Sibiu

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Sibiu
Hermannstadt
From top, left to right: Council Tower (city symbol) • Lutheran Cathedral • Eyes of Sibiu • Medieval fortifications • Bridge of Lies • City hall and Jesuit Church • Brukenthal Palace • Neo-Baroque palace • modern high-rise buildings
From top, left to right:
Council Tower (city symbol) • Lutheran CathedralEyes of SibiuMedieval fortificationsBridge of Lies • City hall and Jesuit ChurchBrukenthal PalaceNeo-Baroque palace • modern high-rise buildings
Nickname(s): 
Sibiu is located in Romania
Sibiu
Sibiu
Location within Romania
Coordinates: 45°47′34″N 24°09′07″E / 45.79278°N 24.15194°E / 45.79278; 24.15194Coordinates: 45°47′34″N 24°09′07″E / 45.79278°N 24.15194°E / 45.79278; 24.15194
Country Romania
RegionTransylvania
CountySibiu county coat of arms.png Sibiu
StatusMunicipiu
Development regionCentru
Settled1st century BC
Resettledc. 1147
First off. record1191 (as Cibinium)
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2024)Astrid Fodor[2] (FDGR)
Area
 • City121 km2 (47 sq mi)
Elevation
415 m (1,362 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • City147,245
 • Estimate 
(2019)
169,056
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
 • Metro
a
267,170
Demonym(s)sibian, sibiancă (ro)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Area code(s)+40 269/369
Car platesSB
Websiteturism.sibiu.ro/en
aSibiu metropolitan area is a proposed project

Sibiu (/sˈbj/ see-BEW,[3] Romanian: [siˈbiw], German: Hermannstadt [ˈhɛʁmanʃtat], Hungarian: Nagyszeben [ˈnɒt͡sːɛbɛn]) is a city in Transylvania, a historical region of Romania. Located some 275 km (171 mi) north-west of Bucharest,[4] the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of the Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was also the capital of the Principality of Transylvania.

Nicknamed The City with Eyes, the city is a well-known tourist destination for both domestic and foreign visitors. Known for its culture, history, gastronomy and diverse architecture, which includes the iconic houses with eyes that gave Sibiu its nickname, the city has garnered significant attention since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2004, its historical center began the process of becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sibiu was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2007.[5] One year later, it was ranked "Europe's 8th-most idyllic place to live" by Forbes.[6] In 2019, Sibiu was named the European Region of Gastronomy.[7] Sibiu will host the European Wandering Capital event in 2021, the most important tourist wandering event in Europe.[8][9] A European Union summit was hosted by the city in 2019.

Sibiu is also known for its Christmas market.[10][11] Personalities include Conrad Haas and Hermann Oberth, who were pioneers of rocketry.[citation needed] The company Elrond, which created the eGold cryptocurrency (among the biggest in the world), was founded by people from Sibiu.[12]

As of 2011, the city has a population of 147,245,[13] while a 2019 estimate puts it at 169,056.[14] The proposed Sibiu metropolitan area has a population of 267,170. The city also administers the village of Păltiniș, a ski resort located 35 kilometres to the south.

Historically, Sibiu has been one of the most important centres of the Transylvanian Saxons.[15] It is called Härmeschtat in their own local dialect.[16]

Name[edit]

The name of the city derives from its Latin name of Cibinium,[17] which is also the source of the Cibin river's name. An archaic version of the Romanian name Sibiu is Sibiiu, while an obsolete folk name is Sâghii, formerly spelled Sîghii. Its Hungarian name is Nagyszeben ("Big/Greater Sibiu"), or colloquially, Szeben.

In German, it is called Hermannstadt ("Hermann's city"), while in the local Transylvanian Saxon dialect, it is known as Härmeschtat. In Yiddish, it is called סעבען Seben or הערמאנשטאט Hermanshtat.

A number of other languages also have their own variants of the city's name, like Czech Sibiň, Polish Sybin, Serbo-Croatian Sibinj, Old Bulgarian Sibin (Сибин) and the proposed Esperanto name Sibio.

History[edit]

Historical affiliations

Kingdom of Hungary 1191–1526
Eastern Hungarian Kingdom 1526–1570
Principality of Transylvania 1570–1804
 Austrian Empire 1804–1867
 Austria-Hungary 1867–1918 (de jure Hungary until 1920)
 Kingdom of Romania 1920–1947 (de facto from 1918)
 Romanian People's Republic 1947–1965
 Socialist Republic of Romania 1965–1989
 Romania 1989–present

Sibiu was initially a Daco-Roman city called Cedonia.[18] The town was refounded by Saxon (German) settlers brought there by king Géza II of Hungary. They came from territories of the Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of France (nowadays parts of Germany, France and the Benelux countries) and arrived at around 1147.[19][20] The first references to the area were Cibinium and Cipin from 1191 when Pope Celestine III confirmed the existence of the free prepositure of the Saxons in Transylvania, having its headquarters in Sibiu.[21][22] The city also used the names Prepositus Cibiniensis (1192–1196) and Prepositus Scibiniensis (1211). In 1223, it was renamed to Villa Hermanni,[23] either in honor of archbishop Hermann II of Cologne[19] or after a man who is believed to have founded the city, Hermann of Nuremberg.[23] The actual German name of Hermannstadt ("Hermann's city") dates from 1366, while an earlier form, Hermannsdorf ("Hermann's village") was recorded in 1321.[24]

In the 14th century, it was already an important trade centre. In 1376, the craftsmen were divided in 19 guilds. Sibiu became the most important ethnic German city among the seven cities that gave Transylvania its German name Siebenbürgen (literally seven citadels).[25][26] It was home to the Universitas Saxorum (Community of the Saxons), a network of pedagogues, ministers, intellectuals, city officials, and councilmen of the German community forging an ordered legal corpus and political system in Transylvania since the 1400s.[27][28] In 1699, after the Ottomans withdrew to their base of power in Hungary and Transylvania, the town became capital of Principality of Transylvania (since 1570 the principality was mostly under suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, however often had a dual vassalage).[29] During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became the second- and later the first-most important centre of Transylvanian Romanian ethnics. The first Romanian-owned bank had its headquarters here (The Albina Bank), as did the ASTRA (Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Romanian's People Culture). After the Romanian Orthodox Church was granted status in the Austrian Empire from the 1860s onwards, Sibiu became the Metropolitan seat, and the city is still regarded as the third-most important centre of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Between the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and 1867 (the year of the Ausgleich), Sibiu was the meeting-place of the Transylvanian Diet, which had taken its most representative form after the Empire agreed to extend voting rights in the region.

After World War I, when Austria-Hungary was dissolved, Sibiu became part of Romania; the majority of its population was still ethnic German (until 1941) and counted a large Romanian community, as well as a smaller Hungarian one. Starting from the 1950s and until after 1990, most of the city's ethnic Germans emigrated to Germany and Austria. Among the roughly 2,000 who have remained is Klaus Iohannis, the current President of Romania.

Geography[edit]

Topographic map of the Sibiu region

Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania at 45°47′34″N 24°09′07″E / 45.792784°N 24.152069°E / 45.792784; 24.152069. Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km (12 mi) from the Făgăraș Mountains, 12 km (7.5 mi) from the Cibin Mountains, and about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the Lotru Mountains, which border the depression in its southwestern section. The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Gușteriței Hill.

The Cibin river as well as some smaller streams runs through Sibiu. The geographical position of Sibiu makes it one of the most important transportation hubs in Romania with important roads and railway lines passing through it.

Climate[edit]

Sibiu's climate is humid continental (Köppen: Dfb), although considering the original −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm, it borders a humid subtropical type (Cfa), with average temperatures of 8 to 9 °C (46 to 48 °F). The average rainfall is 627 litres per square metre (12.8 imp gal/sq ft), and there are about 120 days of hard frost annually.

Climate data for Sibiu (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
21.3
(70.3)
30.6
(87.1)
30.2
(86.4)
32.1
(89.8)
35.4
(95.7)
38.3
(100.9)
38.4
(101.1)
39.5
(103.1)
32.5
(90.5)
27.0
(80.6)
19.3
(66.7)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
16.0
(60.8)
21.3
(70.3)
24.2
(75.6)
26.3
(79.3)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
16.2
(61.2)
9.1
(48.4)
3.1
(37.6)
15.0
(59.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
(27.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.6
(49.3)
14.9
(58.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.7
(67.5)
19.1
(66.4)
14.4
(57.9)
9.1
(48.4)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
8.9
(48.0)
Average low °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.9
(39.0)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
13.3
(55.9)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
3.5
(38.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.5
(38.3)
Record low °C (°F) −31.8
(−25.2)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−12.0
(10.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
1.0
(33.8)
4.2
(39.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
−9.4
(15.1)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−31.8
(−25.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.9
(0.98)
25.0
(0.98)
33.9
(1.33)
52.8
(2.08)
69.0
(2.72)
92.9
(3.66)
92.0
(3.62)
76.7
(3.02)
59.8
(2.35)
39.9
(1.57)
31.3
(1.23)
31.0
(1.22)
629.2
(24.77)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 11.0
(4.3)
11.0
(4.3)
7.4
(2.9)
4.8
(1.9)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.7
(0.7)
4.5
(1.8)
6.5
(2.6)
46.9
(18.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.2 10.5 11.2 13.1 15.2 14.5 13.3 10.4 10.6 9.0 9.7 12.1 140.8
Average relative humidity (%) 87 79 71 67 68 71 71 72 76 78 80 86 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68 97 138 164 215 228 248 238 172 148 89 61 1,866
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[30] Ogimet (mean temperatures and sun 1981–2010)[31]
Source 2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000),[32] NOAA (snowfall 1961–1990),[33] Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1989–2008)[34]

Tourism[edit]

In 2007, Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture (together with Luxembourg). This was the most important cultural event that has ever happened in the city, and a great number of tourists came, both domestic and foreign.

The city of Sibiu and its surroundings are one of the most visited areas in Romania, as it holds one of the best preserved historical sites in the country, many of its medieval fortifications having been kept in excellent state. Its old center has begun the process for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Sibiu and its surrounding area have many significant museums, with 12+ institutions housing art collections, paintings, and exhibits in decorative arts, archeology, anthropology, history, industrial archeology and history of technology and natural sciences.

The city also lies close to the Făgăraș Mountains – a popular trekking destination, close to the city of Păltiniș and Arena Platoș ski resorts – both winter holiday destinations, and it is at the heart of the former Saxon communities in Transylvania renowned for its fortified churches.

Fortified Lutheran church of Gușterița neighbourhood, 13th century

Since 2007, a traditional Christmas market has been held in Sibiu. The first of its kind in Romania, it is inspired by Viennese Christmas markets, being a project developed by the Social Attaché of the Austrian Embassy in Romania, dr.h.c. Barbara Schöfnagel. It was held in the "Lesser Square" (Piața Mică) with 38 small stalls, a small stage and an area dedicated to children, having several mechanical attractions installed there. Since 2008, the market is held in the "Grand Square" (Piata Mare) grew to a number of about 70 stalls, a bigger stage was set up, where Christmas carols concerts are held. An ice skating rink and a children's workshop are also attractions which have been added in the following years.[35] It was the first Christmas Market in Romania, but soon other Christmas markets emerged across the country. In 2013, the Sibiu Christmas markets was included in the "15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe" [36]

In 2019, Sibiu had planned to host the European Gastronomical capital, by encouraging the local producers and businesses in the field of food production and culinary and gourmet culture, traditional workshops in the villages of the region, promoting farms and gastronomic circuits, or developing public programs to support small businesses in gastronomy and of the hospitality industry in the Sibiu region.[7]

Culture[edit]

Sibiu is one of Romania's most culturally lively cities. It has 2 theatres and a philharmonic orchestra along with other smaller private theatrical venues and a theatre studio housed by the Performing Arts and Acting section of Lucian Blaga University, where students hold monthly representations.

The Radu Stanca National Theatre[37] is one of the leading Romanian theatres. With origins dating back to 1787, it attracts some of the best-known Romanian directors, such as Gábor Tompa and Silviu Purcărete. It has both a Romanian-language and a German-language section, and presents an average of five shows a week.

The Gong Theatre is specialised in puppetry, mime and non-conventional shows for children and teenagers. It also presents shows in both Romanian and German.

The State Philharmonic of Sibiu[38] presents weekly classical music concerts, and educational concerts for children and teenagers. The concerts take place in the newly restored Thalia Hall, a concert and theatre hall dating from 1787, situated along the old city fortifications. Weekly organ concerts are organised at the Evangelical Cathedral during summers, and thematic concerts are presented by the Faculty of Theology choir at the Orthodox Cathedral.

The Sibiu International Theatre Festival is an annual festival of performing arts. Since 2016, it is the largest performance arts festival in the world.[39]

Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu.

Museums and parks[edit]

Sibiu's museums are organised around two entities: the Brukenthal National Museum and the ASTRA National Museum Complex. The Brukenthal Museum consists of an Art Gallery and an Old Books Library located inside the Brukenthal Palace, a History Museum located in the old town hall building, a Pharmacy Museum located in one of the first apothecary shops in Europe, dating from the 16th century, a Natural History Museum and a Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies.

The ASTRA National Museum Complex focuses on ethnography, and consists of a Traditional Folk Civilisation Museum, a 96-hectare open-air museum located in Dumbrava Forest south of Sibiu, a Universal Ethnography Museum, a Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation and a Museum of Saxon Ethnography and Folk Art. Also planned is a Museum of the Culture and Civilisation of the Romany People.

The Dumbrava Sibiului Natural Park stretches over 960 ha (2,400 acres) and it is 4 km (2.5 mi) away from the center of the city in the southwest direction along the road towards Răşinari. Also, here you can find the Zoological Garden and Ethnography Museum.

There is a Steam Locomotives Museum close to the railway station, sheltering around 40 locomotives, two of which are functional.

The first park in the city was The Promenade, later called "The Disabled Promenade." established in 1791, today part of Parcul Cetății (Citadel Park). Current arrangement of the park, including the space between the walls, dates from 1928.

The Sub Arini Park, established between 1857 and 1859 based on plans of military engineer Michael Seyfried,[40] is one of the biggest and best-maintained parks in Romania. There are other green spaces in the city center, the best known being Astra Park, established in 1879.

Other parks:

Tineretului Park, Reconstrucției Park, Corneliu Coposu Park, Petöfi Sándor Park, Piața Cluj Park, Ștrand Park, Cristianului Park, Țițeica Park, Vasile Aaron Park, Lira Park.

The distribution of green space is good compared to other Romanian cities.

Events[edit]

Citadel Park, with the 16th century city wall

Several festivals are organised yearly in Sibiu, the most prestigious of them being the Sibiu International Theatre Festival, organized each spring at the end of May. Medieval Festival organized every year in August, reviving the medieval spirit of Transylvania. The Artmania Festival is held every Summer since 2006 and as of 2008 the Rockin' Transilvania Festival is also held in Sibiu. The oldest Jazz Festival in Romania is organized here, as well as the "Carl Filtsch" festival for young classical piano players, the "Astra Film" documentary film festival, the Transylvania calling Festival a Multi Cultural 6-day Open Air Music festival! 26–31 July 2007, a medieval arts festival and many more smaller cultural events.[41] Feeric Fashion Week is also hosted here. Sibiu was awarded by IGCAT (International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism) to be part of the European Regions of Gastronomy program, event that will promote in 2019 the region's culinary heritage, multi-ethnic traditions and multi-cultural community.

European Cultural Capital[edit]

The designation as a European Cultural Capital for 2007, owed greatly to the excellent collaboration with Luxembourg, but also to what many regard as a miraculous social rebirth taking place in the city during the last years. The Cultural Capital status was expected to bring about an abrupt increase in quantity and quality of cultural events in 2007.

Administration[edit]

The city government is headed by a mayor.[42] Since 2014, the office is held by Astrid Fodor from the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR), who replaced Klaus Iohannis, the latter having become the 5th president of Romania. Iohannis, a Transylvanian Saxon, was mayor from 2000 to 2014, despite ethnic Germans nowadays making up less than 2% of Sibiu's population. Decisions are approved and discussed by the local government (consiliu local) made up of 27 elected councillors.[42] Sibiu is the capital of the Sibiu County.

    Party Seats Current Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 9                  
  Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR) 8                  
  2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 4          
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 2                  

City districts[edit]

Sibiu is divided into the following districts:

Some of them were villages annexed by the city as it grew, others were built as the city developed and increased its surface.

The ASTRA National Museum Complex and the Zoo, located in the south, also fall within city limits. The Păltiniș ski resort, located 35 kilometres to the south, is also administered by Sibiu.

While Șelimbăr and the Arhitecților district of Cisnădie are not part of Sibiu proper, they are adjacent to the city limits and often considered part of it.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 census data, Sibiu has a population of 147,245, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census,[13] making it the 14th-largest city in Romania. The ethnic breakdown was as follows:[43]

A 2017 estimate placed the population at 169,316, a 14.98 percent increase since 2011. This increase makes Sibiu's population surpass the numbers observed in 1992 when the previously highest population was recorded.[44]

Population dynamics[edit]

Census[45] Ethnic structure
Year Population Romanians Hungarians Germans
1850 12,765 2,089 977 8,790
1880 19,446 + 41.4% 2,810 2,065 14,327
1890 21,465 + 9.8% 4,581 3,199 13,148
1900 29,577 + 31.7% 7,106 5,747 16,141
1910 33,489 + 12.4% 8,824 7,252 16,832
1920 32,748 – 2.2% 8,553 4,291 18,218
1930 49,345 + 40.4% 19,006 6,782 22,045
1941 63,765 + 25.5% 33,829 4,262 23,574
1948 60,602 – 5% 37,371 5,060 16,359
1956 90,475 + 39.5% 60,526 4,772 24,636
1966 109,515 + 19% 78,548 5,124 25,387
1977 151,005 + 31.8% 119,507 5,111 25,403
1992 169,610 + 11.6% 158,863 4,163 5,605
2002 154,892 – 9% 148,269 3,135 2,508
2011 147,245 – 5% 131,414 2,131 1,481

Population by religious denomination[edit]

Today, most of the population is Romanian Orthodox. Protestants and Roman Catholics represent about 5% of the population.

Confessions in Sibiu
Confession 1910 2002
Eastern Orthodox 18% 91%
Greek-Catholic (Uniate) 8% 1%
Roman Catholic 20% 2%
Evangelical Lutheran 42% 2%
Reformed 7% 1%
Jewish 4% < 1%
Other 1% 4%

Economy[edit]

Sibiu is an important economic hub for Romania, with a high rate of foreign investments. It is also an important hub for the manufacturing of automotive components and houses factories belonging to ThyssenKrupp Bilstein-Compa, Takata Corporation, Continental Automotive Systems, Marquardt Group and NTN-SNR ball bearings. Other local industries are machine components, textiles, agro-industry, and electrical components (Siemens).

The city also contained Romania's second-largest stock exchange, the Sibiu Stock Exchange which merged with the Bucharest Stock Exchange in 2018.[46]

The main industrial activities of Sibiu take place in two industrial zones located on the outskirts of the city:

A commercial zone located in the Șelimbăr commune plays an important role in the economy of Sibiu. It houses a mall and other large retailers.

Another factor that plays an important role in the economy of the city is tourism, which has been increasing at a steady rate since 2007.

Transport[edit]

Sibiu International Airport Location

Sibiu is well served in terms of transport and infrastructure. In 2010 a city bypass was opened, significantly reducing the road traffic inside the city.

Tursib[48] is the city's internal transportation system operator.

Air[edit]

Sibiu Airport, Blue Air flight.

Sibiu International Airport is one of the most modern international airports in Romania, with direct connections to Germany, Austria, United Kingdom and Spain.

Road[edit]

Sibiu is an important node in the European road network, being on two different European routes (E68 and E81). At a national level, Sibiu is located on three different main national roads, DN1, DN7 and DN14.

The Romanian Motorway A1 will link the city with Pitești and the Romanian western border, near Arad. From the remaining 332 km (206 mi) of motorway towards the border with Hungary Nadlac, a total of 276 km (171 mi) is completed and the last 56 km (35 mi) are currently under construction, while the timeline for the segment towards Pitești is targeted for completion for the year 2025 (construction will start no sooner than 2019). Sibiu' s ring road as part of A1 motorway was completed on 1 December 2010.

Sibiu is also an important hub for the international bus links with the biggest passenger transporter in Romania, Atlassib, based here. Transport companies are also providing coach connections from Sibiu to a large number of locations in Romania.

Public bus transportation in Sibiu

Rail[edit]

Sibiu is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 200 (Brasov – Făgăraș – Sibiu – Simeria – Arad – Romanian Western Border) and on Line 206 (Sibiu – Mediaș).

The city is served by five rail stations: the Main Station (Gara Mare), the Little Station (Gara Mică), Turnișor, Sibiu Triaj, Halta Ateliere Zonă . It has an important diesel-powered locomotives depot and a freight terminal.

Numerous Inter Regional trains (nicknamed Blue Arrows) connect Sibiu to other major cities in Romania: Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Craiova, Timișoara and Bucharest.

Cycling[edit]

Over the last six years, Sibiu has enjoyed a revival of cycling. The bicycle way in the city spans for 43 kilometers.

Bicycle rentals have offered a boost for the local economy with several small rental centers and a bigger rental center that is administered by the I'Velo Bike Sharing group.

Health[edit]

Sibiu County Hospital

Sibiu is one of the important medical centers of Romania, housing many important medical facilities:

  • County Hospital
  • Academic Emergency Hospital;
  • Hospital of Pediatrics;
  • Military Emergency Hospital;
  • CFR Hospital (Romanian Railways Hospital);
  • "Dr. Gheorghe Preda" Psychiatry Hospital
  • other smaller private clinics

The city also houses one of the largest private hospitals in the country, Polisano.

Education[edit]

Samuel von Brukenthal High School

Sibiu is an important centre of higher education, with over 23,000 students in four public and private higher institutions.[49][50][51][52]

The Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu was founded in 1990, with five faculties: Engineering and Sciences; Language Sciences; History and Law; Medicine; Food and Textile Processing Technology. Nowadays, there are 10 faculties and departments.

Sibiu also houses the Nicolae Bălcescu Land Forces Academy and the Military Foreign Language Center as well as two private universities, Romanian-German University and Alma Mater University.

In Sibiu there are 20 educational institutions on the secondary level, the most important of which are:

Sports[edit]

Stadionul Municipal, currently under renovation.

The city houses a football stadium, a multi-functional arena building (Sala Transilvania), a rugby court, a municipal pool and several private tennis courts.

Also, several sports international competitions are taking place every year: Sibiu Cycling Tour (in July), Red Bull Romaniacs Hard Enduro Rallye (around July), Sibiu Open (formerly held in September), Sibiu Rally (currently held in October).

Football

Sibiu has had a long football tradition, starting in 1913 with the founding of Șoimii Sibiu, which was the launchpad of Ilie Oană's career, who later became a star of FC Petrolul Ploiești. Later came Societatea Gimnastică Sibiu, a sport club of Sibiu's Transylvanian Saxon community, which's best performance was reaching the Divizia A final in the 1930–31 season. The best ever football team from Sibiu, based on performances, was Inter Sibiu, which had finished 4th after the 1990–91 season and had won the Balkans Cup during the same season. During the 21st century, the city has been represented by FC Sibiu and Voința Sibiu (of which only the latter has reached Liga I). Currently, FC Hermannstadt is the only major football team representing Sibiu.

Basketball

CSU Sibiu, one of the best Romanian basketball teams at the moment, represents Sibiu in the top tier of Romanian basketball, Liga Națională.

Handball

The city's handball team is called CSM Sibiu. Additionally, the nearby town of Cisnădie has a women's team in the first league, CS Măgura.

Rugby

  • CSM Sibiu

Volleyball

  • CSM Sibiu (men)
  • CSS Sibiu (women)

Speed Skating

  • CSS Sibiu

Natives[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Sibiu has twinning agreements with:

Consulates[edit]

The following countries have consulates in Sibiu:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Results of the 2020 local elections". Central Electoral Bureau. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Sibiu in the Lexico dictionary (powered by Oxford)". lexico.com. Oxford. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  4. ^ City Distance Tool Archived 5 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine at geobytes.com
  5. ^ "Sibiu Cultural Capital Website". sibiu2007.ro. Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  6. ^ Beckett, Edward; Olson, Parmy. "In Pictures: Europe's Most Idyllic Places To Live". Forbes. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Sibiu 2019 – European Regions of Gastronomy". europeanregionofgastronomy.org. International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism (IGCAT). Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  8. ^ Laicauf, Denisa (22 November 2019). "Sibiu – Capitala Europeana a Drumetiei". Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  9. ^ "Eurorando – Sibiu 2021". eurorando.eu. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  10. ^ "El Mundo – Best Christmas Markets in the World". elmundo.es. El Mundo. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  11. ^ Brooking, Francesca. "European Christmas Markets: Top 5". abouttimemagazine.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  12. ^ Moldovan, Octavian (3 February 2021). "Cum au reușit doi frați din Sibiu să construiască o companie care valorează 1 miliard $". stirileprotv.ro. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Population as of 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  14. ^ Roșu, Madalina (6 May 2019). "2019 population estimate". oradesibiu.ro. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  15. ^ Victor Rouă (3 October 2015). "The History Of The Transylvanian Saxons". The Dockyards. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  16. ^ Victor Rouă (19 August 2015). "A Brief History Of The Transylvanian Saxon Dialect". The Dockyards. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  17. ^ Găină, Ramona (11 January 2013). "Originea Numelui Sibiului". adevarul.ro. Adevarul. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  18. ^ "Sibiu on Britannica". britannica.com. Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Hermannstadt (Sibiu) in Siebenbürgen". skr.de. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  20. ^ Hannover Moser, Birgitta Gabriela (2011). Siebenbürgen: Rund um Kronstadt, Schäßburg und Hermannstadt. Germany: Trescher Verlag. p. 107. ISBN 978-3-89794-157-1.
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  25. ^ Victor Rouă (3 October 2015). "The History Of The Transylvanian Saxons". The Dockyards. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  26. ^ Sibiu, or Hermannstadt? A Romanian City with German TraditionsPublished/Revised June 11, 2014 Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, europeupclose.com
  27. ^ The vanished Romanian German community through Hitler's population transfer, soviet deportation, & mass emigration Archived 16 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, expelledgermans.org
  28. ^ The Saxons’ Land, or the Royal Domain (Fundus Regius) Archived 15 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, alanier.at
  29. ^ Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World
  30. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Sibiu". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 26 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  31. ^ "CLIMAT summary for 15260: Sibiu (Romania) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  32. ^ "AIR TEMPERATURE (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  33. ^ "Sibiu Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  34. ^ "Klimatafel von Hermannstadt (Sibiu), Siebenbürgen / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  35. ^ Târgul de Crăciun din Sibiu Archived 1 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Christmas Traveling: 15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe". tourismontheedge.com. 7 December 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  37. ^ Radu Stanca National Theatre Archived 9 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine – Official Site
  38. ^ State Philharmonic of Sibiu Archived 20 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine – Official Site
  39. ^ Insider, Ro (17 January 2017). "Sibiu International Theater Festival becomes world's biggest". romania-insider.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  40. ^ Klein, Konrad (17 October 2014). "Eine Gräfin mit Herz". siebenbuerger.de. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  41. ^ 2006 Cultural Programme Archived 1 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ a b "Law no. 215 / 21 April 2001: Legea administrației publice locale" (in Romanian). Parliament of Romania. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
  43. ^ "2011 census data" (PDF). insse.ro. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  44. ^ "Statistică: în șase ani Sibiul a crescut cu aproape 70.000 de locuitori | Turnul Sfatului Online". Turnul Sfatului Online (in Romanian). 1 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  45. ^ "Erdély etnikai és felekezeti statisztikája". varga.adatbank.transindex.ro. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  46. ^ "Capital". capital.ro. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  47. ^ "West industrial zone" (PDF).
  48. ^ Tursib Archived 22 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Official Site
  49. ^ ULBS, Departamentul de Comunicaţii și Marketing al. ":: L B U S :: About LBUS". www.ulbsibiu.ro. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  50. ^ Land Forces Military Academy Archived 30 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine at mediafax.ro
  51. ^ "Universitatea Romano-Germana din Sibiu". www.roger-univ.ro. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  52. ^ "Istoricul Universitatii Alma Mater Sibiu – Universitatea Alma Mater Sibiu". www.uamsibiu.ro. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  53. ^ (in Romanian) Sibiu Town Hall Official Site, Acordul de infratire intre Sibiu si orasul Deventer din Olanda Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 23 May 2007

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]