Mukherjee in April 2011
|Native name||সিদ্ধার্থ মুখার্জী|
21 July 1970 |
New Delhi, India
|Thesis||The processing and presentation of viral antigens (1997)|
|Notable awards||Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction (2011)
Guardian First Book Award (2011)
Siddhartha Mukherjee (Bengali: সিদ্ধার্থ মুখার্জী; born 21 July 1970) is an Indian-American physician, oncologist, and author best known for his 2010 book, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer. He studied biology at Stanford University, obtained a D.Phil. from University of Oxford, and an M.D. from Harvard University.
Since 2009, Mukherjee is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. He has been the Plummer Visiting Professor at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, the Joseph Garland lecturer at the Massachusetts Medical Society, and an honorary visiting professor at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. A haematologist and oncologist by training, his research focuses on cancer therapy and gene functions related to blood cells.
The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer was a major breakthrough in his career. It received the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction. It was named one of the 100 most influential books written in English since 1923 by Time magazine, and one of the 100 notable books of 2010 by The New York Times Magazine. Based on the book, Ken Burns made a PBS Television documentary film Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies in 2015, and was nominated for an Emmy Award. In 2016, Mukherjee released The Gene: An Intimate History which chronicles the history of the gene and a response to the defining question of the future: What becomes of being human when we learn to “read” and “write” our own genetic information?
Early life and education
Siddhartha Mukherjee was born to a Bengali family in New Delhi, India. His father, Sibeswar Mukherjee, was an executive with Mitsubishi, and his mother Chandana Mukherjee, was a former schoolteacher from Calcutta (now Kolkata). He attended St. Columba's School in Delhi, where he won the school's highest award, the 'Sword of Honour', in 1989. As a biology major at Stanford University, he worked in Nobel Laureate Paul Berg's laboratory, defining cellular genes that change the behaviours of cancer cells. He completed his B.S. degree in 1993.
Mukherjee won a Rhodes Scholarship for doctoral research at the Magdalen College, University of Oxford. He worked on the mechanism of activation of the immune system by viral antigens. He was awarded a D.Phil. in 1997 for the thesis titled The processing and presentation of viral antigens degree in 1997 for research on viral antigens as a postgraduate student of Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduation, he attended Harvard Medical School, where he earned his Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree in 2000. Between 2000 and 2003 he worked as a resident in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital. From 2003 to 2006 he trained in oncology as a Fellow at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (under Harvard Medical School) in Boston, Massachusetts.
In 2009, Mukherjee joined the faculty of the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, at the Columbia University Medical Center as an Assistant Professor of Medicine. The medical center he is working at is attached with the NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City.
He was previously affiliated with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and with Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. As of 2017, his laboratory is based at Columbia University's Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center.
A trained haematologist and oncologist, Mukherjee's research focuses on the links between normal stem cells and cancer cells. He has been investigating the microenvironment ("niche") of stem cells, particularly on blood-forming stem cells. Blood-forming stem cells (called haematopoietic stem cells ) are present in the bone marrow in very specific microenvironments. The main blood-forming cells called osteoblasts are one of the principal components this environment. These cells regulate the process of blood cell formation and development, by providing them with signals to divide, remain quiescent, or maintain their stem cell properties. Mukherjee's research has been recognised through many grants from the National Institutes of Health and from private foundations, including the prestigious "Challenge Grant" awarded by the National Institutes of Health to pioneering researchers in 2009.
In work performed with collaborators in the 1990s and 2000s, Mukherjee's lab identified genes and chemicals that can alter the microenvironment, or niche, and thereby alter the behaviour of normal stem cells, as well as cancer cells. Two such chemicals studied in the lab – proteasome inhibitors and activin inhibitors — are currently in clinical trials with novel therapeutic uses as defined by these studies. The lab has also identified novel genetic mutations in myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukaemia and has played a leading role in finding therapies for these diseases in the clinical setting.
In 2010, Simon & Schuster published his book, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer detailing the evolution of diagnosis and treatment of human cancers from ancient Egypt to the latest developments in chemotherapy and targeted therapy. O, The Oprah Magazine listed it in its "Top 10 Books of 2010." It was also listed in "The 10 Best Books of 2010" by The New York Times and the "Top 10 Non-fiction Books of 2010" by Time.
In 2011, The Emperor of All Maladies was nominated as a National Book Critics Circle Award finalist. On 18 April 2011, it won the annual Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction; the citation called it "an elegant inquiry, at once clinical and personal, into the long history of an insidious disease that, despite treatment breakthroughs, still bedevils medical science." Mukherjee also received the PEN-E. O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award in 2011. The magazine Time also nominated Mukherjee to its "100 most influential people" list and named his book one of the 100 best non-fiction books since 1923.
Mukherjee's 2016 book The Gene: An Intimate History provides a history of genetic research, but also delves into the personal genetic history of the author's family, including mental illness. The book discusses the power of genetics in determining people's health and attributes, but it also has a cautionary tone to not let genetic predispositions define fate, a mentality that led to the rise of eugenics in history and something he thinks lacks the nuance required to understand something as complex as human beings. The Gene was shortlisted for the Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize 2016, "the Nobel prize of science writing".
Criticism and response
In his 2016 article 'Same but different' in The New Yorker, Mukherjee attributed the most important genetic functions to epigenetic factors (such as histone modification and DNA methylation). Giving an analogy of his mother and her twin sister, he explains:
Chance events—injuries, infections, infatuations; the haunting trill of that particular nocturne—impinge on one twin and not on the other. Genes are turned on and off in response to these events, as epigenetic marks are gradually layered above genes, etching the genome with its own scars, calluses, and freckles.
The article, an excerpt from the chapter "The First Derivative of Identity" of his book The Gene: An Intimate History, was critiqued by geneticists such as Mark Ptashne, at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and John Greally, at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, because of over emphasis on histone modification and DNA methylation, while overlooking other important factors. They commented that these two processes have only minor influences in overall gene function. Steven Henikoff, at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, opined that, "Mukherjee seemed not to realize that transcription factors occupy the top of the hierarchy of epigenetic information," and said, "histone modifications at most act as cogs in the machinery." It is now generally believed that histone modifcation and DNA methylations are major factors of epigenetic functions, aging and certain diseases, and with an ability to influence transcription factors. However, they contribute little to development. In response, Mukherjee did admit that omission of transcription factors "was an error" on his part.
Mukherjee also criticises IQ test as a measure of intelligence, and endorses the theory of multiple intelligences (introduced by Howard Gardner) over general intelligence. He asserts that the results of IQ tests for determining general intelligence do not represent intelligence in the real world and disputes the idea that some races (African Americans) have lower IQs, arguing that this is the result of scientific racism. Reviewing the book in The Spectator, Stuart Ritchie, a psychologist at the University of Edinburgh, remarked that Gardner's theory is "debunked" and that "general intelligence is probably the most well-replicated phenomenon in all of psychological science."
Mukherjee also wrongly stated that "classical Darwinian evolution is that genes do not retain an organism’s experiences in a permanently heritable manner... Darwin discredited that model [of Lamarck]." But Darwin had no idea of the gene—the concept of which was established only in the 20th century. Science writer Razib Khan noted this erroneous conception, and explained that "Darwin worked in the pre-genetic era... he himself was quite open to Lamarckianism in some cases."
List of books published
- 2010: The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer (ISBN 978-0-00-725092-9).
- 2015: The Laws of Medicine: Field Notes from an Uncertain Science (ISBN 978-1-4711-4185-0).
- 2016: The Gene: An Intimate History (ISBN 978-1476733500). 
Awards and honours
Mukherjee was won several awards including:
- 1993: Rhodes Scholarship, 1993–1996.
- 2010: Gabrielle Angel's Leukemia Foundation Award 2010.
- 2010: New York Times Magazine, "100 Notable Books of 2010".
- 2011: Los Angeles Times Book Award, Finalist in the category of Science & Technology.
- 2011: Pulitzer Prize, The Emperor of All Maladies.
- 2011: PEN-E. O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award, The Emperor of All Maladies
- 2011: Cancer Leadership Award (shared with Kathleen Sebelius and Orrin Hatch)
- 2011: National Book Critics Circle Award, finalist, The Emperor of All Maladies
- 2011: Time magazine, 100 best non-fiction books of all time, The Emperor of All Maladies.
- 2011: Time 100, most influential people.
- 2011: Wellcome Trust Book Prize, shortlist, The Emperor of All Maladies.
- 2011: Guardian First Book Award, The Emperor of All Maladies
- 2012: Boston Public Library Literary Lights 2012
- 2014: Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award by Government of India.
- 2016: The Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize 2016 (shortlisted), The Gene.
- 2016: Baillie Gifford Prize for Non-Fiction longlist, The Gene.
- 2017: Wellcome Book Prize (shortlisted), The Gene.
- Washington Post's "10 Best Books of 2016", The Gene.
Mukherjee lives in New York and is married to artist Sarah Sze, winner of a MacArthur "Genius" grant and representative of the United States to the 2013 Venice Biennale. They have two daughters, Leela and Aria.
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- Raaijmakers, Marc H. G. P.; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Guo, Shangqin; Zhang, Siyi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Schoonmaker, Jesse A.; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; et al. (2010). "Bone progenitor dysfunction induces myelodysplasia and secondary leukaemia". Nature. 464 (7290): 852–857. doi:10.1038/nature08851. PMC . PMID 20305640.
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- Mukherjee, S. The Gene: An Intimate History. UK: Penguin. ISBN 978-1-4767-3352-4.
- Woolston, Chris (2016). "Researcher under fire for New Yorker epigenetics article". Nature. 533 (7603): 295–295. doi:10.1038/533295f.
- López, V.; Fernández, A.F.; Fraga, M.F. (2017). "The role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in development, aging and age-related diseases". Ageing Research Reviews. Online. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.002. PMID 28499883.
- Yin, Yimeng; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Jolma, Arttu; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sahu, Biswajyoti; Khund-Sayeed, Syed; Das, Pratyush K.; Kivioja, Teemu; et al. (2017). "Impact of cytosine methylation on DNA binding specificities of human transcription factors". Science. 356 (6337): eaaj2239. doi:10.1126/science.aaj2239. PMID 28473536.
- Edwards, John R.; Yarychkivska, Olya; Boulard, Mathieu; Bestor, Timothy H. (2017). "DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferases". Epigenetics & Chromatin. 10 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/s13072-017-0130-8. PMC . PMID 28503201.
- Shen, Hongjie; Xu, Wenqi; Lan, Fei (2017). "Histone lysine demethylases in mammalian embryonic development". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 49 (4): e325. doi:10.1038/emm.2017.57. PMID 28450736.
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- Shapin, Steven (8 November 2010). "Cancer World: The Making of a Modern Disease". The New Yorker. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "Introducing the Biographer of Cancer". Columbia University Medical Center.
- Patrolling Cancer's Borderlands, New York Times, 16 July 2011.
- Lives – The Letting Go, New York Times, 26 August 2011
- Do Cellphones Cause Brain Cancer? New York Times, 13 April 2011.
- The Science and History of Treating Depression, New York Times, 19 April 2012.
- The Riddle of Cancer Relapse, The Cancer Sleeper Cell, New York Times, 29 October 2010
- Post-Prozac Nation, By Siddhartha Mukherjee, New York Times, 22 April 2012.
- Siddhartha Mukherjee at Library of Congress Authorities, with 3 catalog records
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- The Gene nominated for Royal Society Prize