Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield
The Lord Passfield
|President of the Board of Trade|
22 January 1924 – 3 November 1924
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||Sir Philip Lloyd-Graeme|
|Succeeded by||Sir Philip Lloyd-Graeme|
|Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs|
7 June 1929 – 5 June 1930
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||Leo Amery|
|Succeeded by||James Henry Thomas|
|Secretary of State for the Colonies|
7 June 1929 – 24 August 1931
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||Leo Amery|
|Succeeded by||James Henry Thomas|
Sidney James Webb
13 July 1859
|Died||13 October 1947 (aged 88)|
(m. 1892; died 1943)
|Alma mater||Birkbeck, University of London |
King's College London
Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, OM, PC (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, who co-founded the London School of Economics. He was an early member of the Fabian Society in 1884, joining, like George Bernard Shaw, three months after its inception. Along with his wife Beatrice Webb and with Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Edward R. Pease, Hubert Bland and Sydney Olivier, Shaw and Webb turned the Fabian Society into the pre-eminent politico-intellectual society in Edwardian England. He wrote the original, pro-nationalisation Clause IV for the British Labour Party.
Background and education
Webb was born in London to a professional family. He studied law at the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution for a degree of the University of London in his spare time, while holding an office job. He also studied at King's College London, before being called to the Bar in 1885.
In 1895, Webb helped to found the London School of Economics with a bequest left to the Fabian Society. He was appointed its Professor of Public Administration in 1912 and held the post for 15 years. In 1892, he married Beatrice Potter, who shared his interests and beliefs. The money she contributed to the marriage enabled him to give up his clerical job and concentrate on his other activities. Sidney and Beatrice Webb founded the New Statesman magazine in 1913.
Webb and Potter were members of the Labour Party and took an active role in politics. Sidney became Member of Parliament for Seaham at the 1922 general election. The couple's influence can be seen in their hosting of the Coefficients, a dining club that drew in some leading statesmen and thinkers of the day. In 1929, he was created Baron Passfield of Passfield Corner in the County of Southampton. He served as Secretary of State for the Colonies and as Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs in Ramsay MacDonald's second Labour Government in 1929.
As Colonial Secretary he issued the Passfield White Paper that revised the government policy on Palestine, previously set by the Churchill White Paper of 1922. In 1930, failing health caused him to step down as Dominions Secretary, but he stayed on as Colonial Secretary until the fall of the Labour government in August 1931.
The Webbs ignored mounting evidence of atrocities being committed by Joseph Stalin and remained supporters of the Soviet Union until their deaths. Having reached their seventies and early eighties, their books, Soviet Communism: A New Civilisation? (1935) and The Truth About Soviet Russia (1942), still gave a positive assessment of Stalin's regime. The Trotskyist historian Al Richardson later dubbed Soviet Communism: A New Civilization? "pure Soviet propaganda at its most mendacious".
Webb co-authored with his wife The History of Trade Unionism (1894). For the Fabian Society he wrote on poverty in London, the eight-hour day, land nationalisation, the nature of socialism, education, eugenics, and reform of the House of Lords. He also drafted Clause IV, which committed the Labour Party to public ownership of industry.
References in literature
In H. G. Wells' The New Machiavelli (1911), the Webbs, as "the Baileys", are mercilessly lampooned as short-sighted, bourgeois manipulators. The Fabian Society, of which Wells was briefly a member (1903–1908), fares no better in his estimation.
Beatrice Webb in her diary records that they "read the caricatures of ourselves... with much interest and amusement. The portraits are very clever in a malicious way." She reviews the book and Wells's character, summarising: "As an attempt at representing a political philosophy the book utterly fails..."
This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2021)
When his wife, Beatrice, died in 1943, the casket of her ashes was buried in the garden of their house in Passfield Corner, as were those of Lord Passfield in 1947.
Shortly afterwards, George Bernard Shaw launched a petition to have both reburied in Westminster Abbey, which was eventually granted – the Webbs' ashes are interred in the nave, close to those of Clement Attlee and Ernest Bevin.
The Passfields were also friends of philosopher Bertrand Russell.
In 2006, the London School of Economics, alongside the Housing Association, renamed its Great Dover Street student residence Sidney Webb House in his honour.
Sidney Webb's papers form part of the Passfield archive at the London School of Economics. Posts about Sidney Webb regularly appear in the LSE Archives blog.
- Works by Sidney Webb
- Facts for Socialists (1887)
- Fabian Essays in Socialism – The Basis of Socialism – Historic (1889)
- "Socialism in England". Publications of the American Economic Association. 4 (2). April 1889.
- A plea for an eight hours bill (1890)
- English progress towards social democracy (1890)
- Practicable land nationalization (1890)
- The workers' political programme (1890)
- What the farm laborer wants (1890)
- A Labour policy for public authorities (1891)
- London's neglected heritage (1891)
- London's water tribute (1891)
- Municipal tramways (1891)
- The municipalisation of the gas supply (1891)
- The reform of the poor law (1891)
- The scandal of London's markets (1891)
- The "unearned increment" (1891)
- Socialism : true and false (1894)
- The London vestries: what they are and what they do: with map, table of vestries, etc. (1894)
- The difficulties of individualism (1896)
- Labor in the longest reign (1837-1897) (1897)
- The economics of direct employment (1898)
- Five years' fruits of the Parish Councils Act (1901)
- The education muddle and the way out (1901)
- Twentieth century politics : a policy of national efficiency (1901)
- The Education Act, 1902 : how to make the best of it (1903)
- London Education (1904)
- The London Education Act, 1903 : how to make the best of it (1904)
- Paupers and old age pensions (1907)
- The decline in the birth-rate (1907)
- Grants in Aid: A Criticism and a Proposal (1911)
- The necessary basis of society (1911)
- The Economic Theory of a Legal Minimum Wage (1912)
- Seasonal Trades, with A. Freeman (1912)
- What about the rates? : or, Municipal finance and municipal autonomy (1913)
- The War and the workers : handbook of some immediate measures to prevent unemployment and relieve distress (1914)
- The Restoration of Trade Union Conditions (1916)
- When peace comes : the way of industrial reconstruction (1916)
- The reform of the House of Lords (1917)
- The teacher in politics (1918)
- National finance and a levy on capital (1919)
- The root of labour unrest (1920)
- The constitutional problems of a co-operative society (1923)
- The Labour Party on the threshold (1923)
- The need for federal reorganisation in the co-operative movement (1923)
- The Local Government Act, 1929 - how to make the best of it (1929)
- What happened in 1931: a record (1932)
- Works by Sidney and Beatrice Webb
- History of Trade Unionism (1894)
- Industrial Democracy (1897); translated into Russian by Lenin as The Theory and Practice of British Trade Unionism, St Petersburg, 1900
- Problems of Modern Industry (1898)
- Bibliography of road making and maintenance in Great Britain (1906)
- English Local Government (1906 through 1929) Vol. I–X
- The Manor and the Borough (1908)
- The Break-Up of the Poor Law (1909)
- English Poor-Law Policy (1910)
- The Cooperative Movement (1914)
- Works Manager Today (1917)
- The Consumer's Cooperative Movement (1921)
- Decay of Capitalist Civilization (1923)
- Methods of Social Study (1932)
- Soviet Communism: A new civilisation? (1935, Vol I Vol II) (the 2nd and 3rd editions of 1941 and 1944 did not have "?" in the title)
- The Truth About Soviet Russia (1942)
- ^ "Sidney and Beatrice Webb | British economists". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- ^ The world movement towards collectivism, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, New Statesman, 12 April 1913;
Bending the arc of history towards justice and freedom, New Statesman, 12 April 2013, retrieved 13 May 2014.
- ^ The History of the Fabian Society, Edward R. Pease, Frank Cass and Co. LTD, 1963
- ^ "No. 33509". The London Gazette. 25 June 1929. p. 4189.
- ^ Al Richardson, "Introduction" to C. L. R. James, World Revolution 1917–1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International. Humanities Press (reprint), 1994; ISBN 0-391-03790-0
- ^ Webb, Sidney (1889), "Facts for Londoners: An exhaustive collection of statistical and other facts relating to the metropolis: with suggestions for reform on socialist principles", Fabian Tract, 8
- ^ Webb, Sidney (May 1890), "An Eight Hours Bill in the form of an amendment of the Factory Acts, with further provisions for the improvement of the conditions of labour", Fabian Tract, 9
- ^ Webb, Sidney (1891), "The case for an Eight Hours Bill", Fabian Tract, 23
- ^ Webb, Sidney (1890), "Practicable land nationalization", Fabian Tract, 12
- ^ Webb, Sidney (21 January 1894), "Socialism: true and false. A lecture delivered to the Fabian Society", Fabian Tract, 51
- ^ Webb, Sidney (1901), "The education muddle and the way out: a constructive criticism of English educational machinery", Fabian Tract, 106
- ^ Webb, Sidney (1907), "The decline in the birth-rate", Fabian Tract, 131
- ^ "Eugenics: the skeleton that rattles loudest in the left's closet | Jonathan Freedland". The Guardian. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- ^ Webb, Sidney (1917), "The reform of the House of Lords", Fabian Tract, 183
- ^ "Webbs on the Web | LSE Digital Library".
- ^ Beatrice Webb's typescript diary, 2 January 1901 – 10 February 1911, LSE Digital Library http://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/objects/lse:won715bor/read#page/622/mode/2up
- ^ Beatrice Webb's typescript diary, 2 January 1901 – 10 February 1911, LSE Digital Library http://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/objects/lse:won715bor/read#page/622/mode/2up/.
- ^ Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (London: Allen and Unwin, 1969).
- ^ "Collection Browser".
- ^ Out of the box.
- ^ "Full text of "Bibliography of road making and maintenance in Great Britain"". Internet Archive. Retrieved 21 March 2022. A sixpenny pamphlet for the Roads Improvement Association.
- Bevir, Mark. "Sidney Webb: Utilitarianism, positivism, and social democracy." Journal of Modern History 74.2 (2002): 217–252 online
- Cole, Margaret, et al. The Webbs and their work (1949)
- Davanzati, Guglielmo Forges, and Andrea Pacella. "Sidney and Beatrice Webb: Towards an Ethical Foundation of the Operation of the Labour Market." History of Economic Ideas (2004): 25–49
- Farnham, David. “Beatrice and Sidney Webb and the Intellectual Origins of British Industrial Relations.” Employee Relations (2008). 30: 534–552
- Harrison, Royden. The Life and Times of Sydney and Beatrice Webb, 1858-1905 (2001)
- Kaufman, Bruce E. "Sidney and Beatrice Webb's Institutional Theory of Labor Markets and Wage Determination." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 52.3 (2013): 765–791. online
- MacKenzie, Norman Ian, and Jeanne MacKenzie. The First Fabians (Quartet Books, 1979)
- Radice, Lisanne. Beatrice and Sidney Webb: Fabian Socialists (Springer, 1984)
- Stigler, George. “Bernard Shaw, Sidney Webb, and the Theory of Fabian Socialism,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (1959) 103#3: 469–475
- Mackenzie, Norman, ed. The Letters of Sidney and Beatrice Webb (3 volumes. Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. xvii, 453; xi, 405; ix, 482)
- Volume 1. Apprenticeships 1873–1892 (1978)
- Volume 2. Partnership 1892–1912 (1978)
- Volume 3. Pilgrimage, 1912–1947 (1978)
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sidney Webb
- Critique of Webb by Leon Trotsky in The Revolution Betrayed
- The Webb Bibliography
- The Webb Diaries available in full from LSE
- Works by Sidney Webb at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Sidney Webb at Internet Archive
- Newspaper clippings about Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
- 1859 births
- 1947 deaths
- Academics of the London School of Economics
- Alumni of Birkbeck, University of London
- Alumni of King's College London
- Barons in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
- British reformers
- Burials at Westminster Abbey
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- Members of London County Council
- Members of the Fabian Society
- Members of the Order of Merit
- Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom
- Potter family
- Progressive Party (London) politicians
- Secretaries of State for the Colonies
- Socialist economists
- UK MPs 1922–1923
- UK MPs 1923–1924
- UK MPs 1924–1929
- UK MPs who were granted peerages
- Writers about the Soviet Union
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- People from Liphook
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