Siddhi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Siddhis)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Siddhis (Sanskrit and Pali : सिद्धि; Kannada: ಸಿದ್ಧಿ; Malayalam: സിദ്ധി; Telugu: సిద్ధి; Sinhala: සිද්දි; Tamil: சித்தி; Tibetan: དངོས་གྲུབ, THL: ngödrup; Chinese: 悉地 xīdì or 成就[web 1]) are spiritual, paranormal, supernatural, or otherwise magical powers, abilities, and attainments that are the products of spiritual advancement through sādhanās such as meditation and yoga.[1] The term ṛddhi (Pali: iddhi, "psychic powers") is often used interchangeably in Buddhism.

Etymology[edit]

Siddhi is a Sanskrit noun which can be translated as "perfection", "accomplishment", "attainment", or "success".[2] In Tamil the word Siddhar/Chitthar refers to someone who has attained siddhis and other kinds of mystical knowledge.

Method[edit]

The Visuddhimagga is one of the texts to give explicit details about how spiritual masters were thought to actually manifest supernormal abilities.[3] It states that abilities such as flying through the air, walking through solid obstructions, diving into the ground, walking on water and so forth are achieved through changing one element, such as earth, into another element, such as air.[4] The individual must master kasina meditation before this is possible.[5] Dipa Ma, who trained via the Visuddhimagga, was said to demonstrate these abilities.[6]

Usage in Hinduism[edit]

In the Panchatantra, an ancient Indian collection of moral fables, a siddhi may be the term for any unusual skill or faculty or capability.

Shaivism[edit]

In Shaivism, siddhi are defined as "Extraordinary powers of the soul, developed through consistent meditation and often uncomfortable and grueling tapas, or awakened naturally through spiritual maturity and yogic sādhanā." [7]

Eight primary siddhis according to Shaivism[edit]

According to some forms of Shaivism, the eight classical siddhis (Ashta Siddhi) or eight great perfections are: [8]

  • Aṇimā: reducing one's body to the size of an atom
  • Mahimā: expanding one's body to an infinitely large size
  • Garimā: becoming infinitely heavy
  • Laghimā: becoming almost weightless
  • Prāpti: ability to be anywhere at will
  • Prākāmya: realizing whatever one desires
  • Īśiṭva: supremacy over nature
  • Vaśiṭva: control of natural forces

[9][10]

Vaishnavism[edit]

In Vaishnavism, The term "siddhi" is used in the Sarva-darśana-saṃgraha of Madhvacharya (1238–1317), the founder of Dvaita (dualist) philosophy.

Five siddhis, according to Vaishnava doctrine[edit]

In the Bhagavata Purana, the five siddhis brought on by yoga and meditation are:

  1. trikālajñatvam: knowing the past, present and future
  2. advandvam: tolerance of heat, cold and other dualities
  3. para citta ādi abhijñatā: knowing the minds of others, etc.
  4. agni arka ambu viṣa ādīnām pratiṣṭambhaḥ: checking the influence of fire, sun, water, poison, etc.
  5. aparājayah: remaining unconquered by others[11]

Ten secondary siddhis, according to Vaishnava doctrine[edit]

In the Bhagavata Purana, Krishna describes the ten secondary siddhis:

  • anūrmimattvam: Being undisturbed by hunger, thirst, and other bodily appetites
  • dūraśravaṇa: Hearing things far away
  • dūradarśanam: Seeing things far away
  • manojavah: Moving the body wherever thought goes (teleportation/astral projection)
  • kāmarūpam: Assuming any form desired
  • parakāya praveśanam: Entering the bodies of others
  • svachanda mṛtyuh: Dying when one desires
  • devānām saha krīḍā anudarśanam: Witnessing and participating in the pastimes of the gods
  • yathā sańkalpa saḿsiddhiḥ: Perfect accomplishment of one's determination
  • ājñāpratihatā gatiḥ: Orders or commands being unimpeded[12]

Samkhya philosophy[edit]

In the Samkhyakarika and Tattvasamasa, there are references to the attainment of eight siddhis by which "one becomes free of the pain of ignorance, one gains knowledge, and experiences bliss." The eight siddhis hinted at by Kapila in the Tattvasamasa are, as explained in verse 51 of the Samkhyakarika:[13]

  1. Uuha: based on the samskaras (karmic imprints) of previous births, the attainment of knowledge about the twenty-four tattvas gained by examining the determinable and indeterminable, conscious and non-conscious constituents of creation.
  2. Shabda: knowledge gained by associating with an enlightened person (Guru – upadesh).
  3. Addhyyan: knowledge gained through study of the Vedas and other standard ancillary texts.
  4. Suhritprapti: knowledge gained from a kind-hearted person, while engaged in the spread of knowledge.
  5. Daan: knowledge gained regardless of one’s own needs while attending to the requirements of those engaged in the search of the highest truth.
  6. Aadhyaatmik dukkh-haan: freedom from pain, disappointment, etc. that may arise due to lack of spiritual, metaphysical, mystic knowledge and experience.
  7. Aadhibhautik dukkh-haan: freedom from pain etc. arising from possessing and being attached to various materialistic gains.
  8. Aadhidaivik dukkh-haan: freedom from pain etc. caused by fate or due to reliance on fate.

It is believed that the attainment of these eight siddhis renders one free of the pain of ignorance, and gives one knowledge and bliss.

Patanjali's Yoga Sutras[edit]

In Patañjali's Yoga Sutras IV.1 it is stated, Janma auṣadhi mantra tapaḥ samādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ, "Accomplishments may be attained through birth, the use of herbs, incantations, self-discipline or samadhi".[14]

Hindu deities associated with gaining siddhi[edit]

Ganesha, Hanuman, various forms of Devi and various other deities are popularly seen as the keepers of siddhis, with the ability to grant them to the worshipper.[15]

Usage in Sikhism[edit]

In Sikhism, siddhi means "insight". "Eight Siddhis" is used for insight of the eight qualities of Nirankar or a.k.a. Akal Purakh mentioned in the Mul Mantar in the Guru Granth Sahib. God has eight qualities: Oankar, Satnam, Kartapurakh, Nirbhao, Nirvair, AkaalMurat, Ajooni and Svaibhang. The one who has insight of these qualities is called Sidh or Gurmukhi.

Usage in Vajrayana Buddhism[edit]

In Tantric Buddhism, siddhi specifically refers to the acquisition of supernatural powers by psychic or magical means or the supposed faculty so acquired. These powers include items such as clairvoyance, levitation, bilocation, becoming as small as an atom, materialization, and having access to memories from past lives.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ White, David Gordon; Dominik Wujastyk (2012). Yoga In Practice. Princeton: Princeton UP. p. 34.
  2. ^ Apte & year unknown, p. 986.
  3. ^ Jacobsen, edited by Knut A. (2011). Yoga Powers. Leiden: Brill. p. 93. ISBN 9789004212145.
  4. ^ Jacobsen, edited by Knut A. (2011). Yoga Powers. Leiden: Brill. p. 83–86. ISBN 9789004212145.
  5. ^ Jacobsen, edited by Knut A. (2011). Yoga Powers. Leiden: Brill. p. 83–86. ISBN 9789004212145.
  6. ^ Schmidt, Amy (2005). Dipa Ma. Windhorse Publications Ltd. p. Chapter 9 At Home in Strange Realms.
  7. ^ Subramuniyaswami, Sivaya (1997). glossary - Siddhi. USA: Himalayan Academy. ISBN 978-0945497974. Search: Siddhi.
  8. ^ Ashta siddhi
  9. ^ Subramuniyaswami, Sivaya (1997). Glossary - Siddhi. USA: Himalayan Academy. ISBN 978-0945497974. Search: Siddhi.
  10. ^ Danielou, Alain (1987). While the Gods Play: Shaiva Oracles and Predictions on the Cycles of History and the Destiny of Mankind; Inner Traditions International.
  11. ^ The Concise Srimad Bhagavatam, trans. Swami Venkatesananda, SUNY Press 1989, ISBN 0-7914-0149-9
  12. ^ The Concise Srimad Bhagavatam, trans. Swami Venkatesananda, SUNY Press 1989, ISBN 0-7914-0149-9
  13. ^ The Samkhya Karika, with commentary of Gaudapada. Published in 1933 by The Oriental Book Agency, Poona Archived 1 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Iyengar 2002, p. 246.
  15. ^ Lord Hanuman & Siddhis [1]

Sources[edit]

Published sources[edit]

  • Apte, A (n.d.), A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary
  • Davidson, Ronald M. (2004), Indian Esoteric Buddhism: Social History of the Tantric Movement, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
  • Iyengar, B.K.S. (2002), Light on the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, Hammersmith, London, UK: Thorsons

Web-sources[edit]

  1. ^ Dharma Dictionary (April, 2010). 'dngos grub'. (accessed: Thursday April 15, 2010)

Further reading[edit]