Si Inthrathit

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Si Inthrathit
ศรีอินทราทิตย์
Pho Khun Si Inthrathit
พ่อขุนศรี.jpg
Statue of Si Inthrathit, Sawankhalok District, Sukhothai Province, Thailand
Pho Khun of Sukhothai
Reign1238 - 1270
PredecessorMonarchy established
SuccessorBan Mueang
Born1188
Khmer Empire
Died1270 (82 years old)
Sukhothai Kingdom
SpouseSueang
IssueBan Mueang
Ram Khamhaeng the Great
Three other children
HousePhra Ruang Dynasty

Si Inthrathit (Thai: ศรีอินทราทิตย์, pronounced [sǐː ʔīn.tʰrāː.tʰít]; also spelt Sri Indraditya) ruled the Sukhothai Kingdom, a historical kingdom of Thailand, from 1238 until around 1270. He is credited as the founder of the Phra Ruang Dynasty, itself credited as the first historical Siamese dynasty, having a double claim to this title: for being cradled precisely in the region designated by foreigners as "Siam", and for being the dynasty which freed the Thai principalities from the Cambodian yoke.[1]

Difficulties in interpretation[edit]

Initially known as Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao (Thai: พ่อขุนบางกลางหาว), interpreted as ”the Lord who rules the sky”, the controversy surrounding this names illustrates the limitations of epigraphy. This science studies inscriptions or epigraphs as writing, to identify graphemes, clarify their meanings, and classify their uses according to dates and cultural contexts. Texts inscribed on steles are often missing the top or bottom portions, just where one would expect dates, complicating the drawing of conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document, and the artistic value of a literary composition. These complications led to the ruler in his early life being simply Hao (หาว).[citation needed]

Life[edit]

Prior to his reign, Bang Klang Hao was the chief of Bang Yang, a territory which belonged to the westernmost regions of the Khmer Empire at that time.[2]:195–196 The territory now lies around the north-central region of Thailand.

Bang Klang Hao, together with Khun Pha Mueang, the Lord of Mueang Rat, decided to rebel and declare independence from Angkor. Khmer control and its prohibitive taxes were crucial motivating factors in the rebellion. Extensive Khmer preoccupation with great architectural works weakened the ability and readiness of Khmer defenses, indirectly aiding the rebellion. Bang Klang Hao captured Si Satchanalai and gave it to Pha Mueang. Pha Mueang reciprocated by giving him Sukhothai.

Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao was then declared king at Sukhothai, taking a regnal name of Sanskrit origin, Si Inthrathit, translated from "Adityan Indra". His skill and bravery greatly impressed the people of the kingdom, who thus conferred him the title Phra Ruang (”glorious prince”). This title was given to all subsequent rulers of Sukhothai, thus giving rise to the first Thai royal dynasty of Phra Ruang.

Si Inthrathit and his queen, Queen Sueang, had three sons. The eldest died at a young age, and the second was named Ban Mueang. His third son defeated a Khmer prince on elephants in mounted combat; he named this youngest son Ram Khamhaeng (”Rama the Bold“) in tribute to the feat. Si Inthrathit died around 1270, and was succeeded by his son Ban Mueang.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cœdès, G. (1921). "The Origins of the Sukhodaya Dynasty" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. Siam Heritage Trust. 14 (1). Retrieved March 17, 2013. (1) The translation of this paper, which has been read at a joint session of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Société Asiatique, and American Oriental Society, and published in the Journal asiatique (April–June 1920), is the work of Mr. J. Crosby, to whom the author begs to tend his heartfelt thanks.
  2. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.

Further reading[edit]

Si Inthrathit
Born: ? Died: 1270
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Khom Sabat Khlon Lamphong
King of Sukhothai
1238–1270
Succeeded by
Ban Mueang