Shyam Benegal at his office in Mumbai.
14 December 1934 |
Tirumalagiri, Hyderabad State, British Raj
(now Telangana, India)
|Occupation||Film director, Screenwriter|
|Awards||1976 Padma Shri
1991 Padma Bhushan
2005 Dadasaheb Phalke Award
2013 ANR National Award
Shyam Benegal (born 14 December 1934) is an Indian director and screenwriter. With his first four feature films Ankur (1973), Nishant (1975), Manthan (1976) and Bhumika (1977) he created a new genre, which has now come to be called the "middle cinema" in India. He has expressed dislike of the term, preferring his work to be called New or Alternate cinema.
He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1976 and the Padma Bhushan in 1991. On 8 August 2007, Benegal was awarded the highest award in Indian cinema for lifetime achievement, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 2005. He has won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi seven times.
Early life and education
Shyam Benegal, was born on 14 December 1934 in Trimulgherry, Secunderabad, then a British Cantonment, and now a twin city of the state capital, as Shyam Sunder Benegal. It was here, at age twelve, that he made his first film, on a camera given to him by his photographer father, Sridhar B. Benegal. He received an M.A. in Economics from Osmania University, Hyderabad. There he formed the Hyderabad Film Society.
In 1959, he started working as a copywriter at a Mumbai-based advertising agency, Lintas Advertising, where he steadily rose to become a creative head. Meanwhile, Benegal made his first documentary in Gujarati, Gher Betha Ganga (Ganges at Doorstep) in 1962. His first feature film had to wait another decade while he worked on the script.
In 1963 he had a brief stint with another advertising agency called ASP (Advertising, Sales and Promotion). During his advertising years, he directed over 900 sponsored documentaries and advertising films.
Between 1966 and 1973, Shyam taught at the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), Pune, and twice served as the institute's chairman: 1980–83 and 1989–92. By this time he had already started making documentaries. One of his early documentaries, A Child of the Streets (1967), garnered him wide acclaim. In all, he has made over 70 documentary and short films.
After returning to Mumbai, he received independent financing and Ankur (The Seedling) was finally made in 1973. It was a story of economic and sexual exploitation in his home state, Telangana, and Benegal instantly shot to fame. The film introduced actors Shabana Azmi and Anant Nag and won Benegal the 1975 National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film. Shabana won the National Film Award for Best Actress.
The success that New India Cinema enjoyed in the 1970s and early 1980s could largely be attributed to Shyam Benegal's quartet: Ankur (1973), Nishant (1975), Manthan (1976) and Bhumika (1977). Benegal used a variety of new actors, mainly from the FTII and NSD, like Naseeruddin Shah, Om Puri, Smita Patil, Shabana Azmi, Kulbhushan Kharbanda and Amrish Puri.
In Benegal's next, Nishant (Night's End) (1975), a teacher's wife is abducted and gang-raped by four zamindars; officialdom turns a deaf ear to the distraught husband's pleas for help. Manthan (The Churning) (1976) is a film on rural empowerment and is set against the backdrop of Gujarat's fledgling dairy industry. For the first time, over five lakh (half a million) rural farmers in Gujarat, contributed ₹ 2 each and thus became the film's producers. Upon its release, truckloads of farmers came to see "their" film, making it a success at the box office. After this trilogy on rural oppression, Benegal made a biopic, Bhumika (The Role) (1977), broadly based on the life of well-known Marathi stage and film actress of the 1940s, Hansa Wadkar (played by Smita Patil) who led a flamboyant and unconventional life. The main character sets out on an individual search for identity and self-fulfillment, while also grappling with exploitation by men.
In the early 1970s, Shyam made 21 film modules for Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), sponsored by UNICEF. This allowed him to interact with children of SITE and many folk artists. Eventually he used many of these children in his feature length rendition of the classic folk tale Charandas Chor (Charandas the Thief) in 1975. He made it for the Children's Film Society, India. To quote film critic Derek Malcolm:
what Benegal has done is to paint a magnificent visual recreation of those extraordinary days and one that is also sensitive to the agonies and predicament of a talented woman whose need for security was only matched by her insistence on freedom.
Unlike most New Cinema filmmakers, Benegal has had private backers for many of his films and institutional backing for a few, including Manthan (National Dairy Development Board), and Susman (1987) (Handloom Co-operatives). However, his films did not have proper releases. He turned to TV where he directed serials like Yatra (1986) for the Indian Railways, and one of the biggest projects undertaken on Indian television, the 53-episode television serial Bharat Ek Khoj (1988) based on Jawaharlal Nehru's book, Discovery of India.  This gave him an added advantage, as he managed to survive the collapse of the New Cinema movement in the late 1980s due to paucity of funding, with which were lost many neo-realist filmmakers. Benegal continued making films throughout the next two decades. He also served as the Director of the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC) from 1980 to 1986.
Following the success of these four films, Benegal was backed by star Shashi Kapoor for whom he made Junoon (1978) and Kalyug (1981). The former was an interracial love story set amidst the turbulent period of the Indian Mutiny of 1857, while the latter was based on the Mahabharata and was not a big hit, although both won Filmfare Best Movie Awards in 1980 and 1982, respectively.
Benegal's next film, Mandi (1983), was a satirical comedy about politics and prostitution, starring Shabana Azmi and Smita Patil. Later, working from his own story, based on the last days of Portuguese in Goa, in the early 1960s, Shyam explored human relationships in Trikal (1985).
Soon, Shyam Benegal stepped beyond traditional narrative films and took to biographical material to achieve greater freedom of expression. His first venture in this genre was with a documentary film based on Satyajit Ray's life, Satyajit Ray, in 1985. This was followed by works like Sardari Begum (1996) and Zubeidaa, which was written by filmmaker and critic Khalid Mohamed.
The 1990s and beyond
The 1990s saw Shyam Benegal making a trilogy on Indian Muslim women, starting with Mammo (1995), Sardari Begum (1996), and Zubeidaa (2001). With Zubeidaa, he entered mainstream Bollywood, as it starred top Bollywood star Karishma Kapoor and boasted music by A. R. Rahman.
In 1992, he made Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda (Seventh Horse of the Sun) based on a novel by Dharmavir Bharati, which won the 1993 National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi. In 1996 he made another film based on a book, The Making of the Mahatma, based on Fatima Meer's, The Apprenticeship of a Mahatma. This turn to biographical material resulted in Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero, his 2005 English language film. He criticised the Indian caste system in Samar (1999) which went on to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film.
Benegal is the current president of the Federation of Film Societies of India. He owns a production company called Sahyadri Films.
He has authored three books based on his own films: The Churning with Vijay Tendulkar (1984), based on Manthan; Satyajit Ray (1988), based on his biographical film, Satyajit Ray; and The Marketplace (1989) which was based on Mandi.
In 2008, his film Welcome to Sajjanpur, starring Shreyas Talpade and Amrita Rao, was released to a good response. Its music was composed by Shantanu Moitra, and it was produced by Chetan Motiwalla. Shyam Benegal is slated to direct an epic musical Chamki Chameli, inspired by George Bizet's classic Spanish opera Carmen. The story revolves around the eponymous Chamki, a beautiful gypsy girl with a fiery temper and is written by Shama Zaidi. The music is by A. R. Rahman and lyrics are by Javed Akhtar.
In March 2010, Benegal released the political satire Well Done Abba.
Benegal made a comeback on the small screen with Samvidhaan, a 10-part mini-series revolving around the making of Indian Constitution to be aired on Rajya Sabha TV from 2 March 2014. Along with Benegal, Dalip Tahil, Sachin Khedekar, Divya Dutta, Rajendra Gupta, K K Raina, and Ila Arun were seen at the press conference for the TV series.
Shyam Benegal is married to Nira Benegal and has a daughter, Pia, who is a costume designer for feature films.
Awards and nominations
- 1984 Best Historical Reconstruction for Nehru
- 1985 Best Biographical Film for Satyajit Ray
- 1986 Best Director for Trikal
- 1993 Best Feature Film in Hindi for Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda
- 1995 Best Feature Film in Hindi for Mammo
- 1996 Best Feature Film in English for The Making of the Mahatma
- 1997 Best Feature Film in Urdu for Sardari Begum
- 1999 Best Feature Film for Samar
- 1999 Best Feature Film on Family Welfare for Hari-Bhari
- 2001 Best Feature Film in Hindi for Zubeidaa
- 2005 Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration for Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero
- 2015 Lifetime Achievement Award
- 1970 Homi Bhabha Fellowship (1970–72)
- 1976 Padma Shri
- 1989 Sovietland Nehru Award
- 1991 Padma Bhushan
- 2012 D. Litt. Honoris Causa of the University of Calcutta
- 2016 D. Litt. "Honoris Causa" of ITM University, Gwalior (M.P.)
- Benegal on Ray: Satyajit Ray, a Film, by Shyam Benegal, Alaknanda Datta, Samik Banerjee. Seagull Books, 1988. ISBN 81-7046-021-2.
- Shyam Benegal's the Churning (Manthan): Screenplay, by, Vijay Tendulkar, Shyam Benegal, Samik Banerjee. Seagull Books, 1984. ISBN 0-86132-070-0.
- Indian directors at filmofdesire
- "Padma Awards". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- Shyam Benegal at rediff.com 1999 Rediff.com, 28 July 1999.
- Homi Bhabha Fellowship Council, Fellows, Biodata, "During the period of his Fellowship, Mr. Benegal wrote and directed short films on social themes with special relevance to the lower-income groups of the middle and working classes. He also visited the US, the UK and Japan to study educational television films."
- "‘Book’ed for a cause". =The Times of India. 15 October 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Shyam Benegal at ucla.net South Asia Studies, University of California, Los Angeles.
- Indo American Centre, Shyam Benegal Retrospective, 2002
- Shyam Benegal Retrospective London's National Film Theatre, 2002 The Hindu, 17 January 2003.
- "'Manthan' made on Rs 2 donations". Times of India. 11 Sep '12. Retrieved 11 September 2012. Check date values in:
- NDTV movies NDTV.
- "In search of Shyam Benegal," LA Weekly, 29 August 2007
- Shyam Benegal biography at filmreference
- Shyam Benegal at Upperstall Upperstall.com.
- Shyam Benegal Retrospective, 2007
- "14th Moscow International Film Festival (1985)". MIFF. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "31st Moscow International Film Festival (2009)". MIFF. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Amrita Rao in Shyam Benegal's next
- dnaindia,12 November 2007
- Yashpal Sharma in Chamki NDTV.
- Benegal set to film story of British-Indian spy
-  webindia123
- "12th Moscow International Film Festival (1981)". MIFF. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "20th Moscow International Film Festival (1997)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 22 March 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Eenadu daily, Eeenadu Cinema, Page 10, Nandi lifetime achievement awards, retrieved, 24 March 2013.
- "Annual Convocation". University of Calcutta.
- Shyam Benegal (BFI World Directors) - Sangeeta Datta. 2003, British Film Institute. ISBN 0-85170-908-7.
- Bollywood Babylon: Interviews with Shyam Benegal, William van der Heide. 2006, Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-84520-405-0.
- BBC's Tom Brook interviews Shyam Benegal on 25 August 2006
- Girish Karnad interviews Shyam Benegal, National Film Theatre, 2002
- Sen, Meheli (2011) "Vernacular Modernities and Fitful Globalities in Shyam Benegal's Cinematic Provinces" on manycinemas.org 1, 8-22, Online, pdf-version
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