance and division continued with complete success.[13]

On the night of 12 March, 1913, the commander of the 23rd "Shipka" Infantry Regiment receives the task of storming the Ayvaz Baba, a fort in the eastern sector of the Edirne defense. The regiment commander, Colonel Ivan Pashinov, judged that he would not be able to pass the wire barriers on the fortress. Nevertheless, he brought with him the regimental flag and, under the sounds of "Shumi Maritsa", performed by the regimental music, he led his regiment forward. Under a hail of bullets and shrapnels, the regiment overcome the enemy wire barriers and at 5.30 pm on March 13 the regimental flag is already waving over the captured Ayvaz Baba fort.[13]

Second Balkan War[edit]

During the Second Balkan War in the summer of 1913, when the Modra Wall (Serbia) attacked, the 34th Infantry Regiment of the Trojan Regiment, headed by its captain, found itself behind the right wing of the Serbs. Frightened by the setting, he orders the musicians to lie down in a clearing. At that time Trojans started the attack. The Captainmaster raises his subordinates and the boxing music starts playing "Shumi Maritza". This gives forces to the attackers, and the enemy is turned into escape, as during the Serbian-Bulgarian War (1885). Of the captured prisoners, it is understood that against the Bulgarian four companies the Serbian command has opposed an infantry brigade with 2 artillery batteries and 22 machine guns. To the question of why their escapes have left their positions, the captives respond,[13]

Lyrics[edit]

1914 revision[edit]

Шуми Марица
(Bulgarian Cyrillic)
Šumi Marica
(Transliteration)
Maritsa rushes
(English translation)

Шуми Марица
окървавена,
плаче вдовица
люто ранена.

Припев:
Марш, марш,
с генерала наш!
В бой да летим,
враг да победим!

Български чеда,
цял свят ни гледа.
Хай към победа
славна да вървим.

Припев

Левът Балкански
в бой великански
с орди душмански
води ни крилат.

Припев

Млади и знойни,
във вихри бойни.
Ний сме достойни
лаври да берем.

Припев

Ний сме народа,
за чест и свобода,
за мила рода
който знай да мре.

Припев

Šumi Marica
okërvavena,
plače vdovica
ljuto ranena.

Pripev:
Marš, marš,
s generala naš!
V boj da letim,
vrag da pobedim!

Bëlgarski čeda,
cjal svjat ni gleda.
Haj këm pobeda
slavna da vërvim.

Pripev

Levët Balkanski
v boj velikanski
s ordi dušmanski
vodi ni krilat.

Pripev

Mladi i znojni,
vëv vihri bojni.
Nij sme dostojni
lavri da berem.

Pripev

Nij sme naroda,
za čest i svoboda,
za mila roda
kojto znaj da mre.

Pripev

Maritsa rushes,
stained with blood,
A widow wails,
fiercely wounded.

Chorus:
March, march,
with our general,
Let's fly into battle
and crush the enemy!

Forward!

Bulgarians,
the whole world is watching.
Into a winning battle,
let's gloriously go.

Chorus

The Balkan lion
into a titanic battle
with enemy's hordes
leads us, flying.

Chorus

Young and strong,
in the rattle of battle
We're destined to gain
laurels to claim.

Chorus

We're the nation,
for pride, freedom,
for dear fatherland
who knows how to die.

Chorus

1912 revision[edit]

Шуми Марица
(Bulgarian Cyrillic)[14]
Šumi Marica
(Transliteration)
Maritsa rushes
(English translation)

Шуми Марица
окървавена,
плаче вдовица
в люти рани днес.

Припев:
Марш, марш,
Генералю наш!
На бой да летим,
враг да победим!

Български чеда,
цял свят ни гледа.
Хай към победа
славна да вървим.

Припев

Левът Балкански
в бой великански
с орди душмански
води ни крилат.

Припев

Сърцата наши,
юнашки, силни,
смърт ги не плаши,
тупат за борба.

Припев

Ний сме народа,
за чест и свобода,
за мила рода
който знай да мре.

Припев

Šumi Marica
okërvavena,
plače vdovica
v ljuti rani dnes.

Pripev:
Marš, marš,
s generala naš!
V boj da letim,
vrag da pobedim!

Bëlgarski čeda,
cjal svjat ni gleda.
Haj këm pobeda
slavna da vërvim.

Pripev

Levët Balkanski
v boj velikanski
s ordi dušmanski
vodi ni krilat.

Pripev

Sërcata maši,
junaški, silni,
smërt gi ne plaši,
tupat za borba.

Pripev

Nij sme naroda,
za čest i svoboda,
za mila roda
kojto znaj da mre.

Pripev

Maritsa rushes,
stained with blood,
A widow wails,
in hot wounds today.

Chorus:
March, march,
with our general,
Let's fly into battle
and crush the enemy!

Bulgarians,
the whole world is watching.
Into a winning battle,
let's gloriously go.

Chorus

The Balkan lion
into a titanic battle
with enemy's hordes
leads us, flying.

Chorus

Our hearts,
heroic, strong,
we do not fear death,
we struggle to fight.

Chorus

We're the nation,
for pride, freedom,
for dear fatherland
who knows how to die.

Chorus

Original version from 1876[edit]

The song in the book Gusle and Songs (Гусла съ пѣсни), from 1878.
Черняев марш
(Bulgarian Cyrillic)[15]
Černjaev marš
(Transliteration)
Chernyayev March
(English translation)[missing text]

Шюми Марица
укървавена,
Плачи вдовица
Люту ранена

Припев:
Марш! Марш!
с Генераля наш
Раз, два, три
Марш! Войници.

Напред да ходим,
войници мили,
Тимок да бордим
Със сички сили

Припев

Юнака донский
нам йе водител,
с пряпорец лъвский
Вожд победител

Припев

Вижте деспоти,
генераля наш
чуйте, запейте
Черняева марш

Припев

Войници храби
след него летят,
порят ваздухът
и громко викат

Припев

С кървав остър меч
Генераля напред
възглавя на сеч!
Гръм огън навред

Припев

Труба низ гора
За звони напред!
Хей ура, ура!
Ура напред!

Припев

Šjumi Marica
ukërvavena,
Plači vdovica
Ljutu ranena

Pripev:
Marš! Marš!
s Generalja naš
Raz, dva, tri
Marš! Vojnici.

Napred da hodim,
vojnici mili,
Timok da bordim
Sës sički sili

Pripev

Junaka donskij
nam je voditel,
s prjaporec lëvskij
Vožd pobeditel

Pripev

Vižte despoti,
generalja naš
čujte, zapejte
Černjaeva marš

Pripev

Vojnici hrabi
sled nego letjat,
porjat vazduhët
i gromko vikat

Pripev

S kërvav ostër meč
Generalja napred
vëzglavja na seč!
Grëm ogën navred

Pripev

Truba niz gora
Za zvoni napred!
Hej ura, ura!
Ura napred!

Pripev

Maritsa rushes,
stained with blood,
A widow wails,
fiercely wounded.

Chorus:
March! March!
with our general
One, two, three
March on, soldiers,

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Mario Mishev (May 6, 2016). "Как песента „Шуми Марица" стана първия български химн". bulgarianhistory.org. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  2. ^ Ivelina Berova. "ШУМИ МАРИЦА В НЕМСКИ МАРШ". ivelinaberova.com. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  3. ^ Mario Mishev (September 13, 2016). "Сменяме кръчмарската „Мила Родино" с германската „Шуми Марица"?". kmeta.bg. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "ИСТОРИЯ НА БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ХИМН". www.pamettanabulgarite.com. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Panayotov, Filip (1999). България 20 век: Алманах. TRUD Publisher.
  6. ^ "Шуми Марица". edinzavet.wordpress.com. Edin Zavet. February 11, 2008. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  7. ^ Shishmanov, Ivan (1891). "Историята на Шуми Марица" [The Story of Shumi Maritsa] (in Bulgarian): 7–8.
  8. ^ "Отечествен фронт". III (840). June 3, 1947. p. 5.
  9. ^ Mira Dushkova (January 1, 2008). "ЛИТЕРАТУРНИ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ НА ХИМНА "ШУМИ МАРИЦА"". www.pamettanabulgarite.com. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
  10. ^ "Химнът на България през превратностите на времето". socbg.com. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  11. ^ "Химна Шуми Марица". www.pamettanabulgarite.com. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  12. ^ a b Bulgarian History (March 2, 2014). "„Шуми Марица"". bulgarianhistory.org. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d "„ШУМИ МАРИЦА" - ПЕСЕН, БОЕН МАРШ, ХИМН". www.sitebulgarizaedno.com. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  14. ^ "Шуми Марица" [Shumi Maritsa] (in Bulgarian). XVIII (3733). Sofia, Bulgaria: Mir newspaper. December 4, 1912. p. 1.
  15. ^ Svishtov (1878). Гусла с песни [Gusle and songs] (in Bulgarian). Printing House of Asenia Panichkova. pp. 15–17.