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A side arm or sidearm is a weapon, usually a handgun but sometimes a sword, dagger, knife, bayonet or other mêlée weapon, which is worn on the body in a holster or sheath (in the case of a sword, dagger, knife, or bayonet) to permit immediate access and use. A sidearm is typically required equipment for military officers and is usually carried by law enforcement personnel. Usually, uniformed personnel of these services wear their weapons openly, while plainclothes personnel have their sidearms concealed under their clothes. A sidearm may be carried alone, or as a back-up to a primary weapon such as a rifle, carbine, or submachine gun.
Historically in western armies, and in many contemporary armies, the issue of a sidearm in the form of a service pistol is a clear sign of authority and is the mark of a commissioned officer or senior NCO. In the protocol of courtesy, the surrender of a commander's sidearm is the final act in the general surrender of a unit. If no ill will is meant, and a strict interpretation of military courtesy is applied, a surrendering commander may be allowed to keep his sidearm in order to exercise his right of command over his men. Similarly, many commanders on a local level have been anecdotally cited as having used the threat of their side arms to motivate troops, to varied effect.
An important purpose of the side arm is to be used if the primary weapon is not available, if it has run out of ammunition or if it malfunctions. Many Special Forces soldiers armed with an assault rifle or carbine like the M16 or M4 may also have a semi-automatic pistol as a side arm. Fully automatic machine pistols or PDWs are often issued as personal side arms to combat personnel who operate in cramped spaces in which an assault rifle would be impractical, such as artillery crews, drivers, helicopter crews and tank crews.
The term may also refer to swords and other mêlée weapons (e.g. the rapier, the tantō and wakizashi, the arming sword and the side-sword are all considered sidearms for their respective eras of use); the modern use of it usually pertains to pistols and similar firearms.
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