Siege of Danzig (1813)

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Siege of Danzig
Part of the French invasion of Russia and the War of the Sixth Coalition
N° 72 DANTZIG.jpg
Danzig (Plan of the siege in 1807).
Date January to 29 December 1813
Location Danzig
Result Prussian–Russian victory
Belligerents
France French Empire
Confederation of the Rhine
 Kingdom of Bavaria
 Kingdom of Saxony
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
Russian Empire Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
France Jean Rapp
France Étienne Heudelet
France Charles Grandjean
Russian Empire Matvei Platov
Kingdom of Prussia Duke of Württemberg
Russian Empire Fedor Levisa
Kingdom of Prussia Count von Dohna
Units involved
XI Corps (Grande Armée) Imperial Russian Army
Prussian Army
Strength
35,000 including 6,000 sick and wounded and 2,600 cavalry 73,000 men
Casualties and losses
35,000 5,000

The Siege of Danzig was a siege of the city of Danzig during the War of the Sixth Coalition by Russian and Prussian forces[1] against Jean Rapp's permanent French garrison, which had been augmented by soldiers from the Grande Armée retreating from its Russian campaign.[2] The garrison included two crack divisions under Étienne Heudelet de Bierre and Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjean plus whole units and stragglers that had lost contact with their units, all with their health and morale both weakened and most of their equipment lost and carrying their wounded. The siege was begun by cossacks under hetman Matvei Platov, then was continued mainly by infantry, mainly militiamen and irregulars. It lasted from January to December 1813 and ended in a French surrender to Coalition forces.[citation needed][3]

The Treaty of Tilsit of 1807 had made the city a Free City nominally under Prussian control.[2] It was sited at the mouth of the River Vistula and along the coast of the Baltic Sea and then had 60,000 inhabitants. It was also a major supply depot for Napoleon's force, with large quantities of food, munitions, forage, weapons, clothing and ammunition, and needed to be held by his forces to keep the Prussians neutral and avoid them defecting to the coalition (as they later did). He was also attempting to re-group an army in his rear in order to confront the Coalition, and so needed to guard the line of the Vistula by garrisoning Danzig, Thorn and Warsaw.[4][pages needed]

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Coordinates: 54°22′00″N 18°38′00″E / 54.366667°N 18.633333°E / 54.366667; 18.633333