Śūraṅgama Sūtra

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Sanskrit manuscript from Nalanda depicting Gautama Buddha in meditation

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra (Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 大佛頂首楞嚴經) is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra that has been especially influential in Chan Buddhism. The general doctrinal outlook of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is that of esoteric Buddhism and Buddha-nature, with some influence from Yogacara. The text has long been of disputed authenticity (see History), and often classed as Buddhist apocrypha. Current consensus is that the text itself is of Chinese origin, based on Indic texts, rather than a translation of a single text from Sanskrit. Recently (pre-2010), a Sanskrit language palm leaf manuscript consisting of 226 leaves with 6 leaves missing was discovered in a temple in China; if verified, the perennial questions regarding the authenticity of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra can be put to rest.[1]

Title[edit]

The complete title preserved in Chinese: 大佛頂如來密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經, meaning:

The Sūtra on the Śūraṅgama Mantra that is spoken from above the Crown of the Great Buddha's Head and on the Hidden Basis of the Tathagata's Myriad Bodhisattva Practices that lead to their Verifications of Ultimate Truth.[2]

An alternate translation of the title reads:

The Sutra of the Foremost Shurangama at the Great Buddha’s Summit Concerning the Tathagata's Secret Cause of Cultivation His Certification to the Complete Meaning and Bodhisattvas' Myriad Practices[3]

An original Sanskrit version of Śūraṅgama Sūtra is not known to be extant, and thus its full Sanskrit name is not known. Śūraṅgama roughly means "indestructible." The word is composed of Śūraṅ (great, absolutely), with Gama (durable, solid).[4]

The name of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra in different languages[edit]

A common translation of the sutra's name in English is the "Heroic March sutra" (as used e.g. by Matthew Kapstein, Norman Waddell, and Andy Ferguson), or the "scripture of the Heroic Progress" (as used e.g. by Thomas Cleary).

The full title of the sutra is appears as: traditional Chinese: 大佛頂如來密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經; ; pinyin: Dà Fódǐng Rúlái Mìyīn Xiūzhèng Liǎoyì Zhū Púsà Wànxíng Shǒuléngyán jīng; Korean: 대불정여래밀인수증료의제보살만행수릉엄경; Vietnamese: Đại Phật đỉnh Như Lai mật nhân tu chứng liễu nghĩa chư Bồ Tát vạn hạnh thủ-lăng-nghiêm kinh.

It is also known by abbreviated versions of the title such as traditional Chinese: 大佛頂首楞嚴經; ; pinyin: Dà Fódǐng Shǒuléngyán jīng; Korean: 대불정수릉엄경; Vietnamese: Đại Phật đỉnh thủ-lăng-nghiêm kinh or simply and more commonly traditional Chinese: 楞嚴經; ; pinyin: Léngyán jīng; Korean: 릉엄경; Vietnamese: lăng-nghiêm kinh.

History[edit]

Authorship[edit]

The first catalogue giving an account of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra was Zhisheng (Chinese: 智昇), a monk in Tang China. Zhisheng said this book was brought back from Guangxi to Luoyang during the reign of Xuanzong. He gave two different accounts in two different books, which were published in 730 CE.

  1. According to the first account, in his book Buddhist Texts Catalogue of Kaiyuan Era (Chinese: 開元釋教錄), the Śūraṅgama Sūtra was translated about in 713 CE by a monk Huaidi (Chinese: 懷迪) with an unnamed Indian monk.[a][b]
  2. According to the second account, in his later book The Story About This Translation of Buddhist Scriptures Mural (續古今譯經圖記), the Śūraṅgama Sūtra was translated in May 705 CE by Śramaṇa Pāramiti from central India, who came to China and brought the text to the province of Guangzhou. The text was then polished and edited by Empress Wu Zetian's former minister, court regulator, and state censor Fang Yong (Chinese: 房融) of Qingho.[c] The translation was reviewed by Śramaṇa Meghaśikha from Oḍḍiyāna, and certified by Śramaṇa Huai-di (Chinese: 懷迪) of Nanlou Monastery (南樓寺) on Mount Luofu (羅浮山).[d][e]

Zhi-sheng didn't explain why he wrote two different records, but at the end of The story about this translation of Buddhist scriptures mural (續古今譯經圖記) he left a small comment, recommending readers the record at Buddhist Book catalogue of Kaiyuan era is better than The story about this translation of Buddhist scriptures mural (續古今譯經圖記).[f]

Dispute about this text arose in 8th century in Japan, so Emperor Kōnin sent a monk to China, asking whether this book was a forgery or not. His Chinese teacher told him that this was forged by Fang Yong. [g] Zhu Xi, a 12th-century Neo-confucian who was opposed to Buddhism, believed that it was created during the Tang Dynasty in China, and did not come from India.[5]

The Qianlong Emperor and the Third Changkya Khutukhtu believed in the authenticity of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra.[6] They later translated the Śūraṅgama Sūtra into the Manchu language, Mongolian and Tibetan.(see translations)

In China during the early modern era, the reformist Liang Qichao claimed that the sutra is apocryphal, writing, "The real Buddhist scriptures would not say things like Surangama Sutra, so we know the Surangama Sutra is apocryphal.[h] In the same era, Lü Cheng (Chinese: 呂澂) wrote an essay to claim that the book is apocryphal, named "One hundred reasons about why Shurangama Sutra is apocryphal" (Chinese: 楞嚴百偽).

Hurvitz claims that the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is "a Chinese forgery" but gives no reasons for this claim.[7] Faure claims that it is "apocryphal," similarly without rationale.[8]

Ron Epstein gives an overview of the arguments for Indian or Chinese origin, and concludes:[5]

Preliminary analysis of the internal evidence then indicates that the Sutra is probably a compilation of Indic materials that may have had a long literary history. It should be noted though, that for a compilation, which is also how the Sutra is treated by some traditional commentators, the Sutra has an intricate beauty of structure that is not particularly Chinese and which shines through and can clearly be distinguished from the Classical Chinese syntax, on which attention has usually been centered. Thus one of the difficulties with the theory that the Sutra is apocryphal is that it would be difficult to find an author who could plausibly be held accountable for both structure and language and who would also be familiar with the doctrinal intricacies that the Sutra presents. Therefore, it seems likely that the origin of the great bulk of material in the Sutra is Indic, though it is obvious that the text was edited in China. However, a great deal of further, systematic research will be necessary to bring to light all the details of the text's rather complicated construction.

A number of scholars have associated the Śūraṅgama Sūtra with the Buddhist tradition at Nālandā.[9][10] Epstein also notes that the general doctrinal position of the sūtra does indeed correspond to what is known about the Buddhist teachings at Nālandā during this period.[5]

Translations[edit]

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra was translated into Tibetan probably during the late eighth to early ninth century.[11][12][13] However possibly because of the persecution of Buddhism during King Langdarma’s reign (ca. 840-841), only a portion of Scroll 9 and Scroll 10 of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra are preserved in the surviving two ancient texts.[14][15][16] Interesting enough, Buton Rinchen Drub Rinpoche mentioned that one of the two texts was probably translated from Chinese; thereby suggesting the second text may have possibly been translated from Sanskrit (or another language).[17]

The entire Śūraṅgama Sūtra was translated in 1763 from Chinese into the Manchu language, Mongolian and Tibetan languages and compiled into a quadralingual set by command of the Qianlong Emperor.[18][19] The third Changkya Khutukhtu Rölpé Dorjé or 若必多吉 or Lalitavajra (1716-1786) convinced the Qianlong Emperor to engaged in the translation.[20] The third Changkya Khutukhtu supervised (and verified) with the help of Fu Nai the translation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra.[21][22] The complete translation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra into Tibetan is found in a supplement to the Narthang Kangyur.[23][24]

There are a few English translations:

  • The Surangama Sutra published in A Buddhist Bible translated by Dwight Goddard and Bhikshu Wai-tao.
  • The Shurangama Sutra with commentary by Master Hsuan Hua. Volumes 1 to 8. Buddhist Translation Society, 2nd edition (October 2003).
  • A New Translation Buddhist Text Translation Society. The Śūraṅgama Sūtra With Excerpts from the Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsüan Hua
  • Charles Luk, 1967, Shurangama Sutra

Teachings[edit]

The influence of Māra is a major theme of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra

Doctrinal orientation[edit]

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra contains teachings from Yogācāra, Buddha-nature, and Vajrayana.[5][25] It makes use of Buddhist logic with its methods of syllogism and the catuṣkoṭi "fourfold negation" first popularized by Nāgārjuna.[26]

Main themes[edit]

Some of the main themes of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra are the worthlessness of the Dharma when unaccompanied by samādhi power, and the importance of moral precepts as a foundation for the Buddhist practice. Also stressed is the theme of how one effectively combats delusions that may arise during meditation.[5][i]

Ron Epstein and David Rounds have suggested that the major themes of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra reflect the strains upon Indian Buddhism during the time of its creation.[28] They cite the resurgence of tribal influences, and the crumbling social supports for monastic Buddhist institutions. This era also saw the emergence of Hindu tantrism and the beginnings of Esoteric Buddhism and the siddha traditions.[28] They propose that moral challenges and general confusion about Buddhism are said to have then given rise to the themes of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, such as clear understanding of principles, moral discipline, essential Buddhist cosmology, development of samādhi, and how to avoid falling into various delusions in meditation.

Two types of mind[edit]

David Rounds notes that the Buddha makes a very important distinction when teaching his cousin, Ananda about his mind that there are in fact not one, but 2 different types of mind (that are fundamentally different in their natures) that we need to be aware of in our spiritual cultivation:[29]

"The Buddha then compounds his cousin's confusion by stating that there are fundamentally two kinds of mind:

1. First, the ordinary quotidian mind of which we are aware and which is entangled, lifetime after lifetime, in the snare of illusory perceptions and random thoughts;

2. And second, the everlasting true mind, which is our real nature, and which is the state of the Buddha."

Ananda, what are the two fundamentals?

The first is the mind that is the basis of death and rebirth and that has continued for the entirety of time, which has no beginning. This mind is dependent upon perceived objects, and it is this that you and all beings make use of and that each of you consider to be your own nature.

The second fundamental is enlightenment, which has no beginning; it is the original and pure essence of nirvana. It is the original understanding, the real nature of consciousness. All conditioned phenomena arise from it, and yet it is among those phenomena that beings lose track of it. They have lost track of this fundamental understanding, though it is active in them all day long, and because they remain unaware of it, they make the mistake of entering the various destinies.

Tathagatagarbha[edit]

Rounds and Epstein explain the Buddha Nature, the Matrix of the Thus Come One as spoken of in the Surangama Sutra:[30]

Fundamentally, everything that comes and goes, that comes into being and ceases to be, is within the true nature of the Matrix of the Thus-Come One, which is the wondrous, everlasting understanding — the unmoving, all-pervading, wondrous suchness of reality.

[The Buddha] shows one by one that each of the elements of the physical world and each of the elements of our sensory apparatus is, fundamentally, an illusion. But at the same time, these illusory entities and experiences arise out of what is real. That matrix from which all is produced is the Matrix of the Thus-Come One. It is identical to our own true mind and identical as well to the fundamental nature of the universe and to the mind of all Buddhas.

Śūraṅgama Samādhi[edit]

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra teaches about the Śūraṅgama Samādhi, which is associated with complete enlightenment and Buddhahood. This samādhi is also featured extensively in the Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra, another Mahāyāna text. It is equally praised in the Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, where it is explained by the Buddha that this samādhi is the essence of the nature of the Buddha and is indeed the "mother of all Buddhas."[31] The Buddha also comments that the Śūraṅgama Samādhi additionally goes under several other names, specifically Prajñāpāramitā ("Perfection of Wisdom"), the Vajra Samādhi ("Diamond Samadhi"), the Siṃhanāda Samādhi ("Lion's Roar Samādhi"), and the Buddhasvabhava ("Buddha-nature").[31]

White Parasol Crown Dhāraṇī[edit]

In addition to the sūtra's contents, the dhāraṇī contained in it is known in Chinese as the Léngyán Zhòu (楞嚴咒), or Śūraṅgama Mantra. It is well-known and popularly chanted in East Asian Buddhism. In Sanskrit, the dhāraṇī is known as the "Sitātapatra Uṣṇīṣa Dhāraṇī" (Ch. 大白傘蓋陀羅尼). This is sometimes simplified in English to "White Canopy Dhāraṇī" or "White Parasol Dhāraṇī." In Tibetan traditions, the English is instead sometimes rendered as the "White Umbrella Mantra." The dhāraṇī is extant in three other translations found in the Chinese Buddhist canon [j], and is also preserved in Sanskrit and Tibetan.

According to Venerable Hsuan Hua, the dhāraṇī contains five major divisions, which "control the vast demon armies of the five directions":[32]

  • In the East is the Vajra Division, hosted by Akṣobhya
  • In the South, the Jewel-creating Division, hosted by Ratnasaṃbhava
  • In the center, the Buddha Division, hosted by Vairocana
  • In the West, the Lotus Division, hosted by Amitābha
  • In the North, the Karma Division, hosted by Amoghasiddhi

Fifty skandha-māras[edit]

Māras as manifestations of the five skandhas are described in the Śūraṅgama Sūtra. In its section on the fifty skandha-māras, each of the five skandhas has ten skandha-māras associated with it, and each skandha-māra is described in detail as a deviation from correct samādhi. These skandha-māras are also known as the "fifty skandha demons" in some English-language publications. Epstein introduces the fifty skandha-māras section as follows:[33]

For each state a description is given of the mental phenomena experienced by the practitioner, the causes of the phenomena and the difficulties which arise from attachment to the phenomena and misinterpretation of them. In essence what is presented is both a unique method of cataloguing and classifying spiritual experience and indication of causal factors involved in the experience of the phenomena. Although the fifty states presented are by no means exhaustive, the approach taken has the potential of offering a framework for the classification of all spiritual experience, both Buddhist and non-Buddhist.

Influence[edit]

China[edit]

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra has been widely studied and commented on in China. Ron Epstein...

... found reference to 127 Chinese commentaries on the Sutra, quite a few for such a lengthy work, including 59 in the Ming dynasty alone, when it was especially popular ".[5]

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra is one of the seminal texts of Chán Buddhism. It was first transmitted by Yuquan Shenxiu,[34] the original sixth patriarch and the seminal figure of the Northern school. It "is connected with the enlightenment of"[5] Changshui Zixuan from the Song dynasty and Hanshan Deqing (憨山德清) from the Ming.

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra is being cited in case 94 of the Blue Cliff Record:

In the Surangama Sutra the Buddha says, "When unseeing, why do you not see the unseeing? If you see the unseeing, it is no longer unseeing. If you do not see the unseeing, it is not an object. Why isn't it yourself?"[35][k]

Dōgen commented on the verse "When someone gives rise to Truth by returning to the Source, the whole of space in all ten quarters falls away and vanishes":

This verse has been cited by various Buddhas and Ancestors alike. Up to this very day, this verse is truly the Bones and Marrow of the Buddhas and Ancestors. It is the very Eye of the Buddhas and Ancestors. As to my intention in saying so, there are those who say that the ten-fascicle Shurangama Scripture is a spurious scripture, whereas others say that it is a genuine Scripture: both views have persisted from long in the past down to our very day [...] Even were the Scripture a spurious one, if [Ancestors] continue to offer its turning, then it is a genuine Scripture of the Buddhas and Ancestors, as well as the Dharma Wheel intimately associated with Them.[37]

The contemporary Chán-master Venerable Hsu Yun wrote a commentary on the Śūraṅgama Sūtra. Venerable Hsuan Hua was a major modern proponent of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, which he commented and used in his instructions on protecting and supporting the Proper Dharma. About the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, he said:

In Buddhism all the sutras are very important, but the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is most important. Wherever the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is, the Proper Dharma abides in the world. When the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is gone, the Dharma Ending Age is before one's eyes. (In the Extinction of the Dharma Sutra it says that in the Dharma Ending Age, the Śūraṅgama Sūtra will become extinct first. Then gradually the other sutras will also become extinct.)[38] The Śūraṅgama Sūtra is the true body of the Buddha; the śarīra (relics) of the Buddha; the stūpa of the Buddha. All Buddhists must support with their utmost strength The Śūraṅgama Sūtra [39]

Notes[edit]

Note: Several notes are Chinese, due to the international character of Wikipedia. Help in translation is welcome.

  1. ^ Buddhist texts catalogue of Kaiyuan era said, "Śramaṇa Huai-Di (Chinese: 懷迪), who was born at Xún zhōu (循州), lived in Nanlou Monastery (南樓寺) on Mount Luofu (羅浮山). This mountain was where Xian lived and toured. HuaiDi studied Buddhist books for a long time, and achieved profound erudition. He was also proficient in a wide range of knowledge. Here close to the coast, there are many Indian monks who come here. HuaiDi learned how to say and read their language with them. When Mahāratnakūṭa Sūtra was translated to Chinese, Bodhiruci invited HuaiDi to verify the translation. After the translation was finished, he returned to his hometown. Once he came to Guangzhou, he met a monk, who remains unknown, from India with a Sanskrit book. He asked HuaiDi to translate this book, a total of ten volumes, which was Shurangama Sutra. HuaiDi wrote this book and modified the wording. After the book was translated, the monk left, and no one knows where he went. An official went to southern China, bringing this book back, so it became known here."[I]
  2. ^ In 706 CE, Mahāratnakūṭa Sūtra began translation. HuaiDi was invited to Luoyang. The translation was finished in 713 CE. HuaiDi then went back to his hometown. The Shurangama Sutra was translated after 713 CE.
  3. ^ The mention of Fang Yong poses a chronological problem. According to the Old Book of Tang Fang Yong was put in prison in January 705 CE because he was involved in a court struggle. He was then exiled from Luoyang to Guangxi Qinzhou in February, where he died.[II] If the book was translated at 705 CE, the cooperation of Fang Yong might be doubtful. If the text was translated in 713 CE, Fang Yong had no chance to aid in the translation of the text, since he died in 705
  4. ^ The story about this translation of Buddhist scriptures mural said, "Śramaṇa Pāramiti, which is means Quantum, came from Central India. He travel, missionary, arrived china. He stayed at Guangxiao Temple in Guangxi. Because he was very knowledgeable, so many people came to visit him. To help people, so he determined not to keep secret. in May 23 705 CE, He recited a Tantras, which is The Sūtra on the Śūraṅgama Mantra Spoken from Above the Crown of the Great Buddha's Head, and on the Hidden Basis of the Tathagata's Myriad Bodhisattva Practices Leading to Their Verification of the Ultimate Truth. Śramaṇa Meghaśikha from Oḍḍiyāna translated it to Chinese. Fang Yong(Chinese: 房融) of Qingho, the former minister, court regulator, and state censor, wrote it down. Śramaṇa Huai-di (Chinese: 懷迪) of Nanlou Monastery (南樓寺) on Mount Luofu (羅浮山) verify it. After teach it all, he came back to his country. An official went to southern China, bringing this book back, so we see it here. "[III]
  5. ^ These two individuals - Pāramiti and Meghaśikha - are only been records in this book. Other books, talking about the story about Pāramiti, are references from this place then add some imagination.
  6. ^ The story about this translation of Buddhist scriptures mural said, "These records is edited from the old data, but some errors have not been modified yet. If someone wants to write some records at the wall, please follow the record at the Buddhist texts catalogue of Kaiyuan era. In addition to what I mention here, the other is real."[IV]
  7. ^ in-depth meaning of Three Treatise school said, "(Emperor Kōnin) sent Buddhist monks De-Qing (德清)and other to Dang Dynasty to find the answer. The Teacher of De-Qing at Dang dynasty, Buddhist Fa-Siang (Chinese: 法詳), told him, This Shurangama Sutra is forged by Fang Yong, not a real Buddhavacana. But Zhi-sheng know nothing about it, so he make a mistake to list this book at Buddhist texts catalogue."[V]
  8. ^ Liang Qichao, the authenticity of Ancient books and their year, "The real Buddhist scriptures would not say things like Śūraṅgama Sūtra, so we know the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is a Apocrypha."[VI][citation needed]
  9. ^ D.T. Suzuki gives a detailed overview of the contents of the sutra in Manual of Zen Buddhism.[27]
  10. ^ Taishō Tripiṭaka 944, 976, and 977
  11. ^ This reminds of Nagarjuna's Sunyatasaptati:
    [51] The sense of sight is not inside the eye, not inside form, and not in between. [Therefore] an image depending upon form and eye is false.
    [52] If the eye does not see itself, how can it see form? Therefore eye and form are without self. The same [is true for the] remaining sense-fields.
    [53] Eye is empty of its own self [and] of another's self. Form is also empty. Likewise [for the] remaining sense-fields.[36]

Chinese texts

  1. ^ 《開元釋教錄》:「沙門釋懷迪,循州人也,住本州羅浮山南樓寺。其山乃仙聖遊居之處。迪久習經論,多所該博,九流弋略,粗亦討尋,但以居近海隅,數有梵僧遊止;迪就學書語,復皆通悉。往者三藏菩提流志譯竇積經,遠召迪來,以充證義。所為事畢,還歸故鄉。後因遊廣府遇一梵僧 (未得其名) ,賚梵經一夾,請共譯之,勒成十卷,即《大佛頂萬行首楞嚴經》是也。迪筆受經旨,緝緞文理。其梵僧傳經事畢,莫知所之。有因南使,流經至此。」
  2. ^ 《舊唐書》卷七中宗紀云:「神龍元年正月…鳳閣侍郎韋承慶,正諫大夫房融,司禮卿韋慶等下獄……二月甲寅…韋承慶貶高要尉,房融配欽州。」《新唐書》〈中宗紀〉:「神龍元年二月甲寅......貶韋承慶為高要尉,流房融於高州。」新唐書卷139房琯傳:「父融,武后時以正諫大夫同鳳閣台平章事。神龍元年貶死高州。」《通鑑》卷208神龍元年:「二月乙卯正諫大夫同平章事房融除名流高州。」
  3. ^ 《續古今譯經圖記》:「沙門般刺蜜帝,唐云極量,中印度人也。懷道觀方,隨缘濟度,展轉游化,達我支那。乃於廣州制旨道場居止。眾知博達,祈请亦多。利物為心,敷斯秘。以神龍元年龍集乙巳五月己卯朔二十三日辛丑,遂於灌頂部诵出一品《大佛頂如来密因修證了義、菩薩萬行首楞嚴經》一部(十卷)。烏萇國沙門彌迦釋迦(釋迦稍訛,正云鑠佉,此曰雲峰)譯語,菩薩戒弟子、前正諫大夫、同中書門下平章事、清河房融筆受,循州羅浮山南樓寺沙門懷迪證譯。其僧傳經事畢,泛舶西歸。有因南使,流通於此。」
  4. ^ 《續古今譯經圖紀:「前紀所載,依舊錄編,中間乖殊,未曾刪補。若欲題壁,請依開元釋教錄。除此方撰集外,餘為實錄矣。」
  5. ^ 玄睿《大乘三論大義鈔》:「遣德清法師等於唐檢之。德清法師承大唐法詳居士:《大佛頂經》是房融偽造,非真佛經也。智昇未詳,謬編正錄。」
  6. ^ 梁啟超《古書真偽及其年代》:「真正的佛經並没有《楞嚴經》一類的話,可知《楞嚴經》一書是假書。」

References[edit]

  1. ^ Li Xuezhu (李学竹) (2010). "Zhōng guó zàng xué - Zhōng guó fàn wén bèi yè gài kuàng" 中国藏学-中国梵文贝叶概况 [China Tibetan Studies - The State of Sanskrit Language Palm Leaf Manuscripts in China]. Baidu 文库. Vol. 1 No. 90 (in Chinese). pp. 55–56. Retrieved 2017-12-06. ‘河南南阳菩提寺原藏有1函梵文贝叶经,共226叶,其中残缺6叶,函上写有“印度古梵文”字样,据介绍,内容为 《楞严经》,很可能是唐代梵文经的孤本,字体为圆形,系印度南方文字一种,被国家定为一级文物,现存彭雪枫纪念馆。’(tr to English: Henan Nanyang Bodhi Temple originally had one Sanskrit language manuscript sutra, consisting in total 226 leaves, of which 6 were missing... according to introduction, it contains the Śūraṅgama Sūtra and most probably the only extant Sanskrit manuscript dating from the Tang Dynasty. The letters are roundish and belongs to a type used in South India and has been recognized by the country as a Category 1 cultural artifact. It is now located in the Peng Xuefeng Memorial Museum. 
  2. ^ Śūraṅgama Sūtra Translation Committee of the Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2009, p. xxv.
  3. ^ The Shurangama Sutra with commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua - New Edition ISBN 0881399493. http://cttbusa.org/shurangama1/shurangama1.asp
  4. ^ Buddhist Text Translation Society 2009, p. xiii.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Epstein 1976.
  6. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 92. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 然而在乾隆皇帝另一御制序文里也提及了《首楞严经》...于乾隆三十五年(1770)7月25日的藏文《甘珠尔》的文序。...因为汉文本《首楞严经》中包含的经咒,与同一经咒的印度文献完全相同。有印度梵本渊源,因而整部《首楞严经》是真的。...至少可以看出乾隆及三世章嘉的态度即判定《首楞严经》并非伪经。(trans. to English: however in another foreword written by the Qianlong Emperor the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is mentioned...In the foreword to the Tibetan Kangyur from July 25, 1770...because the mantra contained in the Chinese text of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is identical to the mantra in an Indian text. (Since) there is a Indian Sanskrit source text (for the mantra), the entire Śūraṅgama Sūtra must be authentic...at the very least, we can see the attitude of the Qianlong Emperor and the Third Changkya Khutukhtu that judge the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is definitely not an apocryphal sutra.) 
  7. ^ Hurvitz 1967, p. 482.
  8. ^ Faure 1991, p. 42, 122 n9, 231, 240.
  9. ^ Humphreys1995, p. 111.
  10. ^ Dutt 1962, p. 264.
  11. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 95. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 查考藏文资料,可以发现,如今的德格版、北京版、那塘版(藏文大藏经)里都收录有两个古藏文译版在吐蕃世纪三大古目里有记载,布顿大师明著《布頓教法源流》里也有着录…(transl. to English : (If ) we examine the Tibetan language materials, we will discover that within the current Derge Kangyur, Peking (Beijing) Kangyur, Narthang Kangyur (all of the preceding being Tibetan language Buddhist Tripitakas) there are recorded two ancient Tibetan texts (of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra);during the Tubo period, the three great ancient catalogue of sutras (which were compiled prior to King Langdarma’s persecution of Buddhism ca. 840-841 CE; therefore the Tibetan Śūraṅgama Sūtra was probably translated ca. late eighth – early ninth century CE) have records of these translations;within Buton Rinchen Drub Rinpoche’s Famous History of Buddhism (in India and Tibet) (written ca. 1322) it is also recorded (in the list of sutras)… 
  12. ^ Nishioka Soshū (西岡祖秀) (1980). ""Putōn bukkyōshi" mokurokubu sakuin I" 「プトゥン仏教史」目録部索引I [Index to Buton (Rinchen Drub)’s History of Buddhism (Tripitaka) Catalog Part I]. 東京大学文学部·文化交流研究施設研究紀要 (trans. to English: Tokyo University Department of Literature – Annual Report of the Institute for the Study of Cultural Exchange) (in Japanese) (4): 61. プトゥン・リンチェン・ドゥプ Bu ston Rin chen bgrub (1290-1364) によって1322年に著わされた「プトゥン仏教史」...(trans. to English : Buton’s History of Buddhism in India and Tibet written in 1322 by Buton Rinchen Drub Rinpoche (1290-1364)…) 
  13. ^ Nishioka Soshū (西岡祖秀) (1980). ""Putōn bukkyōshi" mokurokubu sakuin I" 「プトゥン仏教史」目録部索引I [Index to Buton (Rinchen Drub Rinpoche)’s History of Buddhism (Tripitaka) Catalog Part I]. 東京大学文学部·文化交流研究施設研究紀要 (trans. to English: Tokyo University Department of Literature – Annual Report of the Institute for the Study of Cultural Exchange) (in Japanese) (4): 92. Chapter 1 to 3 are an introduction for the purpose of organizing the catalogue section of (Buton’s Tripitaka found in) chapter 4… 
  14. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 95. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 两本古藏文译本,经笔者与汉文比对,发现确为“残本”,大致对应汉文本的第九卷和第十卷。(trans. to English: When comparing the two ancient Tibetan text with the Chinese text, the author discovered that they are indeed fragmentary texts which corresponds approximately to the Chinese Śūraṅgama Sūtra Scroll 9 and Scroll 10.) 
  15. ^ von Staël–Holstein, Baron A. (April 1936). "The Emperor Ch'ien-Lung and the Larger Śūraṃgama Sūtra". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1 (1): 137–138. The larger fragment (Sakurabe No. 902) contains a consecutive translation of a part of the ninth chapter and the entire tenth chapter of the larger Śūraṃgama. The smaller fragment (Sakurabe No. 903) contains numerous passages belonging to the ninth and tenth chapters of the larger Śūraṃgama. 
  16. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 93. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 乾隆皇帝认为,此经应该是在朗达玛统治时期散失不全…(trans. to English: The Qianlong Emperor supposed this sutra was partially scattered and lost during the rule of King Langdarma…) 
  17. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 95. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 布顿大师…并提出其中一个译本…翻译自汉文。也就是确实在乾隆之前存有藏文译本,且布顿以为两部中的一部译出自汉文and 两本古藏文是否早在朗达玛灭佛前就自汉文译出,有全译本存在,后损毁不少。还是其一源自汉文,另一部另有所本,都将此序文引出的新的研究议题。(trans. to English: ‘ Buton Rinpoche also noted that one of the translations of the ancient Tibetan text…was translated from Chinese. This verifies that prior to the Qianlong period there were Tibetan translations (of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra) and furthermore Buton supposed one of the two text was translated from Chinese.’ and ‘The two ancient Tibetan text may have been translated from Chinese before King Langdarma’s persecution of Buddhism and a complete translation existed (before King Langdarma’s persecution of Buddhism) afterwards large portions were destroyed; or one of the two (text) was translated from Chinese and the second was based on another text (i.e. translated from another source), (the research on) this foreword has opened up a new research topic for discussion.’ ) 
  18. ^ von Staël–Holstein, Baron A. (April 1936). "The Emperor Ch'ien-Lung and the Larger Śūraṃgama Sūtra". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1 (1): 145. The translation of the sutra were begun in A.D. 1752 and finished in A.D. 1763. 
  19. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 88. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 乾隆皇帝在位时间,曾将其译成藏、满、蒙、汉文四体合璧本。(tr. into English : During the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, the Emperor ordered the translation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra into Tibetan, Manchu language and Mongolian and combined with the Chinese into a four language compilation. 
  20. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 93. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 其次,章嘉国师向乾隆陈述了元代佛学大师布顿(bu ston rin chen grub 1290-1364)所作的授记,即此经“当于后五百年,仍自中国译至藏地。自布顿大师往后推算,乾隆时期与‘后五百年’时间上也是暗合的当然。布顿大师的所谓授记,应该是三世章嘉为了劝说乾隆皇帝翻译《首楞严经》所作的附会之辞。(trans. to English: Next, the Changkya Khutukhtu national preceptor tells the Qianlong Emperor the prophecy made by the great Buddhist Master Buton Rinchen Drub Rinpoche (1290-1364) regarding this sutra, namely that five hundred years hence, it will again be translated from China and brought to Tibet. If we calculate from Buton Rinpoche’s time to the time period when the Qianlong Emperor reigns, it of course matches by coincidence the five hundred years (predicted by the prophecy). The so-called prophecy of Buton Rinpoche was (made relevant and) used by the third Changkya Khutukhtu to exhort the Qianlong Emperor to translate the Śūraṅgama Sūtra.) 
  21. ^ Chai Bing (柴冰) (March 2014). "Qián lóng huáng dì 《 yù zhì léng yán jīng xù 》 mǎn、hàn wén běn duì kān jí yán jiū" 内蒙古大学学报(哲学社会科学版)-乾隆皇帝《御制楞严经序》满、汉文本对勘及研究 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)- The Qianlong Emperor's "Foreword to The Royal Translation and Compilation of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" : Research and Comparison of the Manchu Language and Chinese Text]. DOC88.COM. Vol. 46 No. 2 (in Chinese). p. 92. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 序中提及的翻译工程的负责人是庄亲王允禄,主要参与者则有三世章嘉呼图克图若必多吉和傅鼐。(Trans. to English: The foreword mentioned the person responsible for the translation was Prince Zhuang Yun Lu, the main participants were the third Changkya Khutukhtu Ruobiduoji (Rölpé Dorjé) and Fu Nai.) 
  22. ^ von Staël–Holstein, Baron A. (April 1936). "The Emperor Ch'ien-Lung and the Larger Śūraṃgama Sūtra". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1 (1): 145. Whenever there was the possibility of a doubt [the correct translation] was quickly fixed by advice from the state teacher (or National Preceptor) [8b] Lcan-skya Hu-thog-thu (also known as the Third Changkya Khutukhtu Rölpé Dorjé) and [the question] settled. 
  23. ^ von Staël–Holstein, Baron A. (April 1936). "The Emperor Ch'ien-Lung and the Larger Śūraṃgama Sūtra". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1 (1): 146. cf. Footnote 30: (volume KI of the Mdo division of the Narthang Kanjur is of course printed in black letters.) – the Tibetan version of my xylograph seems to be identical with the Tibetan version of the quadralingual edition. 
  24. ^ Even though von Staël–Holstein call this tripitaka the Narthang Kanjur, I believed it is known as the Peking (Beijing) Kangyur in today’s usage. The early print editions of the Peking Kangyur were printed in vermilion ink. Later printings and any supplements would have been printed in black ink. Cf. von Staël–Holstein, Baron A. (April 1936). "The Emperor Ch'ien-Lung and the Larger Śūraṃgama Sūtra". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1 (1): 146. Prince Fu-ch’üan, the chief editor of the A.D. 1700 Kanjur edition, reports that in preparing the edition, he acted on orders from the emperor K’ang-hsi to complement 補 the Kanjur. The emperor Ch’ien-lung venerated the emperor K’ang-hsi as a model ruler, and followed his grandfather’s example whenever possible. 
  25. ^ Buddhist Text Translation Society 2009, p. xxx-xxxii.
  26. ^ Buddhist Text Translation Society 2009, p. xxxii-xxxiv.
  27. ^ Suzuki 2001.
  28. ^ a b Buddhist Text Translation Society 2009, p. xxxiii-xxxix.
  29. ^ David Rounds. Rescuing Ananda - An overview of the Surangama Sutra. Religion East & West, Issue 7, October, 2007. p81. http://www.drbu.org/iwr/rew/2007/rew-article-7
  30. ^ A New Translation Buddhist Text Translation Society. The Śūraṅgama Sūtra With Excerpts from the Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsüan Hua (Kindle Locations 243-249).
  31. ^ a b Lamotte 1998, p. 36.
  32. ^ Hua 1975.
  33. ^ Ron Epstein. "Fifty Skandha Demon States: Foreword". 
  34. ^ Faure 1991, p. 231, note 3.
  35. ^ Sekida 1996, p. 387.
  36. ^ Nagarjuna's Sunyatasaptati
  37. ^ Dōgen: On Turning The Wheel
  38. ^ "The Buddha Speaks the Ultimate Extinction of the Dharma Sutra". City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. Taisho 396. Retrieved 2017-12-04. However, within fifty-two years the Shurangama Sutra and the Pratyutpanna [Standing Buddha] Samadhi, will be the first to change and then to disappear. The twelve divisions of the canon will gradually follow until they vanish completely, never to appear again. 
  39. ^ 宣化上人 (trans. to English: Ven. Hsuan Hua). "Dà fó dǐng shǒu léng yán jīng juàn yi qiǎn shì" 大佛頂首楞嚴經卷一淺釋 [Śūraṅgama Sūtra Scroll One : A Simple Explanation]. 般若文海 (website trans. to English : Prajñā Library) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-12-01. 在佛教裏,所有的經典,都很重要,但是楞嚴經更為重要。凡是有楞嚴經所在的地方,就是正法住世。楞嚴經沒有了,就是末法現前。楞嚴經是佛的真身,楞嚴經是佛的舍利,楞嚴經是佛的塔廟。所有的佛教徒,必須拿出力量,拿出血汗來擁護這部楞嚴經。(tr. to English: see text) 

Sources[edit]

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