Si vis pacem, para bellum
Si vis pacem, para bellum (Classical Latin: [siː wiːs ˈpaːkẽː ˈpara ˈbɛllũː]) is a Latin adage translated as "If you want peace, prepare for war". It is adapted from a statement found in Book 3 of Latin author Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus's tract De Re Militari (4th or 5th century AD), although the idea which it conveys also appears in earlier works such as Plato's Nomoi (Laws) and the Chinese Shi Ji. The phrase is used above all to affirm that one of the most effective means to ensure peace for a people is always to be armed and ready to defend oneself. It can also be interpreted in other ways. A subtle meaning could be that an expedient way to keep a people united and in harmony, and therefore being able to govern it better, is to have (or even create) an enemy outside the state, or within it (see also divide et impera), relying on what the Roman historian Sallust defined as metus hostilis ("fear of the enemy"). It could also indicate the conqueror's thought process in which the goal of military preparations is to control the populace through force.
Whatever the source, the adage has become a living vocabulary item itself, used in the production of different ideas in a number of languages.
Si vis bellum para pacem
- Everyone knows the adage... Had Bonaparte been a Latin scholar he would probably have reversed it and said, Si vis bellum para pacem.
In other words, a leader who is planning a war should put other nations off guard by cultivating peace. Conversely, another interpretation could be that preparing for peace may lead another party to wage war.
Si vis pacem para pactum
The idea of ensuring peace by deterring warlike powers through armaments took an ominous turn in the 20th century with the increased militarism of Nazi Germany and other Axis Powers, suggesting that perhaps merely being prepared for war is not enough and that it is necessary to wage war in order to deter war. In the United States, the National Arbitration and Peace Congress of 1907, presided over by Andrew Carnegie, had addressed this issue years earlier:
- These vast armaments on land and water are being defended as a means, not to wage war, but to prevent war.... there is a safer way ... it requires only the consent and the good-will of the governments. Today they say .... If you want peace, prepare for war. This Congress says in behalf of the people: Si vis pacem, para pactum, if you want peace, agree to keep the peace.
Si vis pacem fac bellum
"If you want peace, make war". The solution does not cover the case of the nation that does not desire peace. Imperial Germany went to war in 1914 and was castigated by Richard Grelling, a German-Jewish pacifist, in J'Accuse (1915). In 1918 Grelling wrote again, this time as an expatriate in Switzerland. Citing Woodrow Wilson's "The world must be safe for democracy" speech before Congress on April 2, 1917, Grelling says:
- When all other means fail, ... the liberation of the world from military domination can in the extreme case only take place by battle. ... in place of si vis pacem para bellum a similarly sounding principle ... may become a necessity: Si vis pacem, fac bellum.
Si vis pacem para pacem
"If you want peace, prepare for peace." The great wars of the 19th and 20th centuries were opposed by the philosophy of pacifism, which in the 19th century was associated with early socialism, even though the socialism of the 20th century often lacked pacifistic tendencies, preaching violent revolution instead. The pacifism that opposed the world wars traced its lineage to Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin, an early French socialist and one of the founders of Saint-Simonianism. As early as April 2, 1841, he had said in a letter to General Saint-Cyr Nugues:
- Le fameux dicton ... me semble beaucoup moins vrai, pour le XIXe siècle, que Si vis pacem, para pacem.
- The famous dictum ... seems to me much less true, for the 19th century, than Si vis pacem, para pacem.
with reference to Algeria. By way of elucidation Enfantin goes on to say that war could have been avoided if a proper study of Algeria had been made.
The main clause of the adage was used as a motto by German arms maker Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM), and is the source of the term Parabellum as applied to firearms and ammunition (especially the 9mm Parabellum cartridge). The term is an opposed parallel to the American use of "peacemaker" to mean the Colt Single Action Army handgun.
Various military organizations use or used this phrase as a motto:
- MSSG-31 (now known as CLB-31), part of the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, III Marine Expeditionary Force, based out of Okinawa, Japan.
- Alpha Company of the United States Marine Corps School of Infantry (SOI) - West, based out of Camp Pendleton, California.
- US Navy Destroyer Squadron 1 Commodore
- The United States Naval Academy class of 1996
- The Royal Navy
- The Norwegian Military Academy
- RAF Spadeadam
- The 96th Communication Squadron, based at Eglin AFB
- The 1/414th Infantry Regiment, based at Fort Sill
- The 302nd Security Forces Squadron, Peterson AFB, Colorado
- The 24th Marine Regiment
- The Lohatla Army Battle School, South Africa
- The 155th Air Refueling Wing Nebraska Air National Guard Logistics Readiness Squadron, Nebraska
- The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) Chicago (consists of University of Illinois at Chicago and Illinois Institute of Technology).
- The 4th Company, 1-12th Mech. Bde, Szczecin - Poland
- The Weaponry Fund of the Republic of Lithuania Under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania
- The Electronic Attack Squadron 139, NAS Whidbey Island, Washington
- The Drug Enforcement Administration Basic Agent Class 197 Quantico
- Echo Battery 2d Bn/10th Marine Artillery Regiment, 2d MARDIV Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
- The 57th Munitions Squadron, based at Nellis AFB, NV
- The Spartans of B-CO 3-47, Fort Benning, GA
In popular culture
- The Metallica song Don’t Tread On Me, from their Self Titled “Black” album features the line “To secure peace is, to prepare for war”.
- The title of a 1971 pamphlet by The Angry Brigade
- "If You Want Peace... Prepare For War" is the title of a Children of Bodom song from their 2006 album Are You Dead Yet?
- The motto of The European Federation’s Enforcer Corps in Ubisoft's, Tom Clancy's EndWar
- The design for several T-shirts of WWE wrestler Triple H
- The title of the eighth episode of the first season of the TV show Star Trek: Discovery
- "If you want peace, prepare for war" is repeated in the chorus of "Cenotaph" from the album "Equals" by The Alarm
- "Operation: Para Bellum" is an DLC in the video game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege from Ubisoft
- Used by Captain Renard in the episode Cat and Mouse (Grimm) of the TV series Grimm (TV series)
- Used by Frank Castle in the final issue of Punisher: Year One, and during a scene of The Punisher; both times, Castle states he learned the motto at the training camp (Marine Corps in the first case, Special Forces in the second), and both times he's using the phrase to justify his aggressive proactive war against crime.
- Used by Agent Liberty in the episode American Alien of the TV series Supergirl (TV series)
- The title of third movie installment in John Wick franchise is Parabellum
- Vegetius: epitome of military science - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13. Vegetius has: Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum. ("Therefore he who desires peace, let him prepare war.")
- Plato, Laws, 1.628c9–e1.
- Martin Ostwald, Language and History in Ancient Greek Culture (2009), p. 87.
- "Records of the Grand Historian, ch. 47".
- De Bourrienne, p. 418.
- Bertholdt, p. 333
- Grelling, p. 208.
- de Saint-Simon, Enfantin, p. 34.
- Arnold, David W. (2011) . "The German P08 Luger". Classic Handguns of the 20th Century. Gun Digest Books. p. 18. ISBN 9781440226403. OCLC 774392892. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
- Kimmerle, Erin H.; Baraybar, Jose Pablo (2008). Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Rights Abuse and Armed Conflict. CRC Press. p. 396. ISBN 9781420009118. OCLC 850253284. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
- "Lietuvos Respublikos ginklų fondas". Lgf.lt. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Bartholdt, Richard (1907). "The Interparliamentary Plan". In Ely, Robert Erskine. Proceedings of the National Arbitration and Peace Congress New York, April 14th to 17th, 1907. New York: The National Arbitration and Peace Congress.. Downloadable Google Books.
- De Bourrienne, Louis Antoine Fauvelet (1895). Phipps, R.W., ed. Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte: New and Revised Edition: with Numerous Illustrations: Vol I. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
- Duff, Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant (1899). Notes from a Diary, Kept Chiefly in Southern India, 1881-1886: Vol. II. London: J. Murray. p. 28.
- Grelling, Richard (1918). The Crime. Gray, Sir Alexander (trans.). New York: George H. Doran Company. ISBN 0-665-84477-8.
- Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon, Barthélémy Prosper Enfantin (1873). Œuvres d'Enfantin: Quatorzième Volume; Membres du Conseil Institué par Enfantin pour l'Exécution de ses Dernières Volontés. Paris: E. Dentu, Éditeur.
- Media related to Si vis pacem, para bellum at Wikimedia Commons