|Regions with significant populations|
|People's Republic of China||Sichuan |
|Republic of China (on Taiwan)||As part of Mainlander population|
|Historically Ba-Shu Chinese, also known as Old Sichuanese. |
Presently Sichuanese dialects of Southwestern Mandarin.
|Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Chinese folk religion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|other Han Chinese|
The Sichuanese, Sze Chuan or Si Ch'uan (previous romanize spelling) people (Sichuanese: 巴蜀人 Ba1su2ren2; IPA: [pa55su21zən21]; alternatively 川人, 川渝人, 四川人 or 巴蜀民系) are a subgroup of Han Chinese living in mostly Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality of China.
Beginning from the 9th century BC, Shu (on the Chengdu Plain) and Ba (which had its first capital at Enshi City in Hubei and controlled part of the Han Valley) emerged as cultural and administrative centers where two rival kingdoms were established. Although eventually the Qin dynasty destroyed the kingdoms of Shu and Ba, the Qin government accelerated the technological and agricultural advancements of Sichuan making it comparable to that of the Yellow River Valley. The now-extinct Ba-Shu language was derived from Qin-era settlers and represents the earliest documented division from what is now called Middle Chinese.
During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the population of Sichuan where Chengdu-Chongqing dialect is now spoken at was reduced through wars and the bubonic plague and settlers arrived from the area of modern Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Jiangxi, replacing the earlier spoken Chinese dialect with a new standard.
Many migrant workers from rural Sichuan have migrated to other parts of the country, where they often face discrimination in employment, housing etc. A common stereotype about Sichuanese people is that they are hot tempered.
The Sichuanese once spoke their own variety of spoken Chinese called Ba-Shu Chinese, or Old Sichuanese before it became extinct during the Ming dynasty. Now most of them speak Sichuanese Mandarin. The Minjiang dialects are thought by some linguists to be a bona fide descendant of Old Sichuanese due to many characteristics of Ba-Shu Chinese phonology and vocabulary being found in the dialects, but there is no conclusive evidence whether Minjiang dialects are derived from Old Sichuanese or Southwestern Mandarin.
Sichuan is well known for its spicy cuisine and use of Sichuan peppers due to its more arid climate.
Well known Sichuanese people are such as:
- Chen Shou, official and writer
- Huang Jiguang, highly decorated soldier during the Korean War
- Zhao Yiman, resistance fighter
- Liu Yonghao, businessman
- GAI, rapper, singer, and songwriter
- Wang Jianlin, business magnate, investor, and philanthropist
- Jiang Zhuyun, revolutionary martyr
- Zhang Daqian, artists
- Wang Xiaoya, television host and media personality
- Li Yifeng, actor and singer
- Li Yuchun, singer, songwriter, and actress
- Tan Weiwei, singer and actress
- Luo Ruiqing, army officer and politician
- Su Shi, writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and statesman
- Su Xun, writer
- Su Zhe, politician and essayist
- Li Bai, poet
- Zhuo Wenjun, poet
- Yang Xiong, poet, philosopher, and politician
- Zheng Ji, nutritionist and pioneering biochemist
- Deng Xiaoping, revolutionary and politician
- Ba Jin, author and political activist
- Zhu De, general, warlord, politician, and revolutionary
- Zhang Lan, political activist
- Zou Rong, revolutionary martyr
- Guo Moruo, author, poet, historian, archaeologist, and government official
- Zhang Qun, premier of the Republic of China
- Bai Ling, actress
- James B. Parsons (1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644–46". The Journal of Asian Studies. 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233.
- Yingcong Dai (2009). The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. University of Washington Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-295-98952-5.
- Entenmann, Robert Eric (1982). Migration and settlement in Sichuan, 1644-1796. Harvard University.
- Handbook of Chinese Migration: Identity and Wellbeing
- Iredale, Robyn R.; Guo, Fei. Handbook of Chinese Migration: Identity and Wellbeing.
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